CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

PDF papers
References

Hits 1 to 20 of 486

_id e309
authors Breen, Jack and Stellingwerff, Martijn
year 1996
title A Case for Computer-Assisted Creativity through Clarity, Project 12 CAD and Beyond
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 31-35
summary A paper exploring the opportunities of different Design Media for the benefit of Architectural and Urban Composition. It is argued that during the design process, the designer develops Models for a projected end result, which are visualised in the form of Images using traditional media. The Computer affords the possibility of creating (virtual) Models from which Images can be taken. Current types of Computer Interfaces still form an obstacle for creative computer assisted design, comparable to Sketching. It is argued that the Clarity of the medium will need to be enhanced, if it is to become an Instrument for truly creative design. Using the example of an educational, practical CAD exercise, the case for' Clarity for the benefit of creative Computing is put forward.
series plCAD
email M.C.Stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/05/17 08:01

_id a0d3
authors Breen, Jack and Stellingwerff, Martijn
year 1996
title A Case For Computer Assisted Creativity Through Clarity - Project 12 CAD and Beyond ...
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 45-60
summary A paper exploring the opportunities of different Design Media for the benefit of Architectural and Urban Composition. It is argued that during the design process, the designer develops Models for a projected end result, which are visualised in the form of Images using traditional media. The Computer affords the possibility of creating (virtual) Models from which Images can be taken. Current types of Computer Interfaces still form an obstacle for creative computer assisted design, comparable to Sketching. It is argued that the Clarity of the medium will need to be enhanced, if it is to become an Instrument for truly creative design. Using the example of an educational, practical CAD exercise, the case for Clarity for the benefit of creative Computing is put forward.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id ddssar9615
id ddssar9615
authors Hill, S.M., Sinclair, B.S., Sandall, D., Butt, T.S., Sampson, N. and Blackie, N.
year 1996
title A Computer-Facilitated Approach for Development, Visualization and Testing of Functional Programming Information
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Functional programming processes for complex architectural projects have traditionally been hampered by the static nature of available tools and technologies. Connection with user groups have likewise been disadvantaged through the employment of sender-oriented communications models that limit feedback and interaction. In addition, diminishing project budgets place increasing pressure on clients and consult-ants to develop more effective and efficient methods for the design and construction of buildings. This paper discusses a case-study involving the design of a highly complex medical laboratory wherein infoc mation technologies were used to facilitate the development, visualization and testing of functional pro-gramming information. The objectives for the project involved creating an environment where users and clients actively participate in consideration of programming directions and implications in a manner that would not only increase confidence that the program would meet user requirements now and in the future, but also would reduce redundant and or inefficient space within the overall building programme. In the approach used the distinction between programming and design is diminished to improve communication of desires and design responses. The findings of the study indicate that the computer-facilitated approach met the objectives of the project and that the methods developed hold promise for application across a broader range of project types.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 452d
authors Arlati, E., Bottelli, V. and Fogh, C.
year 1996
title Applying CBR to the Teaching of Architectural Design
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 41-50
summary This paper presents an approach to the analysis and description of the nature of process knowledge in architectural design, the development of a conceptual model for Galathea, a case-based navigation tool for its support, and the application of this theoretical foundation to the teaching of design to a group of about 100 second-year architecture students. Design is assumed as a globally coherent information, memory and experience-intensive process in which professional skill is the capability to govern a large number of continually evolving variables in the direction of desired change. This viewpoint on design has guided the development of Galathea, the model of a tool aimed at describing architectural design through the description, mapping and management of the complete decision-making path of projects by means of the dynamic representation of the relationship between goals, constraints and the decisions/actions adopted at specific nodes and through the creation of a case-base aimed at the storage, retrieval and adaptation of relevant design moves in similar project contexts. This conceptual model is applied to educational activity at the faculty of Architecture of Milan, with the aim of teaching how to govern a project from the outset considering it as an evolving but coherent map of design moves, which allow the adoption of the correct decisions involving the most disparate types of information, experience and memory, and which altogether conduct to the desired goal. The resolution paths of the students, all applied to the same architecture problem, result in a design move case-base, the further utilisation and interest of which is open to collegial discussion.
