CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 69

_id c2ab
authors Chiu, Mao Lin
year 1996
title Prototypes, Variation and Composition: A Formal Design Approach in Urban Housing Design with Computer Assistance
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 287-298
summary This paper outlines a formal design approach for teaching 3D modeling in computer-aided architecture design studios, and various design principles are used in the process, particularly the generalization, variation and composition. The teaching agenda includes: (1) a formal design approach of housing design, (2) design collaboration, and (3) computer-aided architectural design. // The research agenda includes: (1) incorporation of the formal design approach with the urban infill theory, and (2) development of a computation design method. // The studio project is demonstrated to highlight the implementation of the approach.

keywords Computer-aided Design, Prototypes, Housing Design, Formal Design Method
series CAADRIA
email mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id 78f0
authors Cotton, J.F.
year 1996
title Solid modeling as a tool for constructing solar envelopes
source Automation in Construction 5 (3) (1996) pp. 185-192
summary This paper presents a method for constructing solar envelopes in site planning using a 3D solid-modeling program. The solar envelope for a site is a mechanism for ensuring that planning regulations on the solar access rights of others are observed. In this application, solid modeling offers the advantage of being a general-purpose tool having the capability to handle sets of site conditions that are complex. The paper reviews the concept of solar envelopes and demonstrates the method of application of solar envelope construction to a site. Techniques for displaying the constraints on building sections imposed by a solar envelope are presented.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 2ca3
authors Curless, Brian and Levoy, Marc
year 1996
title A Volumetric Method for Building Complex Models from Range Images
source Stanford University
summary A number of techniques have been developed for reconstructing surfaces by integrating groups of aligned range images. A desirable set of properties for such algorithms includes: incremental updating, representation of directional uncertainty, the ability to fill gaps in the reconstruction, and robustness in the presence of outliers. Prior algorithms possess subsets of these properties. In this paper, we present a volumetric method for integrating range images that possesses all of these properties. Our volumetric representation consists of a cumulative weighted signed distance function. Working with one range image at a time, we first scan-convert it to a distance function, then combine this with the data already acquired using a simple additive scheme. To achieve space efficiency, we employ a run-length encoding of the volume. To achieve time efficiency, we resample the range image to align with the voxel grid and traverse the range and voxel scanlines synchronously. We generate the final manifold by extracting an isosurface from the volumetric grid. We show that under certain assumptions, this isosurface is optimal in the least squares sense. To fill gaps in the model, we tessellate over the boundaries between regions seen to be empty and regions never observed. Using this method, we are able to integrate a large number of range images (as many as 70) yielding seamless, high-detail models of up to 2.6 million triangles.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id c7d4
authors Davidson, James N. and Campbell, Dace A.
year 1996
title Collaborative Design in Virtual Space - GreenSpace II: A Shared Environment for Architectural Design Review
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 165-179
summary Design reviews and discussions are fundamental to the process of design. The ability to digitally represent three dimensional space in real-time is a new and potentially persuasive method for reviewing and analyzing a design proposal. The development of real-time rendering engines and network protocols supporting distributed interaction makes possible the idea of a shared virtual environment for architectural collaboration. This paper presents a system which facilitates the review of an architectural design between multiple participants who are remotely distributed.
series ACADIA
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id ddssar9613
id ddssar9613
authors de Groot, E.H. and Louwers, F.H.
year 1996
title The TIE-system, a KBS for the Evaluation of Thermal Indoor office Environments
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary A Knowledge-Based System [KBS] for the evaluation of Thermal Indoor office Environments [TIE] (in the Netherlands) was the product of a one-year project, undertaken by researchers of the Physical Aspects of the Built Environment group [FAGO] in cooperation with the Knowledge-Based System Section of the TNO-Building & Construction research Institute in Delft. The objective of the project was to develop a KBS capable of evaluating thermal indoor environments of existing or proposed office buildings designs. The approach used in this study was based on a traditional method of predicting thermal sensation by calculating Fanger's 'Predicted Mean Vote' [PMV]. PMV is influenced by four environmental parameters of a room: air temperature, radiant temperature, air velocity and relative humidity, and by two personal parameters of the employees: metabolic rate and clothing insulation. The knowledge required to determine these six parameters was placed in KBS-databases and tables using a KBS-building tool called Advanced Knowledge Transfer System [AKTS]. By questioning the user, the TIE-system is capable of determining the PMV for a particular office room. The system also provides conclusions and advice on improving the thermal comfort. The TIE-system was a pilot-study for the long-term Building Evaluation research project, being undertaken at FAGO, that examines in all aspects of office building performance, and in which KBS may play a major pole.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 9a0d
authors Debevec, P.E., Taylor, C.J. and Malik, J.
year 1996
title Modeling and rendering architecture from photographs: a hybrid geometry- and image-based approach
source SIGGRAPH'96, New Orleans, Louisiana
summary We present a new approach for modeling and rendering existing architectural scenes from a sparse set of still photographs. Our modeling approach, which combines both geometry-based and imagebased techniques, has two components. The first component is a photogrammetricmodelingmethodwhich facilitates the recovery of the basic geometry of the photographed scene. Our photogrammetric modeling approach is effective, convenient, and robust because it exploits the constraints that are characteristic of architectural scenes. The second component is a model-based stereo algorithm, which recovers how the real scene deviates from the basic model. By making use of the model, our stereo technique robustly recovers accurate depth from widely-spaced image pairs. Consequently, our approach canmodel large architectural environmentswith far fewer photographs than current image-based modeling approaches. For producing renderings, we present view-dependent texture mapping, a method of compositing multiple views of a scene that better simulates geometric detail on basic models. Our approach can be used to recover models for use in either geometry-based or image-based rendering systems. We present results that demonstrate our approach's ability to create realistic renderings of architectural scenes from viewpoints far from the original photographs.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 656d
authors Donath , Dirk and Regenbrecht, Holger
year 1996
title Using Virtual Reality Aided Design Techniques for Three-dimensional Architectural Sketching
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 199-212
summary With this paper we would like to introduce a system which supports the early phases of the architectural design process. The system consists of two main components: the software solution "voxDesign" and the physical environment "platform". Our aims are: to formulate, develop, and evaluate an architectural design system through the use of VR (virtual reality) space. The exploration and development of design intentions is supplemented by a new method of three dimensional sketching. In the second part of this paper we will show how these components were used to train students in architecture and design at our university. Parts of this paper were published to the academic public at "Designing Digital Space". (Regenbrecht 1996)
keywords Virtual Reality, Architectural Design, Human-computer interfaces, Design Techniques
series ACADIA
email donath@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2001/06/22 15:14

