CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 367

_id 24
authors PayssÈ, M., Piperno, P., Grompone, J. and Somma, P.
year 1998
title ReconstrucciÛn Virtual de la Colonia del Sacramento de 1762 (Virtual Reconstruction of "Colonia del Sacramento" of 1762)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 192-197
summary Colonia del Sacramento (capital of Colonia department, in Uruguay) has been registered in the list of the Convention Heritage concerning the protection of worldwide cultural and natural heritage. The registration on this list (December 6th 1995) confirms the exceptional and universal value of a cultural or natural places which deserves protection for the whole humanity. The ancient Colonia del Sacramento founded in 1680 by Portugal, was a commercial and military site leading role of the historical controversy between Spain and Portugal. Main place of wars and treaties during a century, it keeps an urban design, unique in the area and valuable architectonical testimonies of different periods of this rich past, with a simple, popular profile. This work has been effected within the Clemente Estable Found 1996, which is promoted by National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICYT). Through virtual reality techniques, a three-dimensional model of Colonia del Sacramento city was built as it was in its period of prosperity (around 1762). For the achievement of this digital maquette, a great deal of written and graphic information was compiled and processed. This information was organized in an inventory way (with numerous readings and searches). The inventory and the digital maquette were joined in a multimedia application (CD-ROM) which allows potential users to move through virtual city and friendly and interactively consult images, graphics and texts.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id ascaad2006_paper2
id ascaad2006_paper2
authors Sharji, E. Amir and A. R. Mohd. Eshaq
year 2006
title The Significant Role of an Electronic Gallery to the Education Experience and Learning Environment
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary Multimedia has brought new paradigms to education where users are able to use the technology to create compelling content that truly represents a new archetype in media experience. According to Burger (1995), the synergy of digital media is becoming a way of life where new paradigms for interactive audio-visual experiences of all communicative arts to date are mandatory. It potentially mixes technology and disciplines of architecture and art. Students can learn on their own pace and they can be tested in a non-linear way while interactivity allows the curious to easily explore related topics and concepts. Fundamental assumptions, theories and practices of conventional design paradigm are constantly being challenged by digital technology and this is the current scenario in architecture and art and design schools globally. Thus schools are enhancing the methods and improvising the technology of imparting knowledge to be in consistent with recent findings and knowledge. To be able to cater the use of digital media and information technology on architectural and art design education, four criteria are required, which are; the SPACE and place to accommodate the educational activities, the TOOLS that assist imparting of knowledge, the CONTENT of syllabus and information and the acceptance and culture of the receiving end users and HUMAN PERCEPTION. There is a need for the research of realization and activating the architectural space that has been equipped with multimedia tools and upgraded with recent technology to facilitate and support the community of learners and users. Spaces are now more interactive, multi functional, flexible and intelligent to suit the trend of computing in normal everyday life of the education sector, business and management, art and leisure, corporate and technological area. While the new concept of computing in education is still in the earlier phase, the conventional analogue paradigm still dominates the architectural design discourse which acts as a barrier to the development of digital designs and architectural education. A suitable approach is in need to bridge the gap between what theory has been explored and the practice of knowledge. A digital support environment with intelligent design and planning tools is envisioned to bridge the gap and to cater for the current scenario.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id eff2
authors Sinclair, Brian
year 1995
title Architecture in the Environment: A Technology-Centered Model for Priomary, Secondary & Post-Secondary Educational Partnership
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 357-370
summary Societal appreciation of architecture, the environment and the role of design & planning professionals should begin early in the educational stream. Working from this premise, a model was developed which relied on a combination of learning strategies: Cognitive, Psychomotor and Affective. The project’s primary goal was to build knowledge of architecture and the environment in K-12 children, with particular emphasis on primary levels. More specifically, the ARCH was selected thematically as a strong architectonic element through which to promote a better connection with and responsibility for the environment. The educational experience comprised three sequential forms: visual history of the ARCH, physical construction using foam blocks, and finally "construction” in the computer using a multi-media interactive three-dimensionally focused program. Pedagogically the sequencing provided explanation and context, built awareness through making, and finally reinforced the lessons of the previous steps while highlighting the potential of information technology. To deliver the curriculum an installation was built at a local museum, with primary grade children arriving on field trips. Architecture faculty and students designed the curriculum and installation, including the computer modules. Secondary school students were trained, with the intention that they would in turn educate primary school students at the installation. In disseminating knowledge downwards through the various educational levels, awareness was promoted concerning the architects role, architectural elements, and the broader built environment. Using the ARCH as the theme, realization of the inter-connectedness of the environment was advanced. Through linking and learning, participants came to better understand the value of their individual contributions and the critical need for collaboration.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id aa38
authors Tan, M., Gan, J., Indorf, P., Man, D., Teh, R., Datta, S., Serra, L. and Loo, J.