keywords knowledge-based design; case-based reasoning; design process control, design moves
series eCAADe
email arlati@cdc8g5.cdc.polimi.it
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 7135
authors Arumi-Noe, F.
year 1996
title Algorithm for the geometric construction of an optimum shading device
source Automation in Construction 5 (3) (1996) pp. 211-217
summary Given that there is a need to shade a window from the summer sun and also a need to expose it to the winter sun, this article describes an algorithm to design automatically a geometric construct that satisfies both requirements. The construct obtained represents the minimum solution to the simultaneous requirements. The window may be described by an arbitrary convex polygon and it may be oriented in any direction, and it may be placed at any chosen latitude. The algorithm consists of two sequential steps: first to find a winter solar funnel surface; and the second to clip the surface subject to the summer shading conditions. The article introduces the design problem, illustrates the results through two examples, outlines the logic of the algorithm and includes the derivation of the mathematical relations required to implement the algorithm. This work is part of the MUSES project, which is a long term research effort to integrate Energy Consciousness with Computer Graphics in Architectural Design.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id c4be
authors Bock, T., Stricker, D., Fliedner, J. and Huynh, T.
year 1996
title Automatic generation of the controlling-system for a wall construction robot
source Automation in Construction 5 (1) (1996) pp. 15-21
summary In this article we present several important aspects of a software system control. This is designed and developed for a wall assembly robot in an European Esprit III project called ROCCO, RObot assembly system for Computer integrated COnstruction. The system consists of an off-line program for planning of complex assembly tasks and for generating robot actions. The execution is controlled through an adaptive user interface and gives the user the possibilities to switch in an on-line mode command. All the software is designed with the object-oriented concept and implemented in C + +. The wall assembly system is organized on the base of the successive generation of different types of actions, called "Mission", "Task", and "Action". They represent different levels of assembly complexities. Those different actions are organized in a tree structure. Furthermore, the software system can be connected to a CAD-robot simulation software for checking the robot assembly motions. Added to the control system, a recovery module has been implemented for all possible errors during the construction. First the OO-model of the world and of robot activities will be presented. Secondly, several aspects of the algorithm will be explained and at the end we will show the strategy used for the robot motion.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 4931
authors Breen, Jack
year 1996
title Learning from the (In)Visible City
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 65-78
summary This paper focuses on results and findings of an educational project, in which the participating students had to develop a design strategy for an urban plan by using and combining endoscopic and computational design visualisation techniques. This educational experiment attempted to create a link between the Media research programme titled 'Dynamic Perspective' and an educational exercise in design composition. It was conceived as a pilot study, aimed at the investigation of emerging applications and possible combinations of different imaging techniques which might be of benefit in architectural and urban design education and potentially for the (future) design practice. The aim of this study was also to explore the relationship between spatial perception and design simulation. The point of departure for the student exercise was an urban masterplan which the Dynamic Perspective research team prepared for the workshop 'the (in)visible city' as part of the 1995 European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference in Vienna, Austria. The students taking part in the exercise were asked to develop, discuss and evaluate proposals for a given part of this masterplan by creating images through different model configurations using optical and computer aided visualisation techniques besides more traditional design media.The results of this project indicate that an active and combined use of visualisation media at a design level, may facilitate communication and lead to a greater understanding of design choices, thus creating insights and contributing to design decision-making both for the designers and for the other participants in the design process.
series eCAADe
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/Media/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 88f9
authors Carrara, G., Novembri, G., Zorgno, A.M., Brusasco, P.L.
year 1997
title Virtual Studio of Design and Technology on Internet (I) - Educator's approach
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper presents a teaching experience involving students and professors from various universities, in Italy and abroad, which began in 1996 and is still on going. The Virtual Studios on the Internet (VSI) have some features in common with the Teaching Studios planned for the new programme of the faculties of Architecture in Italian universities. These are the definition of a common design theme, and the participation of disciplinary teachers. The greatest difference is in the modes of collaboration, which is achieved through information and communication technologies. The chief result of this is that the various work groups in different places can work and collaborate at the same time: the computer networks provide the means to express, communicate and share the design project.