_id cf13
authors Druckrey, T. (ed.)
year 1996
title Electronic Culture: Technology and Visual Representation
source Aperture, New York
summary The ability to specify nonplanar 3D curves is of fundamental importance in 3D modeling and animation systems. Effective techniques for specifying such curves using 2D input devices are desirable, but existing methods typically require the user to edit the curve from several viewpoints. We present a novel method for specifying 3D curves with 2D input from a single viewpoint. The user rst draws the curve as it appears from the current viewpoint, and then draws its shadow on the oor plane. The system correlates the curve with its shadow to compute the curve's 3D shape. This method is more natural than existing methods in that it leverages skills that many artists and designers have developed from work with pencil and paper.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 3905
authors Duffy, T.M. and Cunningham, D.J.
year 1996
title Constructivism: Implications for the design and delivery of instruction
source D.H. Jonassen, (Ed) Handbook of research for educational communications and technology, N.Y; Macmillan Library reference USA
summary This will be a seminar that examines Constructivist theory as it applies to our thinking about instruction. Many folks think of constructivism as a method of instruction -- it is not. It is a framework for thinking about learning or what it means to come to know. As such, it is a framework for understanding (interpreting) any learning environment as well as a framework for designing instruction. The seminar will be organized around weekly readings. We will examine the alternative constructivist theories, e.g., socio-cultural constructivism and cognitive constructivism, and the pragmatism of Richard Rorty. However, rather than focusing on the differences between these frameworks, our emphasis will be on the implications of the broader, common framework for the design of instruction. Hence we will spend most of the semester discussing strategies for designing and delivering instruction, e.g., the work of Bransford, Collins, Pea, Jonassen, Spiro, Fosnot, Senge, and Schank. We will consider both business and schooling environments for learning -- there is significant work in both domains. There will be particular emphasis of the use of technology in instruction. We will look at the communication, information, and context providing roles of technology as contrasted to the traditional approach of using technology to deliver instruction (to teach). We will also pay particular attention to problem based learning as one instructional model. In PBL there is particular emphasis on the role of the facilitator as a learning coach (process orientation) as opposed to a content provider. There is also a particular emphasis on supporting the development of abductive reasoning skills so that the learner develops the ability to be an effective problem solver in the content domain. The major paper/project for the course will be the design of instruction to train individuals to be learning coaches in a problem based learning or goal based scenario learning environment. That is, how do you support teachers in adapting the role of learning coach (which, of course, requires us to understand what it means to be a learning coach). Design teams will be formed with the teams all working on this same design problem. A comprehensive prototype of the learning environment is required as well as a paper provide the theoretical framework and rationale for the design strategy. While not required, I would expect that computer technology will play a significant role in the design of your learning environment. With that in mind, let me note that it is not required that the prototype be delivered on the computer, i.e., I am not requiring programming skills but rather design skills and so "storyboards" is all that is required.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e212
authors Faltings, Boi and Sun, Kun
year 1996
title FAMING: supporting innovative mechanism shape design
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 28 (3) (1996) pp. 207-216
summary A popular saying claims that `innovation is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration'. In this paper, we present a method for automating most of the perspiration involved in innovative design. We restrict our attention toinnovative design processes which can be structured into three steps: discovery of a new technique, understanding it, and generalising it to fit the problem at hand. The method we developed automates theunderstanding and generalisation phases which involve most of the perspiration.We present the FAMING system which demonstrates the method for the design of part shapes in 2D elementary mechanisms, also called kinematic pairs. We believe that the results are generalisable to otherdomains with similar characteristics, in particular any problem where geometry plays an important role.
keywords Intelligent CAD, Qualitative Reasoning, Case-Based Reasoning
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id aff6
authors Ferrar, Steve
year 1996
title Back to the Drawing Board?
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 155-162
summary I am starting my presentation with some slides of architecture as a reminder that above all else we are involved in the education of future architects. Such is the enthusiasm of many of us for our specialist subject that computers dominate any discussion of architecture. We must not lose sight of the fact that we are using computers to assist in the manipulation of space, form, light, texture and colour, and in communicating our ideas. They should also be helping us and our students to understand and deal with the relationship of built form to its environment, its users and other buildings. The use of computers should not get in the way of this. In the final analysis the image on a computer screen is only that - an image, a representation of a building. It is not the building itself. It is a means to an end and not an end in itself. The image must not be a substitute for the physical building. We must remember that we use most of our other senses when experiencing a building and it is just as important to be able to touch, hear and smell a piece of architecture as well as being able to see it. Who knows, perhaps even taste is important. How much does the use of computers affect the design process and the final appearance of the building? Would these buildings have been substantially different if a system of working in three dimensions, similar to computer aided design, had been available to these architects. To what degree has the design process and method of working shaped the architecture of designers like Frank Lloyd Wright, Carlo Scarpa, Louis Sullivan, Charles Rennie Mackintosh or Alvar Aalto.

