CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 481

_id ddssar9638
id ddssar9638
authors Bax, M.F.Th. and Trum, H.M.G.J.
year 1996
title A Conceptual Model for Concurrent Engineering in Building Design according to Domain Theory
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Concurrent engineering is a design strategy in which various designers participate in a co-ordinated parallel process. In this process series of functions are simultaneously integrated into a common form. Processes of this type ask for the identification, definition and specification of relatively independent design fields. They also ask for specific design knowledge designers should master in order to participate in these processes. The paper presents a conceptual model of co-ordinated parallel design processes in which architectural space is simultaneously defined in the intersection of three systems: a morphological or level-bound system, a functional or domain-bound system and a procedural or phase-bound system. Design strategies for concurrent engineering are concerned with process design, a design task which is comparable to the design of objects. For successfully accomplishing this task, knowledge is needed of the structural properties of objects and systems; more specifically of the morphological, functional and procedural levels which condition the design fields from which these objects emerge, of the series of generic forms which condition their appearance and of the typological knowledge which conditions their coherence in the overall process.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss2008-02
id ddss2008-02
authors Gonçalves Barros, Ana Paula Borba; Valério Augusto Soares de Medeiros, Paulo Cesar Marques da Silva and Frederico de Holanda
year 2008
title Road hierarchy and speed limits in Brasília/Brazil
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper aims at exploring the theory of the Social Logic of Space or Space Syntax as a strategy to define parameters of road hierarchy and, if this use is found possible, to establish maximum speeds allowed in the transportation system of Brasília, the capital city of Brazil. Space Syntax – a theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) – incorporates the space topological relationships, considering the city shape and its influence in the distribution of movements within the space. The theory’s axiality method – used in this study – analyses the accessibility to the street network relationships, by means of the system’s integration, one of its explicative variables in terms of copresence, or potential co-existence between the through-passing movements of people and vehicles (Hillier, 1996). One of the most used concepts of Space Syntax in the integration, which represents the potential flow generation in the road axes and is the focus of this paper. It is believed there is a strong correlation between urban space-form configuration and the way flows and movements are distributed in the city, considering nodes articulations and the topological location of segments and streets in the grid (Holanda, 2002; Medeiros, 2006). For urban transportation studies, traffic-related problems are often investigated and simulated by assignment models – well-established in traffic studies. Space Syntax, on the other hand, is a tool with few applications in transport (Barros, 2006; Barros et al, 2007), an area where configurational models are considered to present inconsistencies when used in transportation (cf. Cybis et al, 1996). Although this is true in some cases, it should not be generalized. Therefore, in order to simulate and evaluate Space Syntax for the traffic approach, the city of Brasília was used as a case study. The reason for the choice was the fact the capital of Brazil is a masterpiece of modern urban design and presents a unique urban layout based on an axial grid system considering several express and arterial long roads, each one with 3 to 6 lanes,
keywords Space syntax, road hierarchy
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id ddssup9610
id ddssup9610
authors Krafta, Romulo
year 1996
title Built form and urban configuration development simulation
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The "centrality/potential" model, proposed by Krafta (1994), for configurational development, aims at the simulation of inner city built form growth. This is generally achieved by simulating the uneven distribution of floor area increments, resulting from replacement of old buildings, considered "devalued capital" form new ones. The model considers two main variables - public urban space system and built form - and treats them unevenly; the former is extensively disaggregated whereas the latter is not. This feature enables the model to make just a rough account of intra-urban built form development. The issue of built form simulation is then taken further in the following way: a) Urban built form is disaggregated by types. Buildings are classified by a cross combination of scale, purpose, age and quality standard; b) The city is itself considered as a set of intertwined typologic cities. This means that each unit of public space is identified by its dominant built form type, producing a multilayered-discontinuous city. Each one has its own market characteristics: rentability, technological availability and demand size; c) The market constraints determine which layer-city has priority over the others, as well as each one's size of growth. References to rentability and demand size gives each built form type priorities for development d) Spatial conditions, in the form of particular evaluation of centrality and spatial opportunity measures, regulates the distribution of built form increments and typological succession. Locational values, denoted by centrality and spatial opportunity measures, area differently accounted for in each layer-city simulation. e) Simulation is obtained by "running" the model recursively. Each built form type is simulated separately and in hyerarquical order, so that priority and replacement of built form types is acknowledged properly.
series DDSS
email kraffa@vortex.ufrgs.br
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 4710
authors Senyapili, Burcu
year 1996
title THE TRUE MODEL CONCEPT IN COMPUTER GENERATED SIMULATIONS
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Each design product depends on a design model originated in the designer's mind. From initial design decisions even to the final product, each design step is a representation of this design model. Designers create and communicate using the design models in their minds. They solve design problems by recreating and transforming the design model and utilize various means to display the final form of the model. One of these means, the traditional paper-based media of design representation (drawings, mockup models) alienate the representation from the design model, largely due to the lack of the display of the 4th dimension. Architecture is essentially a four-dimensional issue, incorporating the life of the edifice and the dynamic perception of the space by people. However, computer generated simulations (walkthrough, flythrough, virtual reality applications) of architectural design give us the chance to represent the design model in 4D, which is not possible in the traditional media. Thus, they introduce a potential field of use and study in architectural design.