year 1995
title Multivalent Architectural Case Information for Creative Reasoning
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 543-554
summary The theoretical underpinnings, practical and technical implementation of a multimedia database to support creative designing is presented through a prototype system which would go on-line in the near future. At the heart of the system is the notion that architectural knowledge is multivalent ñ requiring the means for recombination in new and different ways to support design thinking. The system also attempts to deal with the practical issues of case building, 3D modelling, interface design and technical clarity.
keywords Creativity, Multimedia, Case-Based Reasoning, Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Architectural Database, Visual Database, Virtual Reality.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id b982
authors Vanier, D.J.
year 1995
title Canada and computer representations of design standards and building codes
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 3(1), pp.1-12
summary Building codes are an essential part of the construction industry; they define how to construct safe, durable and reliable structures. Information technology provide new opportunities for accessing building codes and for simplifying their use. Canada has a long history in the research of information technologies and building codes. This paper describes the complete, continuing and future research projects as well as commercial products related to the computer representation of design standards and building codes in the Canadian context. Example of the activities include enabling technologies such as compact disks, hypertext models, expert systems, minicode generation, classification systems, and CAD interfaces.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id d3e0
authors Vries, B. de and Somers, L.J.
year 1995
title Message exchange in the building industry
source Automation in Construction 4 (2) (1995) pp. 91-100
summary A process model is described for exchanging information in the building industry. In this model participants send and receive messages. On receipt of a message an activity is executed if all required information is available. Otherwise a message will be sent to another participant to obtain the missing information. After execution of an activity a reply is sent with the desired data. In a building project an agreement is defined with all activities that will be executed by each of the participants. An executable implementation of the process model is built in ExSpect. In ExSpect the message exchange process can be simulated and analyzed for a specific building project.
keywords Process Model
series journal paper
last changed 2003/06/02 07:37

_id 9ae9
authors Will, B.F., Bradford, J.W., Matchy J.M. and Sullivan, B.D.
year 1995
title An Analysis of the Hong Kong Building Regulations Utilizing an Interactive Format
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 369-375
summary This paper is intended as a supplement to a live demonstration of an interactive matrix built to accommodate the Hong Kong Building Ordinances and Regulations.The matrix employs a multimedia system developed by the Department of Architecture, University of Hong Kong and allows a multivariable approach to comprehending and analysing the laws that influence the design and construction of buildings in Hong Kong.
keywords Interactive Matrix, Multimedia, Building Regulations, 3D Models, Components
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id 07da
authors Wohlers, T.