keywords CAAD, Teaching of architectural design, Shared virtual reality, Virtualdesign studio, Collective intelligence.
series eCAADe
email guyver@arch.hku.hk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/lvi_i&ii/zorgno.html
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id sigradi2004_043
id sigradi2004_043
authors Celso Pereira Guimarães; Gerson G. Cunha; Luis Landau
year 2004
title Sistema de informação e orientação para ambientes públicos em VR - O caso do hu da ufrj um projeto sinalético [Information and Orientation System for Public Environments in VR - The Case of UFRJ University Hospital, a Communication Design Project]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Considering Levy.s (1996) thought that qualifies the cyberspace as an anbient par excellence and susceptible to be transformed and explored [1], our work intends to introduce through the simulation in VR, the use of that anbient as support of conception projetual and of the analysis and verification of the efficiency of the proposal of the System of Comunication Design implanted at the Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (HU). [2]
series SIGRADI
email celsopg@acd.ufrj.br, gerson@lamce.ufrj.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id b81d
authors Davies, C. and Harrison, J.
year 1996
title Osmose: Towards Broadening the Aesthetics of Virtual Reality
source ACM Computer Graphics: Virtual Reality Volume 30, Number 4
summary Osmose is an immersive virtual environment, produced by Softimage in 1994/95. One of the primary goals of Osmose was to push the expressive capabilities of existing 3D tools, to demonstrate that an alternative aesthetic and interactive sensibility is possible for real-time, interactive, 3D computer graphics. Osmose was created under the direction of Char Davies, the Director of Visual Research at Softimage. A former painter, as well as a creator of 3D computer graphic stills, Davies has a particular artistic vision which has driven the project. Davies has been striving for years to represent space as a luminous enveloping medium. This has led her from painting to 3D computer graphics, and finally into creating immersive virtual spaces. One of Davies' intentions for Osmose was to create a space that is "psychically innovating," one in which, to quote Bachelard, participants do not change "place," but change their own nature. Osmose was therefore designed to explore the potential of immersive virtual space to allow participants to shed their habitual ways of looking at (and behaving in) the world. By doing this, we hoped they would then emerge from the virtual world to experience the real world in a fresh way, reawakening a fundamental sense of their own "being-in-the-world." We hoped that this could be accomplished through the visual, aural and interactive aesthetic of the work.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddssar9611
id ddssar9611
authors de Gelder, Johan and Lucardie, Larry
year 1996
title Criteria for the Selection of Conceptual Modelling Languages for Knowledge Based Systems
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary In recent years knowledge is increasingly recognised as a critical production factor for organisations. Performance of activities such as designing, diagnosing, advising and decision making, depend on the availability and accessibility of knowledge. However, the increasing volume and complexity of knowledge endangers its availability and accessibility. By their knowledge processing competence, knowledge based systems containing a structured and explicit representation of knowledge, are expected to solve this problem. In the realisation of a knowledge based system, the phase in which a knowledge model is reconstructed through a conceptual language, is essential. Because the knowledge model has to be an adequate reflection of real-world knowledge, the conceptual language should not only offer sufficient expressiveness for unambiguous knowledge representation, but also provide facilities to validate knowledge on correctness, completeness and consistency. Furthermore, the language should supply facilities to be processed by a computer. This paper discusses fundamental criteria to select a conceptual language for modelling the knowledge of a knowledge based system. It substantiates the claim that the selection depends on the nature of the knowledge in the application domain. By analysing the nature of knowledge using the theory of functional object-types, a framework to compare, evaluate and select a conceptual language is presented. To illustrate the selection process, the paper describes the choice of a conceptual language of a knowledge based system for checking office buildings on fire-safety demands. In this application domain, the language formed by decision tables has been selected to develop the conceptual model. The paper provides an in-depth motivation why decision tables form the best language to model the knowledge in this case.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ebd6
authors Dobson, Adrian
year 1996
title Teaching Architectural Composition Through the Medium of Virtual Reality Modelling
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 91-102