Most of the studies done for the effective use of this potential of computer aid in architectural design assert that the way architects design without the computer is not "familiar" to the way architects are led to design with the computer. In other words, they complain that the architectural design software does not work in the same way as the architects think and design the models in their brains. Within the above framework, this study initially discusses architectural design as a modeling process and defines computer generated simulations (walkthrough, flythrough, virtual reality) as models. Based on this discussion, the "familiarity" of architectural design and computer aided design is displayed. And then, it is asserted that the issue of familiarity should be discussed not from the point of the modeling procedure, but from the "trueness" of the model displayed.

Therefore, it is relevant to ask to what extent should the simulation simulate the design model. The simulation, actually, simulates not what is real, but what is unreal. In other words, the simulation tells lies in order to display the truth. Consequently, the study proposes measures as to how true a simulation model should be in order to represent the design model best.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:45

_id ddssar9601
id ddssar9601
authors Achten, H.H., Bax, M.F.Th. and Oxman, R.M.
year 1996
title Generic Representations and the Generic Grid: Knowledge Interface, Organisation and Support of the (early) Design Process
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Computer Aided Design requires the implementation of architectural issues in order to support the architectural design process. These issues consist of elements, knowledge structures, and design processes that are typical for architectural design. The paper introduces two concepts that aim to define and model some of such architectural issues: building types and design processes. The first concept, the Generic grid, will be shown to structure the description of designs, provide a form-based hierarchical decomposition of design elements, and to provide conditions to accommodate concurrent design processes. The second concept, the Generic representation, models generic and typological knowledge of building types through the use of graphic representations with specific knowledge contents. The paper discusses both concepts and will show the potential of implementing Generic representations on the basis of the Generic grid in CAAD systems.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id b27f
authors Campbell, Dace A.
year 1996
title Design in virtual environments using architectural metaphor : a HIT lab gallery
source University of Washington
summary This thesis explores the application and limitations of architectural metaphor in the design of virtual environments. Architecture, whether physical or virtual, is the expression of a society realized as meaningful space. Physical and virtual architecture have their own constraints and context, yet both use architectural organization as a way to order forms and spaces in the environment. Both strive to create meaningful place by defining space, and both must allow the participant to develop a cognitive map to orient and navigate in the space. The lack of physics of time and space in the virtual realm requires special attention and expression of its architecture in order for the participant to cope with transitions. These issues are exemplified by the development of an on-line gallery of virtual environments. Conclusions reached by the development of this design are discussed in the context of orientation, navigation, transition, enclosure, and scale.
keywords Virtual Reality; Human-Computer Interaction
series thesis:MSc
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
more http://www.hitl.washington.edu/publications/campbell/
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id cc4f
authors Donath, Dirk
year 1996
title University CAAD-Education for Architectural Students - A Report on the Realisation of a User-oriented Computer Education at the Bauhaus University Weimar
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 143-154
summary Practically no other field of human creativity is evolving as fast and innovatively as the development and integration of the computer into every possible area imaginable. The computer has today become a natural tool in the fields of architecture and space-planning. The changing form of professional practice due to the increasing application of computerassisted work techniques results in the need, currently being addressed in the education of future architects and town planners, to bring these new mediums into the realm between architecture - art - and building - science.
series eCAADe
email caad@architektur.uni-weimar.de
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/architektur/InfAR/
last changed 1998/08/23 08:29