year 1995
title 3D Digitizers for Engineering
source Computer Graphics World, (March 1995), p. 112-115
summary 3D digitizing systems permit you to create a digital model from a physical part. The process is appealing because it can be difficult to create models of complex objects using computer tools without the aid of a 3D input device. Recreating an existing part from scratch, even with a computer, is like copying a printed page by retyping it. Although 3D digitizers are not as straightforward as a photocopy machine, the intent is the same. You can render and print a digitized model to communicate shape information, extract dimensions from it to show size information, and use the 3D database to manufacture a replica using rapid prototyping (RP) and CNC machines. You can also include the 3D model in multimedia or animation software as a learning or assembly aid. The challenge of the digitization process in manufacturing is to capture adequate detail and resolution. Adding a digitized model to a Hollywood film is often much easier than reverse engineering a part for prototyping or manufacturing. The only criteria for a movie or TV commercial is whether or not it looks good. No one from the audience measures the object to see if it meets a given tolerance. In manufacturing, RP and CNC machines require clean, complete, and accurate information. If areas on the model are incomplete or missing, it may be difficult or impossible to build the part. If edges, grooves, and features of the part are not fine and crisp, the results may be less than satisfactory. Most 3D digitizing systems are best at digitizing organic shapes such as free-form sculpted surfaces. When you see an advertisement or a catalog from companies offering digitized models, often you see objects such as human anatomy, animals, bones, skeletons, and so on. You may also see cars, trucks, motorcycles and airplanes, although they can be more difficult to digitize. Highly engineered parts, such as enclosures for electronic devices are usually the most difficult for 3D digitizers. That's why these systems aren't used widely for the reverse engineering of precision mechanical parts.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 0237
authors Wrona, Stefan
year 1995
title VDS Virtual Design Studio
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 227-232
summary The Department of Architecture Warsaw University of Technology was the first in Poland to take part in the third edition of the international student workshop -Virtual Design Studio. This year’s subject is a competition organized by ACSA 2A Center for Cultural and Religious Studies". The design is located on Miyajima Island in the Inland Sea of Japan near Hiroshima. VDS workshops are a proposal to create a new approach to architectural designing - working in joint groups, where the participants are separated by long distances. This idea wouldn't possible without an important tool - the InterNet. The information is sent mainly by E-mail through News Servers made by groups in each country. The News Server works as electronic pinup board where every student can locate his work. The multimedia tool -HyperDoc- permits students to easily and quickly look at other students' work. VDS'95 participants are divided into international groups of 5-7 people, They use almost every method of computer presentation: photorendering, animation, scanned freehand drawings and photos. The basic tool is CAD. Students also use traditional methods of representation like models, sketches, drawings. The Virtual Design Studio is an important experience. It shows a new concept of designing: Computer Mediated Design. The necessary contact between architect and client can be realized by the computer network. The problem of distance is eliminated. Conclusions from VDS activity will permit the creation in the future of a special net of design studios, where all discussions will be accomplished by computer. All over the world the network of Infoways will bring people together.
series plCAD
last changed 2003/05/17 08:01

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 2e5a
authors Matsumoto, N. and Seta, S.
year 1997
title A history and application of visual simulation in which perceptual behaviour movement is measured.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [3rd EAEA-Conference Proceedings]
summary For our research on perception and judgment, we have developed a new visual simulation system based on the previous system. Here, we report on the development history of our system and on the current research employing it. In 1975, the first visual simulation system was introduced, witch comprised a fiberscope and small-scale models. By manipulating the fiberscope's handles, the subject was able to view the models at eye level. When the pen-size CCD TV camera came out, we immediately embraced it, incorporating it into a computer controlled visual simulation system in 1988. It comprises four elements: operation input, drive control, model shooting, and presentation. This system was easy to operate, and the subject gained an omnidirectional, eye-level image as though walking through the model. In 1995, we began developing a new visual system. We wanted to relate the scale model image directly to perceptual behavior, to make natural background images, and to record human feelings in a non-verbal method. Restructuring the above four elements to meet our equirements and adding two more (background shooting and emotion spectrum analysis), we inally completed the new simulation system in 1996. We are employing this system in streetscape research. Using the emotion spectrum system, we are able to record brain waves. Quantifying the visual effects through these waves, we are analyzing the relation between visual effects and physical elements. Thus, we are presented with a new aspect to study: the relationship between brain waves and changes in the physical environment. We will be studying the relation of brain waves in our sequential analysis of the streetscape.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ff05
