CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 8832
authors MacCallum, C. and Hanna, R.
year 1996
title DEFLECT: A Computer Aided Learning Package For Teaching Structural Design
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 253-262
summary The teaching of structures and its integration with design teaching has been seen as one of the major problems in design education in schools of architecture world-wide. A number of suggestions have been put forward to improve the quality of teaching in structures in architecture. These include the production of computer based learning materials, and the use of the computer as a ‘substitute’ tutor.

This paper reports on a SHEFC funded project jointly carried out by the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Paisley, the Mackintosh School of Architecture, and Lamp Software. The project aims to build a computer-assisted learning package on the response of structures to load. The software will be used as an interactive teaching tool for both architectural and engineering students.

The package has three levels: Beginners (Level 1), Intermediate (Level 2) and Advanced (Level 3). The first two levels have been completed after continuous feedback from both institutions. Level 1 is geared towards architectural and engineering students to help them understand structural behaviour of building components, such as deflection. Level 2 is a graphical editor that enables students to draw precisely the structure of their designs, investigate the deflection of structural members and identify areas of tension and compression. Level 3 is a design tool aimed at architectural and civil engineering students where they can design and analyse realistic structures by choosing structural members from a library, and specify materials and multiple loads.

Prior to its final release, the software package was appraised by students from both institutions. Analysis of results from questionnaires revealed that students expressed a great deal of 'satisfaction' with many of its teaching and learning attributes. The outcome of this project will promote and enhance students’ understanding of the response of structures to load; it will also help students grasp the impact of varying building materials and cross sectional properties on the structural form.

series eCAADe
email gtca09@udcf.gla.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/17 13:48

_id 8804
authors QaQish, R. and Hanna, R.
year 1997
title A World-wide Questionnaire Survey on the Use of Computers in Architectural Education
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The paper reports on a study which examines the impact on architectural education needs arising from the changes brought about by the implications of CAD teaching/learning (CAI/CAL). The findings reflect the views of fifty-one (51) architecture schools through a world-wide questionnaire survey conducted in mid 1996. The survey was structured to cover four continents represented by seven countries, namely the USA, UK, Israel, Australia, Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands. Structurally the main findings of this study are summarised under five areas, namely: 1) General Information, 2) Program of Study (curriculum) and CAD course, 3) CAD Laboratories: Hardware, Software, 4) Departmental Current and Future Policies, 5) Multi-media and Virtual Reality. Principally, there were three main objectives for using the computers survey. Firstly, to accommodate a prevalent comprehension of CAD integration into the curriculum of architecture schools world wide. Secondly, to identify the main key factors that control the extent of association between CAD and architectural curriculum. Thirdly, to identify common trends of CAD teaching in Architecture schools world-wide and across the seven countries to establish whether there are any association between them. Several variables and factors that were found to have an impact on AE were examined, namely: the response rate, the conventional methods users and the CAD methods users amongst students, CAD course employment in the curriculum, age of CAD employment, the role of CAD in the curriculum, CAD training time in the Curriculum, CAD laboratories/Hardware & Software, computing staff and technicians, department policies, Multi-Media (MM) and Virtual-Reality (VR). The statistical analysis of the study revealed significant findings, one of which indicates that 35% of the total population of students at the surveyed architecture schools are reported as being CAD users. Out of the 51 architecture schools who participated in this survey, 47 have introduced CAD courses into the curriculum. The impact of CAD on the curriculum was noted to be significant in several areas, namely: architectural design, architectural presentation, structural engineering, facilities management, thesis project and urban design. The top five CAD packages found to be most highly used across universities were, namely, AutoCAD (46), 3DStudio (34), Microstation (23), Form Z (17), ArchiCAD (17). The findings of this study suggest some effective and efficient future directions in adopting some form of effective CAD strategies in the curriculum of architecture. The study also serves as an evaluation tool for computing teaching in the design studio and the curriculum.