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id aff6
authors Ferrar, Steve
year 1996
title Back to the Drawing Board?
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 155-162
summary I am starting my presentation with some slides of architecture as a reminder that above all else we are involved in the education of future architects. Such is the enthusiasm of many of us for our specialist subject that computers dominate any discussion of architecture. We must not lose sight of the fact that we are using computers to assist in the manipulation of space, form, light, texture and colour, and in communicating our ideas. They should also be helping us and our students to understand and deal with the relationship of built form to its environment, its users and other buildings. The use of computers should not get in the way of this. In the final analysis the image on a computer screen is only that - an image, a representation of a building. It is not the building itself. It is a means to an end and not an end in itself. The image must not be a substitute for the physical building. We must remember that we use most of our other senses when experiencing a building and it is just as important to be able to touch, hear and smell a piece of architecture as well as being able to see it. Who knows, perhaps even taste is important. How much does the use of computers affect the design process and the final appearance of the building? Would these buildings have been substantially different if a system of working in three dimensions, similar to computer aided design, had been available to these architects. To what degree has the design process and method of working shaped the architecture of designers like Frank Lloyd Wright, Carlo Scarpa, Louis Sullivan, Charles Rennie Mackintosh or Alvar Aalto.

series eCAADe
email steve.ferrar@uce.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 2619
authors Otero, E.
year 1996
title EVALUATION OF THE OSLD HOUSING SYSTEM
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary In the production of low-income housing, one of the factors that most affects the low cost of each unit is its mass production. When it comes to building a proposed design it must have been sufficiently studied and evaluated. When designing low-income housing it is convenient to exhaust all the possibilities of simulation in order to produce a prototype that, once built, has reduced the risk of errors. Simulations allow to improve the prototype before proceeding to build it. The Real Scale Model (RSM) has proved to be a better simulation tool than computer generated models or 1:10 scale models. It allows to reproduce and evaluate perceptual experiences as well as being user friendly because most of the spatial variables can be represented. This research is another example of the use and effectiveness of the RSM in the field of design and architectural research.

A Real Scale Model of the basic unit was built by the students of the course Spatial Design Ability dictated by the LEE. The model was first evaluated empty and then a furnishing solution was proposed, built and evaluated. These evaluations were done by another group of students of the Faculty of Architecture and Planning using the Psychological Impressions Measuring Test (IMIP) developed by Luis La Scalea (1991). This test was designed to measure people’s psychological impressions produced by a space, and consists of a semantic differential structured by eleven pairs of opposing adjectives set on a scale of seven levels. The results of this first evaluation were analysed used to modify the prototype which was evaluated again in order to produce a final layout.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:41

_id ddssup9611
id ddssup9611
authors Polidori, MaurIcio Couto
year 1996
title Built Form Impact Assessment Method of Description
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Continuous change in contemporary cities heve produced an urban space tipollogically diverse, particulary in fast growing South-American countries. As a result, the straight contextual analysis, usually used to assess the degree of innovation/permanence of new buildings in urban settings becomes ineffective, for the simple reason that frequently it is virtually impossible to establish what the context dominance actually is. The method proposed in this paper takes the issue of tipological analysis from a systems approach. This is carried out by a series of procedures, such as: a) identifying buildings'constitutive parts, which can be done at any degree of detail; b) listing them according to their attributes of repertory and formal composition. ;with this it is obtained a extensive catalogue of the entities taking part of the considered urban setting, from which the actual context can be depicted; c) listing each entity's participation in the landscape composition, or the role each one has in the landscape configuration. The software that operates the analysis does the rest, measuring the degree of innovation/permanence of each entity, in relation to the others, and defining what the context is made of.. From this, any inclusion/exclusion in the considered townscape is automatically evaluated in terms of impact on the pre-existing setting. The system can be used at any urban scale, as well as at the building scale.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 7b7e
id 7b7e
authors Stahl, Benedikt
year 1996
title EXPERIMENTAL SPATIAL STRUCTURES
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary To speak about Experimental Spatial Structures at first means to find the right definition. Therefore we have to find definitions for three different subjects experiment, space and structure. Experiment - that means to perform scientific experiments. The attempt, the test, the simulation, the model. To do experimental work, that means to take measurements, to count, to compare, to try analyzing, to find out differences between substances. In our case, the experimental character of our work is impressed on working by using different methods to show the basic idea of our theme. To act and to use the full-scale-models with your body. Space - that means architectural space which is defined through architectural spatial elements: wall, ceiling, floor, corner, staircase, way, opening, border, edge and so on. So to speak the substances we need to do our experiments. Structure - means order. The contemplation and the comparison of different spatial structures allows the division of different basic subjects like: euclidian structures or physical structures or the depth of space and so on. To analyze or to design architectural space by using spatial structures as one possibility to do architectural work. As a summary: the experiment or the attempt to show architectural, spatial structures. Space and spatial structures are not only impressed by forms but also and as a main thing by action and moving in space. The role of full-scale modeling, of experimental work related to “reality” in architecture is to simulate basic situations which are not dependent on ideas how they are developed in particular. We try to give some instructions or impressions of elementary architectural structures which can be used as instruments to design space of life.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2007/07/26 05:34