authors Butelski, Kazimierz
year 1995
title A Brief Note on Virtual Space
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 83-92
summary In its efforts to represent space, and then create architecture on the basis of this representation, humanity has taken three major steps. STEP 1. Representation of space in the form of a drawing or model; representations compared to the mental vision and then redrawn or remodelled, until the vision takes the shape of a finished building. This technology of design" followed different conventions, depending on the epoch. In the Middle Ages the method of approximation by triangles was introduced. The Renaissance used Projection, Elevation and Cross-Section. In order to construct a building, a flat, abstract representation is used, supplemented by a model showing spatial relations and a verbal description, impossible to convey graphically. STEP 2. Methods as in Step 1, but, beginning in the 1970s, with the use of computers, which allows also for the gradual integration of these methods in one program. Theoretically speaking, all necessary data can be now recorded, visualized, animated, etc., on a PC class computer. The design-aid software is based on the method of creating a 3D model of the whole building, and then generating the rest (projections, cross-sections) from it. STEP 3. The above step have - brought us to near- perfection in photorealistic representation of space, which remains, however only a 2D abstraction from 3D space. The next step, which is now taking place before (and in?) our very eyes, is to use systems which bring us directly into 3D space.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id e716
authors Nickerson, S., Thrale, B. and Whiting, D.
year 1995
title Automating the Drafting for As-Found Recording and Facility Management Surveys
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 315-332
summary Much of the time of a facility planner, restoration architect or heritage recorder is spent, on site analysing thebuilding and collecting data and measurements. These will be used later to create the reports and drawings that will provide the basis for the subsequent design but these notes and measurements are just the beginning of the long process of drafting the as-found situation. Errors are inevitable in this type of work but, typically they only come to light, back in the office where confirming a measurement may entail an extra trip to the site, and there are times that they only turn up when a contractor encounters problems on the job A software tool, currently under development, addresses this problem by first helping to structure the note taking process so that more consistent data is collected, and then, automatically creating a 2D or 3D CAD model from the resulting database. This can be done on a laptop computer, before the recording team leaves the site so that the model can be compared with reality and faulty or missing measurements corrected. Furthermore, this combination of database and drawing is linked, allowing queries of the data from inside Autocad or the assembly of a specialized model based on a database query. Point collection techniques supported include traditional and not so traditional) hand measurement, total station surveying equipment and interfaces with other software such as rectification and photogrammetric packages. The applications envisioned include as found recording, facilities management data collection and the possibility of a totally data-driven GIS
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 15:24

_id 1bb0
authors Russell, S. and Norvig, P.
year 1995
title Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach
source Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ
summary Humankind has given itself the scientific name homo sapiens--man the wise--because our mental capacities are so important to our everyday lives and our sense of self. The field of artificial intelligence, or AI, attempts to understand intelligent entities. Thus, one reason to study it is to learn more about ourselves. But unlike philosophy and psychology, which are also concerned with AI strives to build intelligent entities as well as understand them. Another reason to study AI is that these constructed intelligent entities are interesting and useful in their own right. AI has produced many significant and impressive products even at this early stage in its development. Although no one can predict the future in detail, it is clear that computers with human-level intelligence (or better) would have a huge impact on our everyday lives and on the future course of civilization. AI addresses one of the ultimate puzzles. How is it possible for a slow, tiny brain{brain}, whether biological or electronic, to perceive, understand, predict, and manipulate a world far larger and more complicated than itself? How do we go about making something with those properties? These are hard questions, but unlike the search for faster-than-light travel or an antigravity device, the researcher in AI has solid evidence that the quest is possible. All the researcher has to do is look in the mirror to see an example of an intelligent system. AI is one of the newest disciplines. It was formally initiated in 1956, when the name was coined, although at that point work had been under way for about five years. Along with modern genetics, it is regularly cited as the ``field I would most like to be in'' by scientists in other