 

keywords CAD Integration, Employment, Users and Effectiveness
series eCAADe
email r.qaqish@gsa.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/qaqish/qaqish.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 4b55
authors Af Klercker, J. , Ekholm, A. and Fridqvist, S. (Ed.)
year 1996
title Education for Practice [Conference Proceedings]
source 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2 / Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, 425 p.
summary There are many of us trying to make place for CAAD in a natural way in the Curriculum of the Architect school. We would like to make CAAD useful to the students already during their studies. Even if we have the support of our collegues for running courses there is very often no space in the timetable. And even if we have all the entusiasm of our students it is hard to practice your CAAD knowledge on projects where it is not asked for.

The education of architects in the use of computers has lead me to try to find "the roots of education of architects" in general. A collegue of mine in a bookshelf of course litterature in Informatics found and put into my hands "Educating the reflective practitioner" by Donald Schön. It lead to an interesting process of personal reflection and discussion within our CAAD team.

We think by the way that the theme of the conference points to the heart of the message in Donald Schöns book and we are inviting him as a key note speaker at the Conference.

series eCAADe
type normal paper
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se, anders.ekholm@caad.lth.se, sverker.fridqvist@caad.lth.se
more http://www.caad.lth.se/ECAADE/
last changed 2007/01/21 13:05

_id 63e6
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1996
title Visualisation for Clients - One Example of Educating CAAD for Practice
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 17-24
summary During the spring term 1996, 13 students of the 3rd and 4th year at the School of Architecture at Lund University had the opportunity to make a one semester CAAD project. 11 students chose the individual exercise to use computer media for developing a small architectural design in interaction with a client. The focus was set more on visualization and the process of communicating ideas, feelings and practical solutions between architect and client and visa versa rather than concentrated on the final product.

This paper describes the process of the project and the reflections of the participants. It will discuss problems from the teachers point of view.

series eCAADe
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
more http://www.caad.lth.se/ECAADE/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0ec9
authors Agranovich-Ponomareva. E., Litvinova, A. And Mickich, A.
year 1996
title Architectural Computing in School and Real Designing
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 25-28
summary The existing system of architectural education ( including computer ) as has shown practice has appeared not absolutly perfect. It not capable to dynamic changes, active introduction of a new engineering and computer technologies, to realization about of the inquiries of a modern time. It suggest of a way of search of new models of computer training. The computer education is represented by us as certain a universal system, which permits to solve the problem of arcitectural education at a higher level. The opportunities of computers and computer technologies at such approach are used as means of increase of efficiency teaching and training. The orientation goes on final result: a opportunity to generate of the creative decisions by learnees, based on attraction of received knowledge and use for their realization of arsenal of practical skills and skills. The system represents not only certain set of experiences elements, necessary and final result sufficient for achievement, but also quite certain interrelation between them. It means, that the knowledge from a initial rate " The Introduction in computer training" must be secured and transformed for utilization in special rates and through them- in practice. The functional nucleus of the software package of such universal system is under construction as opened, apparatus an independent system. A central part of a system is a database, the structure of which is uniform for all other modules and side of enclosures. The conceptual model of a system is under construction on principles structure idea, visualization, multimedia. The listed principles are realized in model so that to encourage the user to independent creative work.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 6ec6
authors Alsayyad, Nezar, Elliott, Ame and Kalay, Yehuda
year 1996
title Narrative Models: A Database Approach to Modeling Medieval Cairo
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 247-254
summary This paper explores the use of three-dimensional simulations to investigate transformations of urban form in medieval Cairo, and lessons about using computers to support historical visualization. Our first attempt to create a single extremely detailed model of Cairo proved unworkable. From this experience we developed a database approach to organizing modeling projects of complex urban environments. The database consists of several complete models at different levels of abstraction. This approach has three advantages over the earlier one: the model is never viewed as incomplete, the framework supports both additive and subtractive chronological studies, and finally, the database is viewed as infinitely expandable. Using modeling software as a tool for inquiry into architectural history becomes more feasible with this new approach.
series ACADIA
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 8ded
authors Anders, Peter
year 1996
title Envisioning Cyberspace: The Design of On-Line Communities
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 55-67
summary The development of the World Wide Web into an active, visual social environment poses unique opportunities for the design professions. Multi-user Domains, social meeting places in cyberspace, are mostly text-based virtual realities which use spatial references to set the stage for social interaction. Over the past year design students at the New Jersey Institute of Technology School of Architecture have investigated several text-based domains. In the course of their work, they envisioned and graphically portrayed these environments as immersive virtual realities through the use of computer animation. Their studies addressed issues ranging from the nature of symbolic motion to social/political structures of these domains.
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id cf57
authors Anumba, C.J.
year 1996
title Functional Integration in CAD Systems
source Advances in Engineering Software, 25, 103-109
summary This paper examines the issue of integration in CAD systems and argues that for integration to be effective, it must address the functional aspects of a CAD system. It discusses the need for integrated systems and, within a structural engineering context, identifies several facets of integration that should be targeted. These include 2-D drafting and 3-D modelling, graphical and non-graphical design information, the CAD data structure and its user interface, as well as integration of the drafting function with other engineering applications. Means of achieving these levels of integration are briefly discussed and a prognosis for the future development of integrated systems explored. Particular attention is paid to the emergence (and potential role) of `product models' which seek to encapsulate the full range of data elements required to define completely an engineering artefact.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 63a7
id 63a7
authors Ataman, Osman and Lonnman, Bruce
year 1996
title Introduction to Concept and Form in Architecture: An Experimental Design Studio Using the Digital Media
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 3-9
summary This paper describes the use of digital media in a first year undergraduate architectural design studio. It attempts to address the importance of developing a design process that is redefined by the use of computing, integrating concept and perception. Furthermore, it describes the theoretical foundations and quasi-experiments of a series of exercises developed for beginning design students.
series ACADIA
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2003/12/20 04:52

