CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 69

_id a022
authors Hirschberg, U. and Streilein, A.
year 1996
title CAAD meets digital photogrammetry: modelling _weak forms_ for computer measurement
source Automation in Construction 5 (3) (1996) pp. 171-183
summary The integration of state-of-the-art photogrammetric methods with the capabilities of CAAD has great potential for a variety of architectural applications. This paper describes the current status of an ongoing research project which aims to develop an easy to use tool for the photogrammetric generation of accurate, reliable and well structured 3D CAAD models of architectural objects. The project adresses the whole range of issues that arise from the digital image acquisition to the data processing, the data integration between photogrammetry and CAAD and the architectural structuring of the geometric data. While also giving a brief overview of the project, the paper concentrates on one central aspect of the system: a method to model what we will define as 'weak forms' as the basis for qualitatively controlled computer measurement.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id ddssup9612
id ddssup9612
authors Kribbe, Willeke and Sanders, Frank
year 1996
title Growth of spatial network constructions: a decision support systems oriented approach
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The paper describes a method that has been developed to be used in a process for a systematic search of alternative designs for a network configuration. In the design process we will take into account that we may not be able to implement the full configuration all at once. Logical partial configurations must be derived. The process can than also be used to investigate the expansion of (railroad) networks. The basic idea is that either the most profitable trajectories or the trajectories that contribute most to the improved quality of the configuration will be developed first. A method cannot incorporate all criteria that are relevant for the final decision simultaneously, one of the reasons being that not all criteria are suitable for a mathematical formulation. Therefore a method cannot be used to replace current legal and political procedures. However it can be considered to be part of a decision support system that could be used in a preliminary investigation preceeding such procedures. In the example presented in this paper the criteria and calculations are kept simple for illustrative purposes. However they can easily be made more complex and realistic without damaging the fundamental concepts of the search algorithm. If the system is implemented in a way that the criteria to be used in the selection process can be chosen in interaction with the decision maker (or moderator) one can truly speak of a decision support system for the project formulation phase for the construction of the physical network. In the algorithm the network is represented as a graph and the nodes connected by the network are termed centers of attraction, supply and demand.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 3a28
authors Laiserin, Jerry
year 2002
title From atelier to e-telier: virtual design studios
source Architectural Record
summary The design studio, as physical place and pedagogical method, is the core of architectural education. Ateliers clustered around rue Napoleon in Paris defined the École des Beaux Arts. The Carnegie Endowment report on architectural education, published in 1996, identified a comparably central role for studios in schools today. From programs, schemes, and parti to desk crits, pin-ups, and charrettes-language and behavior learned in the studio establish the profession's cultural framework. Advances in CAD and visualization, combined with technologies to communicate images, data, and "live" action, now enable virtual dimensions of studio experience. Students no longer need gather at the same time and place to tackle the same design problem. Critics can comment over the network or by e-mail, and distinguished jurors can make virtual visits without being in the same room as the pin-up-if there is a pin-up (or a room). Virtual design studios (VDS) have the potential to favor collaboration over competition, diversify student experiences, and redistribute the intellectual resources of architectural education across geographic and socioeconomic divisions. The catch is predicting whether VDS will isolate students from a sense of place and materiality, or if it will provide future architects the tools to reconcile communication environments and physical space.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ca47
authors Lee, Shu Wan
year 1996
title A Cognitive Approach to Architectural Style Several Characteristics of Design Thinking in Architecture
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 223-226
summary Designing is a complicated human behaviour and method, and is often treated as a mysterious "black box” operation in human mind. In the early period as for theory-studying of design thinking, the way of thinking that the researchers took were mostly descriptive discussions. Therefore, they lacked direct and empirical evidence although those studies provided significant exploration of design thinking (Wang, 1995). In recent years as for the study of cognitive science, they have tried to make design "glass box”. That is to try to make the thinking processes embedded in designers publicized. That is also to externalize the design procedure which provided the design studies another theoretical basis of more accurate and deeply researched procedure (Jones, 1992). Hence the studying of design thinking has become more important and the method of designing has also progressed a lot. For example, the classification of the nature of design problem such as ill-defined and well-defined (Newell, Shaw, and Simon, 1967), and different theoretical procedure modes for different disciplines, such as viewing architectural models as conjecture-analysis models and viewing engineering models as analysis-synthesis (Cross, 1991).
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:14