disciplines. A student in physics might reasonably feel that all the good ideas have already been taken by Galileo, Newton, Einstein, and the rest, and that it takes many years of study before one can contribute new ideas. AI, on the other hand, still has openings for a full-time Einstein. The study of intelligence is also one of the oldest disciplines. For over 2000 years, philosophers have tried to understand how seeing, learning, remembering, and reasoning could, or should, be done. The advent of usable computers in the early 1950s turned the learned but armchair speculation concerning these mental faculties into a real experimental and theoretical discipline. Many felt that the new ``Electronic Super-Brains'' had unlimited potential for intelligence. ``Faster Than Einstein'' was a typical headline. But as well as providing a vehicle for creating artificially intelligent entities, the computer provides a tool for testing theories of intelligence, and many theories failed to withstand the test--a case of ``out of the armchair, into the fire.'' AI has turned out to be more difficult than many at first imagined, and modern ideas are much richer, more subtle, and more interesting as a result. AI currently encompasses a huge variety of subfields, from general-purpose areas such as perception and logical reasoning, to specific tasks such as playing chess, proving mathematical theorems, writing poetry{poetry}, and diagnosing diseases. Often, scientists in other fields move gradually into artificial intelligence, where they find the tools and vocabulary to systematize and automate the intellectual tasks on which they have been working all their lives. Similarly, workers in AI can choose to apply their methods to any area of human intellectual endeavor. In this sense, it is truly a universal field.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 6cb2
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1995
title Architects Early Sketching on Computer Using Multimedia
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 247-256
summary This paper presents a development work which aims at practical applications of ideas built on experiences in practise and education and the theoretical development in the BAS.CAAD project. The important difference between BAS.CAAD and CAD programs of today is the possibility to handle user organisation, building design and site in the same program. This means that design today has to be done in at least 3 separate programs with different ways of defining objects. It is then a computer technical problem to mix and study the relations between objects of separate origin. In a recent project our method to overcome this difficulty in CAAD computing was using a Multimedia program making visual simulations to analyse consequences of form etc. As the process went on and forms where more concrete it was possible to make simulations worth showing and discussing to involve colleagues, clients and users.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id a927
authors Amirante, Isabella and Bosco, Antonio
year 1995
title Hypertext Between Research and Teaching: An Experience in a Didactic Building Technology Laboratory
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 3-12
summary IPER (hypertext for the knowledge of building patrimony) is the result of a research developed with C.N.R. (National Research Institute). The aim of IPER is to provide the knowledge, the description and the management of one or more historical buildings for public or private institutions. IPER allowed us to improve our methodology of building analysis, covering various disciplinary fields, in two different systems. (1.) the first one, synthetic and suitable for a group of historical buildings, (2.) the second one, complex and particularly made for monumental buildings. // This experience is related to the new regulation of teaching architecture in Italy made in 1993. The main novelty is the introduction of the laboratories with the contemporary presence of two or three teachers of different disciplines, working together with the students on the same project with different approaches. This opportunity allowed us to introduce the "knowledge engineer" as a teacher in the laboratory of building technology. IPER is given to the students with the aim of experimenting and solving the theoretical and practical difficulties that students of different years may encounter in the knowledge and representation of buildings and in the organisation of all the data from the case study.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id c642
authors Andersen, T. and Carlsen, N.V.
year 1995
title Software design of maintainable knowledge-based systems for building design
source Automation in Construction 4 (2) (1995) pp. 101-110
summary Identifying and establishing a basic structure for knowledge representation is one of the keys to successful design of knowledge-based computer systems. In Building Design and Construction, this initial knowledge structure can be achieved by utilizing a query driven approach to software engineering. As (user) queries reflect the user's demand for in/output, it is natural to link the overall user dialogue with key elements in the knowledge base direct connections between user screen and objects in the knowledge base support prototyping and testing the application during development. However, the price for pursuing this approach in its pure form can be high, as needs for later maintenance and augmentation of the system can be very hard to fulfill. To overcome these problems, a strict user interlace, software separation strategy must be. introduced at early stages of software design. and implemented as a global control module as independent of the knowledge processing as possible.