_id 438d
authors Bartnicka, Malgorzata
year 1996
title Who Uses Whom
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 21-26
summary For many years architects have been improving their tools in order to make their visions most comprehensible to the future customers - investor and building contractor. Not everyone is able to read the technical drawings of the designed building as it requires the spatial imagination to be developed. For such non-professional persons and also because of the innate need of convenience architect has decided to use a machine called computer. With the help of computer technical drawings, axonometries, perspectives and colourful pictures are being created. They show reality in a more or less precise way. Architects eagerly use such methods of presentation as perspective views, that is photographic images of objects which do not yet exist. All of these measures taken are just a kind of advertising. The architect wants to sell his vision in the most accessible way to beat the competition.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/09 13:30

_id eb87
authors Bhavnani, S.K.
year 1996
title How Architects Draw with Computers: A Cognitive Analysis of Real-World CAD Interactions
source Carnegie Mellon University, School of Architecture and School of Computer Science
summary New media throughout history have passed through a period of transition during which users and technologists took many years to understand and exploit the medium's potential. CAD appears to be passing through a similar period of transition; despite huge investments by vendors and users, CAD productivity remains difficult to achieve. To investigate if history can provide any insights into this problem, this thesis begins with an examination of well-known examples from history. The analysis revealed that, over time, users had developed efficient strategies which were based on powers and limitations of tools; delegation strategies exploited powers provided by tools, and circumvention strategies attempted to overcome their limitations. These insights on efficient strategies were used to investigate the CAD productivity problem based on four research questions:

1. How do architects currently use CAD systems to produce drawings?

2. What are the effects of current CAD usage on product and performance?

3. What are the possible causes of current CAD usage?

4. What are the capabilities of the CAD medium and how can they be used efficiently?

The above four questions were addressed through the qualitative, quantitative, and cognitive analysis of data collected during an ethnographic study of architects working in their natural environment. The qualitative and quantitative analysis revealed that users missed many opportunities to use strategies that delegated iteration to the computer. The cognitive analysis revealed that missed opportunities to use such delegation strategies caused an increase in execution time, and an increase in errors many of which went undetected leading to the production of inaccurate drawings. These analyses pointed to plausible cognitive and contextual explanations for the inefficient use of CAD systems, and to a framework to identify and teach efficient CAD strategies. The above results were found to be neither unique to the CAD domain, nor to the office where the data were collected. The generality of these results motivated the identification of seven claims towards a general theory to explain and identify efficient strategies for a wide range of devices. This thesis contributes to the field of architecture by providing a detailed analysis of real-world CAD usage, and an approach to improve the performance of CAD users. The thesis also contributes to the field of human-computer interaction by demonstrating the generality of these results and by laying the framework for a general theory of efficient strategies which could be used to improve the performance of users of current and future computer applications.