summary This paper describes an experimental teaching programme to enable architectural students in the early years of their undergraduate study to explore their understanding of the principles of architectural composition, by the creation and experience of architectural form and space in simple virtual reality environments. Principles of architectural composition, based upon the ordering and organisation of typological architectural elements according to established rules of composition, are introduced to the students, through the study of recognised works of architectural design theory. Virtual reality modelling is then used as a tool by the students for the testing and exploration of these theoretical concepts. Compositional exercises involving the creation and manipulation of a family of architectural elements to create form and space within a three dimensional virtual reality environment are carried out using Superscape VRT, a PC based virtual reality modelling system. The project seeks to bring intuitive and immersive computer based design techniques directly into the context of design theory teaching and studio practice, at an early stage in the architectural education process.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id ddssar9607
id ddssar9607
authors Doxtater, Dennis and Mittleman, Daniel
year 1996
title Facilitating and structuring environmental knowledge: prototypical pre-design for a new campus setting
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary This applied research combines state-of-the-art computer-supported facilitation process with a conceptually new way of structuring behavioral knowledge of the physical environment. The object is to develop a prototypical evaluation/pre-design/design process which can be used in practice. The paper reports on the first phase of an actual building project for a university campus where representatives from all client user groups have participated in GSS facilitated sessions. Large amounts of user information have been organized into a graphically enhanced data base including decisions on key programmatic issues. Proposed GSS sessions for the second phase envision a continuous flow of pre-design information through design and design evaluation processes.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 5fc4
authors Fruchter, R.
year 1996
title Conceptual Collaborative Building Design Through Shared Graphics
source IEEE Expert special issue on Al in Civil Engineering, June vol. 33-41
summary The Interdisciplinary Communication Medium computer environment integrates a shared graphic modeling environment with network-based services to accommodate many perspectives in an architecture/engineering/construction team. Communication is critical for achieving better cooperation and coordination among professionals in a multidisciplinary building team. The complexity of large construction projects, the specialization of the project participants, and the different forms of synchronous and asynchronous collaborative work increase the need for intensive information sharing and exchange. Architecture/engineering/construction (A/E/C) professionals use computers to perform a specific discipline's tasks, but they still exchange design decisions and data using paper drawings and documents. Each project participant investigates and communicates alternative solutions through representational idioms that are private to that member's profession. Other project participants must then interpret, extract, and reenter the relevant information using the conventional idioms of their disciplines and in the format required by their tools. The resulting communication difficulties often affect the quality of the final building and the time required to achieve design consensus. This article describes a computer environment, the Interdisciplinary Communication Medium (ICM), that supports conceptual, collaborative building design. The objective is to help improve communication among professionals in a multidisciplinary team. Collaborative teamwork is an iterative process of reaching a shared understanding of the design and construction domains, the requirements, the building to be built, and the necessary commitments. The understanding emerges over time, as team members begin to grasp their own part of the project, and as they provide information that lets others progress. The fundamental concepts incorporated in ICM include A communication cycle for collaborative teamwork that comprises propose-interpret-critique-explain-change notifications. An open system-integration architecture. A shared graphic modeling environment for design exploration and communication. A Semantic Modeling Extension (SME), which introduces a structured way to capture design intent. A change-notification mechanism that documents notes on design changes linked to the graphic models, and routes change notifications. Thus, the process involves communication, negotiation, and team learning.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id a322
authors Gavin, Lesley
year 1996
title Practice and On -Line Learning
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 163-170
summary In response to the growing need for the provision of continuing education for architects in practice, the Open University has been examining the possibilities of offering postgraduate courses in the Built Environment. The Open University is a unique institution within the UK, in that all of its 150,000 students are taught through supported open learning. The production of teaching material for distance learning on this scale has involved the exploration of various teaching and learning methods. The OU has had over 25 years experience of distance learning as such and although many of its current teaching methods lend themselves admirably to the development of computer based distance learning, there is still ample opportunity to exploit new technologies in teaching methods. Recent developments within the field of multimedia, video conferencing etc. lend themselves admirably to visually orientated subjects such as architecture. Over the last year the programme of development into the Built Environment has involved the production of 3 pilot modules in the areas of Conservation, Sustainability in Architecture & Planning, and in Construction Technology. These modules are currently being developed for production on CD-ROM, but with a long term view that they may be offered on-line.