_id ddssar9632
id ddssar9632
authors Sun M. and Lockley S.R.
year 1996
title A STEP Towards a Computer based Integrated Building Design System
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Building design is a multi-actor and multi-task process. In a design project architects, engineers and other specialists need to exchange information in order to produce a coherent design. These design participants often have different views of the design from their own perspectives. The aim of an integrated building design system is to develop a building data model that integrates all views so that building information can be exchanged in electronic form between the designers and also throughout various design stages. This paper introduces an integrated building design system developed as part of the European project, Computer Models for the Building Industry in Europe. It concentrates on the development of the Data Exchange System which is a central data repository implemented using an object oriented database and ISO STEP technology and it is able to support concurrent engineering, versioning, history tracing and other data transaction management
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar9633
id ddssar9633
authors Szalapaj, Peter and Kane, Andrew
year 1996
title Techniques of Superimposition
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary This paper addresses the issues of 2-D and 3-D image manipulation in the context of a Computational Design Formulation System. The central feature of such a system is the ability to bring together two or more design objects in the same reference space for the purpose of analysis. Studies of traditional design methods has revealed the effectiveness of this technique of superimposition. This paper describes ways in which superimposition can be achieved, and, in particular, focuses on a range of domain-independent knowledge-based graphical operators that enable the decomposition of complex design forms into simpler aspects (secondary models) that can then be superimposed and/or analysed from a design-theoretic point of view. Examples of domain-independent knowledge-base graphical operators include object selection, planar bisection, 2-D closure (the grouping of lines into regions), aggregation (the decomposition of 2-D regions into aggregations of lines), spatial bisection, 3-D closure (the grouping of 2-D regions into volumes), 3-D aggregation (the decomposition of volumes into aggregations of 2-D regions). The representation of these operators is dependent upon the notion of a parameterisable volume, thus avoiding the need for translations between multiple representations of graphical objects by providing a common representation form for all objects. Secondary models can therefore subsequently be manipulated either through subtractive procedures (e.g. carving voids from solids), or by additive ones (e.g. assembling given design elements), or by other means such as transformation or distortion. The same techniques of superimposition can also be used to support the visualisation of design forms in two ways: by the juxtaposition of plans and sections with the 3-D form; by the multiple superimposition of alternative design representations e.g. structural schematic, parti schematic, volumetric schematic and architectural model.
keywords Design Formulation, Superimposition, Primary Model, Secondary Model, Parameterisable Volume
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0ef8
authors Völker, H., Sariyildiz, S., Schwenck, M. and Durmisevic, S.
year 1996
title THE NEXT GENERATION OF ARCHITECTURE WITHIN COMPUTER SCIENCES
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Considering architecture as a mixture of exact sciences and the art, we can state that as in all other sciences, every technical invention and development has resulted in advantages and disadvantages for the well-being and prosperity of mankind. Think about the developments in the fields of nuclear energy or space travel. Besides bringing a lot of improvements in many fields, it also has danger for the well-being of a mankind. The development of the advanced computer techniques has also influence on architecture, which is inevitable. How did the computer science influence architecture till now, and what is going to be the future of the architecture with this ongoing of computer science developments? The future developments will be both in the field of conceptual design (form aspect) and also in the area of materialization of the design process.