series thesis:PhD
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/04/15 11:36

_id 40ee
authors Biagini, Carlo
year 1996
title CAAD in the Transformability Evaluation of Historical Buildingsof Historical Buildings
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 55-58
summary In the execution of a research, which was intended to identify methods and instruments for transformability evaluation of historical buildings, CAAD was usefully employed in the decision-making process at different levels. From an operative point of view, it was fundamental instruments for the acquisition of typomorphological data inherent to pre-existent buildings. It allowed us to create an archive of information which can be easily and flexibly up-dated. In fact the critical evaluation of these buildings is based on the identification of structural patterns which have characterized the typological evolution of the urban structure, and thus the different historical stratifications have to be carefully catalogued, profoundly analyzed and compared one with the other. CAAD was even more effective during the phase of meta-designing checking concerning the choices effected for conversion of old buildings, since it was possible to prefigure different scenarios according to formulated hypotheses and this gave us the opportunity to evaluate their effective practicability in relation to typo- morphological congruence and logical and formal connection between the old building and new design proposals.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ecba
authors Bosco, Antonio
year 1996
title Hypertext for Building Rehabilitation. A didactic Use of an Innovative Methodology of Diagnosis of the Building Decay
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 59-64
summary In the paper presented in the last ECAADE conference in Palermo we described a first hypertext for the analysis of ancient buildings. One section of the hypertext was devoted to show diagnostic procedures and specific instrumental tests for building rehabilitation. We can consider that the hypertext represent the best answer to the request of an organised knowledge coming from students of the schools of architecture and public operators. So we describe how the proposed arrangement of the diagnostic tests can become a real operative tool technicians of public agencies and powerful means of building technology knowledge for students too. The diagnostic procedures are related to the specific needs of the architectural design; changing ways to archive the tests are showed. The goal is to allow the architects, operating in the rehabilitation field, to operate the right choice of diagnostic methods to avoid doing many unnecessary, expensive tests.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4931
authors Breen, Jack
year 1996
title Learning from the (In)Visible City
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 65-78
summary This paper focuses on results and findings of an educational project, in which the participating students had to develop a design strategy for an urban plan by using and combining endoscopic and computational design visualisation techniques. This educational experiment attempted to create a link between the Media research programme titled 'Dynamic Perspective' and an educational exercise in design composition. It was conceived as a pilot study, aimed at the investigation of emerging applications and possible combinations of different imaging techniques which might be of benefit in architectural and urban design education and potentially for the (future) design practice. The aim of this study was also to explore the relationship between spatial perception and design simulation. The point of departure for the student exercise was an urban masterplan which the Dynamic Perspective research team prepared for the workshop 'the (in)visible city' as part of the 1995 European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference in Vienna, Austria. The students taking part in the exercise were asked to develop, discuss and evaluate proposals for a given part of this masterplan by creating images through different model configurations using optical and computer aided visualisation techniques besides more traditional design media.The results of this project indicate that an active and combined use of visualisation media at a design level, may facilitate communication and lead to a greater understanding of design choices, thus creating insights and contributing to design decision-making both for the designers and for the other participants in the design process.
series eCAADe
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/Media/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id sigradi2004_043
id sigradi2004_043
authors Celso Pereira Guimarães; Gerson G. Cunha; Luis Landau
year 2004
title Sistema de informação e orientação para ambientes públicos em VR - O caso do hu da ufrj um projeto sinalético [Information and Orientation System for Public Environments in VR - The Case of UFRJ University Hospital, a Communication Design Project]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Considering Levy.s (1996) thought that qualifies the cyberspace as an anbient par excellence and susceptible to be transformed and explored [1], our work intends to introduce through the simulation in VR, the use of that anbient as support of conception projetual and of the analysis and verification of the efficiency of the proposal of the System of Comunication Design implanted at the Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (HU). [2]
series SIGRADI
email celsopg@acd.ufrj.br, gerson@lamce.ufrj.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id a573
authors Cicognani, Anna
year 1996
title Thinking Beyond
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 87-98
summary If the new generation of architects is in need of tools, then we can consider ourselves lucky. On the market there are as many CAD systems as we would be able to learn and use in more than a Curriculum of a School of Architecture. On the other hand, being able to use the tools doesn't mean being able to produce good designs. It is often pointed out how much buildings designed by CAD systems look strangely similar. In the challenge of education, in Schools of Architecture, we need to help students to think beyond the tools themselves. This can be done with, for example, Virtual Design Studios and MUDs/MOOs, in which students can practise their architectural skills and adapt the tools to their design, instead of vice versa. This paper is a description of some attempts in educating how to think beyond tools in design tasks.