series eCAADe
email steve.ferrar@uce.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 1d05
authors Finch, E.F., Flanagan, R. and Marsh, L.E.
year 1996
title Electronic document management in construction using auto-ID
source Automation in Construction 5 (4) (1996) pp. 313-321
summary The construction process relies upon the effective management of a variety of project information including drawings; specifications; bills of quantities; and other technical data. The method of information transfer determines the ease with which information can be assimilated and used in the construction process. Despite the widespread use of computers for the generation of project information, hard copy documentation remains the primary method of information transfer within the construction industry. Electronic Document Management (EDM) systems offer a level of control over information flow within the construction process, whether documents are in hard copy or in electronic format. However, many of the existing methods of information transfer undermine the performance of EDM systems in two respects; (1) they require the user to re-enter information to register incoming documents into a data base; (2) they cannot interpret and manipulate information contained in or supporting the document. This paper describes a method of bar coding hard copy drawings in order to electronically transfer document information from designer to contractor. This approach is designed to improve the functionality of EDM systems where hard copy documents predominate. The paper also considers the requirements for bar code application standards which would further improve the data exchange process concerning documents.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 0c78
authors Flood, I. and Christophilos, P.
year 1996
title Modeling construction processes using artificial neural networks
source Automation in Construction 4 (4) (1996) pp. 307-320
summary The paper evaluates a neural network approach to modeling the dynamics of construction processes that exhibit both discrete and stochastic behavior, providing an alternative to the more conventional method of discrete-event simulation. The incentive for developing the technique is its potential for (i) facilitating model development in situations where there is limited theory describing the dependence between component processes; and (ii) rapid execution of a simulation through parallel processing. The alternative ways in which neural networks can be used to model construction processes are reviewed and their relative merits are identified. The most promising approach, a recursive method of dynamic modeling, is examined in a series of experiments. These involve the application of the technique to two classes of earthmoving system, the first comprising a push-dozer and a fleet of scrapers, and the second a loader and fleet of haul trucks. The viability of the neural network approach is demonstrated in terms of its ability to model the discrete and stochastic behavior of these classes of construction processes. The paper concludes with an indication of some areas for further development of the technique.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 88f4
authors Fu, S., Bao, H. and Peng, Q.
year 1996
title An Accelerated Rendering Algorithm for Stereoscopic Display
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 53-61
summary With the development of the scientific visualization and the virtual environment techniques, stereo viewing systems have not been used extensively. In this paper, we present an accelerated rendering algorithm for stereoscopic display. As the difference between the left view and the right view is slight, we generate the right view by a transformation of the left view conforming to the stereo disparity. The problem of visibility change of a few polygons during the transformation is discussed and an efficient algorithm is developed for filling the holes that may arise in the right view after the transformation. This method makes fully use of the coherence between the left view and the right view. Experiments prove its efficiency.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 13:56