This paper will discuss how computer technology can be utilised in continuing education beyond schools of architecture and into a practice based environment.

series eCAADe
email ucftleg@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/17 13:40

_id 6598
authors Goldman, Glenn
year 1996
title Reconstructions, Remakes and Sequels: Architecture and Motion Pictures
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 11-21
summary Motion pictures can illustrate worlds that have never been. They may show fantastic depictions of the future or an interpretation of the past. In either case, they have the power to reach millions of people across cultures, generations, and educational backgrounds with visions of our environment that do not exist in our everyday world.

The study of imaginary worlds in this design studio case study is limited to motion pictures that postulate unique, or new environments rather than those films that faithfully attempt to document or reconstruct reality. In this sense, the movies used for study have a lineage traceable to Georges Melies "who came to film from illusionism and the "heater," rather than to the reality of the Lumiere brothers who came from photography which ultimately would lead to "cinema-verite."

Discussions, assignments and presentations in the studio are organized to provide students with an opportunity to gain a different awareness of architecture and use varying stimuli as source material for design. The study of architectural history, art, formal principles of design, visual perception, and media are required in order to complete the reconstructions and creations of proposed environments.

All student work throughout the entire semester is created with electronic media and the computer is used as an integral component of the studio enabling analysis and study, design, model creation, and animation. The available capabilities of computer graphics in the studio enables students to explore analytic and synthetic issues of design in motion pictures in a manner not readily available when restricted to traditional media. Through the use of digital media we have an opportunity to better understand the imaginary worlds for what they communicate and the ideas they contain, and therefore create an opportunity to modify our own concept of architecture.

series ACADIA
email goldman@njit.edu
last changed 2003/04/17 13:47

_id maver_088
id maver_088
authors Henriques, P., Maver, T. and Retik, A.
year 1996
title Integration of Cost Planning in the Architectural Design of Housing - "CP/CAD Model"
source Application of the Performance Concept in Building (Ed: R Becker), vol 1, 2: 105-114
summary Cost estimation in the initial phases of a project is of great interest to the construction industry. This paper proposes a new way of the integration of an architectural project and its cost estimate so as to optimise the design solutions, according to technical and economic criteria. This work explores the capacity of an elemental cost estimation method for residential buildings, when integrated with Computer Aided Design systems, to increase cost estimate precision during the early stages of design. A Cost Planning and CAD model (CP/CAD) is developed by the integration of a database and a CAD system which provides for the automatic exchange of information relative to the geometric layout of the building, the construction element build-up and the construction costs of the same. Finally the CP/CAD model is tested through the estimation of costs for some theoretical cases and also for a group of one-family houses with similar architectural characteristics. The results show the increased precision and the advantages of the model for cost estimation in the early design stages.
series other
type normal paper
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2015/02/20 10:37

_id 5a8d
authors Kensek, K., Noble, D., Schiler, M. and Setiadarma, E.
year 1996
title Shading Mask: a teaching tool for sun shading devices
source Automation in Construction 5 (3) (1996) pp. 219-231
summary Sun shading devices provide an opportunity for the designer to control natural lighting, ventilation, and solar gain, all of which provide a benefit to the overall building performance. Through sun path diagrams and shading masks, some of the effects of these solar controls can be demonstrated graphically. This paper describes , a computer program written to help designers understand the basic theory of solar control; generate sun path diagrams; design overhead, side, and eggcrate shading devices; calculate solar angles and shading masks; and provide case studies of actual buildings.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 2a99
authors Keul, A. and Martens, B.
year 1996
title SIMULATION - HOW DOES IT SHAPE THE MESSAGE?
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4], pp. 47-54
summary Architectural simulation techniques - CAD, video montage, endoscopy, full-scale or smaller models, stereoscopy, holography etc. - are common visualizations in planning. A subjective theory of planners says "experts are able to distinguish between 'pure design' in their heads and visualized design details and contexts like color, texture, material, brightness, eye level or perspective." If this is right, simulation details should be compensated mentally by trained people, but act as distractors to the lay mind.

Environmental psychologists specializing in architectural psychology offer "user needs' assessments" and "post occupancy evaluations" to facilitate communication between users and experts. To compare the efficiency of building descriptions, building walkthroughs, regular plans, simulation, and direct, long-time exposition, evaluation has to be evaluated.

Computer visualizations and virtual realities grow more important, but studies on the effects of simulation techniques upon experts and users are rare. As a contribution to the field of architectural simulation, an expert - user comparison of CAD versus endoscopy/model simulations of a Vienna city project was realized in 1995. The Department for Spatial Simulation at the Vienna University of Technology provided diaslides of the planned city development at Aspern showing a) CAD and b) endoscopy photos of small-scale polystyrol models. In an experimental design, they were presented uncommented as images of "PROJECT A" versus "PROJECT B" to student groups of architects and non-architects at Vienna and Salzburg (n= 95) and assessed by semantic differentials. Two contradictory hypotheses were tested: 1. The "selective framing hypothesis" (SFH) as the subjective theory of planners, postulating different judgement effects (measured by item means of the semantic differential) through selective attention of the planners versus material- and context-bound perception of the untrained users. 2. The "general framing hypothesis" (GFH) postulates typical framing and distraction effects of all simulation techniques affecting experts as well as non-experts.

The experiment showed that -counter-intuitive to expert opinions- framing and distraction were prominent both for experts and lay people (= GFH). A position effect (assessment interaction of CAD and endoscopy) was present with experts and non-experts, too. With empirical evidence for "the medium is the message", a more cautious attitude has to be adopted towards simulation products as powerful framing (i.e. perception- and opinion-shaping) devices.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

For more results click below:

this is page 0show page 1show page 2show page 3show page 4show page 5... show page 24HOMELOGIN (you are user _anon_358605 from group guest) CUMINCAD Papers Powered by SciX Open Publishing Services 1.002