keywords Knowledge-based; Query driven: Software design; User interlace: Separation; Maintainable systems
series journal paper
last changed 2003/06/02 07:35

_id 5236
authors Arciszewski, T., Michalski, R.S. and Dybala, T.
year 1995
title STAR methodology-based learning about construction accidents and their prevention
source Automation in Construction 4 (1) (1995) pp. 75-85
summary This paper presents the results of a feasibility study concerning the application of STAR-methodology-basedmachine learning to construction accidents and their prevention. A ten-stage knowledge acquisition process is presented and its individual stages described. Knowledge about construction accidents was acquired using a collection of 225 examples, based on actual accidents records. Inductive learning with a system based on the STAR-methodology was employed. This system was used in both the generalization and specialization modes of operation. The decision rules obtained are complex, but their interpretation is clear and they seem to be consistent with the present understanding of causal relationships between accident results and various factors affecting them. Also, the rules were verified using average overall and omission empirical error rates, which were calculated as average for three randomly determined sequences of examples. These error rates were calculated for all seven steps in the machine learning process, and were used to construct learning curves for both error rates. The relationships between error rates and the number of examples used for learning are analyzed, and coefficients of linear regression given and discussed. The 225 examples used were found to be grossly insufficient to produce reliable knowledge about accidents and therefore a large study is postulated which would involve the collection of a larger number of construction accident records. In general, our study demonstrated the feasibility of machine learning in acquiring knowledge about construction accidents.
keywords Construction accidents and their prevention; Knowledge acquisition; Machine learning; Multi-stepmachine learning process
series journal paper
last changed 2003/06/02 07:31

_id 8378
authors Arlati, Ezio
year 1995
title Patriarch: A Hypermedia Environment for the Support of Architectural Design
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 187-198
summary This paper reports on current research in the field of architectural design and knowledge- based systems, through the conception and implementation of two software tools operating as a part of an integrated hypermedia environment denominated PatriArch. Main concern of this set of tools operating in PatriArch is the support of design since the very beginning, in that phase of not yet correctly explored or interpretated constraints and of scarcely specified goals, in which an initial solution model - provisionally composed of fragments of supposed fitting ideas - for the design theme has to take place. The creative activity of the designer is assumed as an 'intentional planning activity' that represents the acquired level of knowledge of the network of connections defining the nature, function, shape in the space etc. of the increasingly integrated solution-model: the final design will be an evolution of this - and other competitive and concurrent - models. PatriArch is meant to be the environment containing and allowing the representation of this evolution through its ability of linking the fragments of designers' knowledge, supported by an integrated relational data base: Sysinfo. These works were conceived inside an educational software development program for architecture students.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c777
authors Bach, Fr.-W., Rachkov, M., Seevers, J. and Hahn, M.
year 1995
title High tractive power wall-climbing robot
source Automation in Construction 4 (3) (1995) pp. 213-224
summary There are a lot of tasks in building construction and maintenance which demand either the carriage of heavy technological equipment along vertical and sloping surfaces and/or provision for force technological operations on such surfaces For example, surface cleaning or grinding by automatic equipment, the mounting of expansion bolts and anchors by drilling or by driving in. Additionally surface inspection by heavy measuring devices and the painting of big construction areas are difficult and expensive to perform manually. It is therefore expedient to apply climbing robots to automate these tractive power operations. The climbing robot was developed for such purposes. The design of the robot with increased load capacity and improved gripper system was carefully considered. The robot has a video camera for orientation and for the monitoring of processes. A sensor-based computer control system is used. This paper contains a brief overview of the technical parameters and experimental characteristics of the robot's transport module, control system with video camera unit, and the different schemes of the robot's application.
keywords Climbing robot; Two-staged gripper system Monitoring Sensor-based computer control system; Automatic Technological equipment
series journal paper
last changed 2003/06/02 07:36

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