_id 6262
authors Glanville, Ranulph
year 1996
title Creativity and HyperMedia, MultiMedia, the InterNET an Virtuality
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 99-115
summary Creativity is defined in an operational manner as being associated with the new, and hence with surprise and variety. Certain qualities of various computer media (HyperMedia, Multimedia, InterNET and Virtuality) are considered in the light of this definition in order to determine how they might be shaped and used to enhance (the likelihood of) creativity, particularly in architectural design. A more thorough examination of the qualities of computational media is suggested. together with a method for carrying this out. A major consideration of CAD has been excluded since the author has, elsewhere, recently covered this aspect of computing in some depth.
series plCAD
email ranulph@glanville.co.uk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:01

_id ddss2008-02
id ddss2008-02
authors Gonçalves Barros, Ana Paula Borba; Valério Augusto Soares de Medeiros, Paulo Cesar Marques da Silva and Frederico de Holanda
year 2008
title Road hierarchy and speed limits in Brasília/Brazil
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper aims at exploring the theory of the Social Logic of Space or Space Syntax as a strategy to define parameters of road hierarchy and, if this use is found possible, to establish maximum speeds allowed in the transportation system of Brasília, the capital city of Brazil. Space Syntax – a theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) – incorporates the space topological relationships, considering the city shape and its influence in the distribution of movements within the space. The theory’s axiality method – used in this study – analyses the accessibility to the street network relationships, by means of the system’s integration, one of its explicative variables in terms of copresence, or potential co-existence between the through-passing movements of people and vehicles (Hillier, 1996). One of the most used concepts of Space Syntax in the integration, which represents the potential flow generation in the road axes and is the focus of this paper. It is believed there is a strong correlation between urban space-form configuration and the way flows and movements are distributed in the city, considering nodes articulations and the topological location of segments and streets in the grid (Holanda, 2002; Medeiros, 2006). For urban transportation studies, traffic-related problems are often investigated and simulated by assignment models – well-established in traffic studies. Space Syntax, on the other hand, is a tool with few applications in transport (Barros, 2006; Barros et al, 2007), an area where configurational models are considered to present inconsistencies when used in transportation (cf. Cybis et al, 1996). Although this is true in some cases, it should not be generalized. Therefore, in order to simulate and evaluate Space Syntax for the traffic approach, the city of Brasília was used as a case study. The reason for the choice was the fact the capital of Brazil is a masterpiece of modern urban design and presents a unique urban layout based on an axial grid system considering several express and arterial long roads, each one with 3 to 6 lanes,
keywords Space syntax, road hierarchy
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id 56de
authors Handa, M., Hasegawa, Y., Matsuda, H., Tamaki, K., Kojima, S., Matsueda, K., Takakuwa, T. and Onoda, T.
year 1996
title Development of interior finishing unit assembly system with robot: WASCOR IV research project report
source Automation in Construction 5 (1) (1996) pp. 31-38
summary The WASCOR (WASeda Construction Robot) research project was organized in 1982 by Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, aiming at automatizing building construction with a robot. This project is collaborated by nine general contractors and a construction machinery manufacturer. The WASCOR research project has been divided into four phases with the development of the study and called WASCOR I, II, III, and IV respectively. WASCOR I, II, and III finished during the time from 1982 to 1992 in a row with having 3-4 years for each phase, and WASCOR IV has been continued since 1993. WASCOR IV has been working on a automatized building interior finishing system. This system consists of following three parts. (1) Development of building system and construction method for automated interior finishing system. (2) Design of hardware system applied to automated interior finishing system. (3) Design of information management system in automated construction. As the research project has been developing, this paper describes the interim report of (1) Development of building system and construction method for automated interior finishing system, and (2) Design of hardware system applied to automated interior finishing system.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id a115
authors Hanna, R.
year 1996
title A Computer-based Approach for Teaching Daylighting at the Early Design Stage
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 181-190
summary This paper has reviewed the literature on the teaching of daylight systems design in architectural education, and found that traditionally such teaching has evolved around the prediction of the Daylight Factor (DF%), i.e. illuminance, via two methods one studio-based and another laboratory based. The former relies on graphical and/or mathematical techniques, e.g. the BRE Protractors, the BRE Tables, Waldram Diagrams, the Pepper-pot diagrams and the BRE formula. The latter tests scale models of buildings under artificial sky conditions (CIE sky). The paper lists the advantages and disadvantages of both methods in terms of compatibility with the design process, time required, accuracy, energy-consumption facts, and visual information.