These all are dealing with the material world, for which the tools of computer science are highly appropriate. But what will happen to the immaterial world? How can we put these immaterial values into a computers model? Or can the computer be creative as a human being? Early developments of computer science in the field of architecture involved two-dimensional applications, and subsequently the significance of the third dimension became manifest. Nowadays, however, people are already speaking of a fourth dimension, interpreting it as time or as dynamics. And what, for instance, would a fifth, sixth or X-dimension represent?

In the future we will perhaps speak of the fifth dimension, comprising the tangible qualities of the building materials around us. And one day a sixth dimension might be created, when it will be possible to establish direct communication with computers, because direct exchange between the computer and the human brain has been realised. The ideas of designers can then be processed by the computer directly, and we will no longer be hampered by obstacles such as screen and keyboard. There are scientist who are working to realize bio-chips. If it will work, perhaps we can realise all these speculations. It is nearly sure that the emergence of new technologies will also affect our subject area, architecture and this will create fresh challenges, fresh concepts, and new buildings in the 21st century. The responsibility of the architects must be, to bear in mind that we are dealing with the well-being and the prosperity of mankind.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email i.s.sariyildiz@dutkitm.bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:43

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 88a2
authors Zhang, Lei
year 1996
title The Design of a Test Program for Basic Design
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 253-267
summary Within the whole range of methods available in the teaching of design with computer the "Exercise" made, seems to be one of the most productive. Not only the student but also the teacher is involved in a step by step process of search, discovery and development. The continuous and controlled building of complexity in architecture design are the underlying issues. The student models in desecrate steps, exploring, testing, discovering and thus build a "repertoire" which combines knowledge skills, experience, attitudes as well as methodology. Symbiotically related the teacher prepares the exercise, one might call the process applied design research. Since based upon research, the teacher structures the learning process defining the what and why by indirect means. Leaving the how to the student's initiative and inventiveness. The design of the design or the design of the learning process poses one of the real challenges to the teacher. In the case of chains of exercise the interactiveness of the student and teacher are of specific interest, since feedback loops add to the process. The following test program is directly related to this line of thinking. In it a "teacher" is asked to develop a simple chain of exercises based on a given "theoretical model". Thus building his own experience in basic design. In this test run the student is introduced to the concept of continuous space as well as the notion of architecture form as the interaction between space, site and structure a course. It could be seen as a basic model since we could have much more complex resolutions if we change the given elements and limitations.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/04/01 17:57

_id d5c8
authors Angelo, C.V., Bueno, A.P., Ludvig, C., Reis, A.F. and Trezub, D.
year 1999
title Image and Shape: Two Distinct Approaches
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 410-415
summary This paper is the result of two researches done at the district of Campeche, Florianópolis, by the Grupo PET/ARQ/UFSC/CAPES. Different aspects and conceptual approaches were used to study the spatial attributes of this district located in the Southern part of Santa Catarina Island. The readings and analysis of two researches were based on graphic pistures builded with the use of Corel 7.0 e AutoCadR14. The first research – "Urban Development in the Island of Santa Catarina: Public Space Study"- examined the urban structures of Campeche based on the Spatial Syntax Theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) that relates form and social appropriation of public spaces. The second research – "Topoceptive Characterisation of Campeche: The Image of a Locality in Expansion in the Island of Santa Catarina" -, based on the methodology developed by Kohlsdorf (1996) and also on the visual analysis proposed by Lynch (1960), identified characteristics of this locality with the specific goal of selecting attributes that contributed to the ideas of the place its population held. The paper consists of an initial exercise of linking these two methods in order to test the complementarity of their analytical tools. Exemplifying the analytical procedures undertaken in the two approaches, the readings done - global (of the locality as a whole) and partial (from parts of the settlement) - are presented and compared.
series SIGRADI
email caludvig@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id a9ca
authors Abadi Abbo, Isaac
year 1996
title EFFECTIVENESS OF MODELS
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Architects use many types of models to simulate space either in their design process or as final specifications for building them. These models have been proved useful or effective for specific purposes. This paper evaluates architectural models in terms of five effectiveness components: time of development, cost, complexity, variables simulated and ecological validity. This series of models, used regularly in architecture, are analysed to finally produce a matrix that shows the effectiveness of the different models for specific purposes in architectural design, research and education. Special emphasis is given to three specific models: 1/10 scale, full-scale and computer generated.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2016/02/17 12:47

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