series eCAADe
email anna@arch.su.edu.au
more http://www.arch.su.edu.au/~anna
last changed 1998/08/17 14:16

_id 6c40
authors Colajanni, B., Martelli, T. and Pellitteri, G.
year 1996
title A Tool for the Analysis of the Behaviour of Building Components: The Cellular Automation
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 99-110
summary An implementation of a cellular automation is presented that allows the simulation of the behaviour of building components under diverse environment conditions. The tool has a wide range of applications because of the generality of its structure. The object on which it operates is represented as a set of cells each of which is defined, besides its geometrical dimension and position, by a set of variables and parameters. The work it performs consists in computing transitions from a state to another, i.e. the values variables and parameters take in each cell under the action of external agents and of internal laws of interaction between self As an example of its use an application is shown analysing the thermal behaviour of the connection of a curtain wall to a concrete floor.
series eCAADe
email istart@cuc.unipa.it, pellitt@cuc.unipa.it
last changed 1998/08/17 14:38

_id e479
authors Costanzo, Ezilda and De Vecchi, Antonio
year 1996
title Computer-Aided Planning of Connections Among Building Components
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 111-120
summary In these last years the use of advanced technological types of construction, prevalently consisting of mechanical assembly systems, is also spreading to create connections among building elements. The aim of the research we are carrying on is to develop an automated software tool aiding the planning of assembly systems adopted in building, which are often characterised by high complexity levels. At the present, such subject is being studying in the mechanical field; but the difference of components and of products, seldom mass-produced and industrialised in building, make only few factors be available to our field, where further and different investigations are required.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/02/26 20:38

_id 6abd
authors Dawson, Anthony and Burry, Mark
year 1996
title The Continuing Dichotomy: Practice vs. Education
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 131-142
summary While it is apparent from the architectural literature that some practices are innovative in their use of computers for architectural design, clear evidence indicates that most architectural practices have applied computing to traditional practice paradigms. Information technology is therefore being applied to practice systems which were in place prior to computers being available. This has significant implications for architectural education in which there is tension developing between the requirements of the commercially oriented architectural practice and the innovation driven computer-aided architectural design educator. The first wishes to equip graduates for immediate and productive employment in computerised architectural practices and may be loosely interpreted as a graduate’s ability to work as a CAD operator within an architectural practice environment. The second has the desire for students to be innovative in their use of information technology as an aid in informing and evaluating parts of both the design process and its outcomes. However, it is only when both architects and educators identify the architectural process as an integrated information system that these tensions can be resolved. This requires reconsideration of the function and use of information technology in both educational institutions and in architectural practices. The paper discusses how fruitful this can be in the current environment and outlines current developments at Deakin University which aim at providing a middle ground
series eCAADe
email tonyd@deakin.edu.au, mburry@deakin.edu.au
last changed 1998/08/17 13:38

_id 9613
authors Day, A., Bourdakis, V. and Robson, J.
year 1996
title Living with a Virtual City
source Architectural Research Quarterly, Vol 2. pp. 84-91
summary Computer models of entire cities are becoming increasingly common. The uses to which these models are put are varied and include the visualisation of proposed changes, the marketing of the facilities a city has to offer and the mapping of socio-economic data. Developments in the Internet mean that city models can be widely accessed and computer hardware and software have developed to the point where it is possible to both construct and view these models on personal computers. This paper discusses some issues relating to the construction and use of large urban models and draws upon the authors' experience of constructing the Bath computer model which remains one of the most detailed in the world.
series journal paper
email V.Bourdakis@prd.uth.gr
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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