This paper outlines a proposal for an alternative method for teaching daylight and artificial lighting design for both architectural students and practitioners. It is based on photorealistic images as well as numbers, and employs the Lumen Micro 6.0 programme. This software package is a complete indoor lighting design and analysis programme which generates perspective renderings and animated walk-throughs of the space lighted naturally and artificially.

The paper also presents the findings of an empirical case study to validate Lumen Micro 6.0 by comparing simulated output with field monitoring of horizontal and vertical illuminance and luminance inside the highly acclaimed GSA building in Glasgow. The monitoring station was masterminded by the author and uses the Megatron lighting sensors, Luscar dataloggers and the Easylog analysis software. In addition photographs of a selected design studio inside the GSA building were contrasted with computer generated perspective images of the same space.

series eCAADe
email gtca09@udcf.gla.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/17 13:41

_id 0c50
authors Heikkilä, Rauno and Haapasalo, Harri
year 1996
title Creative Computer Aided Architectural Design
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 191-198
summary Computer aided architectural design is considered on the basis of the newest knowledge of man's creative thinking and intuitive design. A creative architectural design method of universal application is outlined. The method is verified on account of both the empirical observations from practical architectural design as well as the presentations of architects in the literature. The policies of different CAAD programs are discussed. Lines for the development of a new creative CAAD program is also discussed.

series eCAADe
email rkheikki@cc.oulu.fi, harri.haapasalo@oulu.fi
last changed 1998/08/17 13:42

_id maver_088
id maver_088
authors Henriques, P., Maver, T. and Retik, A.
year 1996
title Integration of Cost Planning in the Architectural Design of Housing - "CP/CAD Model"
source Application of the Performance Concept in Building (Ed: R Becker), vol 1, 2: 105-114
summary Cost estimation in the initial phases of a project is of great interest to the construction industry. This paper proposes a new way of the integration of an architectural project and its cost estimate so as to optimise the design solutions, according to technical and economic criteria. This work explores the capacity of an elemental cost estimation method for residential buildings, when integrated with Computer Aided Design systems, to increase cost estimate precision during the early stages of design. A Cost Planning and CAD model (CP/CAD) is developed by the integration of a database and a CAD system which provides for the automatic exchange of information relative to the geometric layout of the building, the construction element build-up and the construction costs of the same. Finally the CP/CAD model is tested through the estimation of costs for some theoretical cases and also for a group of one-family houses with similar architectural characteristics. The results show the increased precision and the advantages of the model for cost estimation in the early design stages.
series other
type normal paper
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2015/02/20 10:37

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