_id 8bea
authors Lipson, H. and Shpitalni, M.
year 1996
title Optimization-based reconstruction of a 3D object from a single freehand line drawing
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 28 (8) (1996) pp. 651-663
summary This paper describes an optimization-based algorithm for reconstructing a 3D model from a single, inaccurate, 2D edge-vertex graph. The graph, which serves as input for the reconstruction process, is obtained froman inaccurate freehand sketch of a 3D wireframe object. Compared with traditional reconstruction methods based on line labelling, the proposed approach is more tolerant of faults in handling both inaccurate vertexpositioning and sketches with missing entities. Furthermore, the proposed reconstruction method supports a wide scope of general (manifold and non-manifold) objects containing flat and cylindrical faces. Sketchesof wireframe models usually include enough information to reconstruct the complete body. The optimization algorithm is discussed, and examples from a working implementation are given.
keywords Drawing To Model, Optimization, Robustness
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id ecaade2012_087
id ecaade2012_087
authors Lorenz, Wolfgang E.
year 2012
title Estimating the Fractal Dimension of Architecture: Using two Measurement Methods implemented in AutoCAD by VBA
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 505-513
summary The concept of describing and analyzing architecture from a fractal point of view, on which this paper is based, can be traced back to Benoît Mandelbrot (1981) and Carl Bovill (1996) to a considerable extent. In particular, this includes the distinction between scalebound (offering a limited number of characteristic elements) and scaling objects (offering many characteristic elements of scale) made by B. Mandelbrot (1981). In the fi rst place such a differentiation is based upon a visual description. This paper explores the possibility of assistance by two measurement methods, fi rst time introduced to architecture by C. Bovill (1996). While the box-counting method measures or more precisely estimates the box-counting dimension D b of objects (e.g. facades), range analysis examines the rhythm of a design. As CAD programs are familiar to architects during design processes, the author implemented both methods in AutoCAD using the scripting language VBA. First measurements indicate promising results for indicating the distinction between what B. Mandelbrot called scalebound and scaling buildings.
wos WOS:000330322400052
keywords Box-Counting Method; Range Analysis; Hurst-Exponent; Analyzing Architecture; Scalebound and Scaling objects
series eCAADe
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id 1162
authors Malkawi, Ali and Jabi, Wassim
year 1996
title Integrating Shadow Casting Methodology and Thermal Simulation
source Proceedings of the Solar ‘96 Conference. Asheville, North Carolina: American Solar Energy Society, 1996, pp. 271-276
summary This paper describes an experiment that integrates shadow casting methodology and thermal simulation algorithms developed by the authors. The 3D shadow procedures use a polyhedral representation of solids within a Cartesian space that allows for accurate casting of shadows. The algorithm is also capable of calculating surface areas of polygonal shadows of any arbitrary shape and size. The thermal simulation algorithms – using the Transfer Function Method (TFM) – incorporate the shaded area calculations to better predict solar heat gain from glazing based on transmitted, absorbed, and conducted cooling loads. The paper describes the use of a 3D computer model to illustrate the impact of the pattern and area of shading on the visual and thermal properties of building apertures. The paper discusses the objectives of this experiment, the algorithms used, and their integration. Conclusions and findings are drawn.
keywords Shadow Casting Algorithms Energey Thermal Simulation
series other
last changed 2002/03/05 18:51

_id 2e5a
authors Matsumoto, N. and Seta, S.
year 1997
title A history and application of visual simulation in which perceptual behaviour movement is measured.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [3rd EAEA-Conference Proceedings]
summary For our research on perception and judgment, we have developed a new visual simulation system based on the previous system. Here, we report on the development history of our system and on the current research employing it. In 1975, the first visual simulation system was introduced, witch comprised a fiberscope and small-scale models. By manipulating the fiberscope's handles, the subject was able to view the models at eye level. When the pen-size CCD TV camera came out, we immediately embraced it, incorporating it into a computer controlled visual simulation system in 1988. It comprises four elements: operation input, drive control, model shooting, and presentation. This system was easy to operate, and the subject gained an omnidirectional, eye-level image as though walking through the model. In 1995, we began developing a new visual system. We wanted to relate the scale model image directly to perceptual behavior, to make natural background images, and to record human feelings in a non-verbal method. Restructuring the above four elements to meet our equirements and adding two more (background shooting and emotion spectrum analysis), we inally completed the new simulation system in 1996. We are employing this system in streetscape research. Using the emotion spectrum system, we are able to record brain waves. Quantifying the visual effects through these waves, we are analyzing the relation between visual effects and physical elements. Thus, we are presented with a new aspect to study: the relationship between brain waves and changes in the physical environment. We will be studying the relation of brain waves in our sequential analysis of the streetscape.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 7f0f
authors Naai-Jung, S.
year 1996
title A study of 2D- and 3D-oriented architectural drawing production methods
source Automation in Construction 5 (4) (1996) pp. 273-283
summary The purpose of this paper is to present drawing production methods based on the difference between 2D- and 3D-oriented approaches. This study emphasizes the comparison of the two approaches in data production, updating and analysis. Architectural CAD drawings are outputted from design information through a computational interface. A drawing production model (P) can be represented by a database (DB) and an interface (I). The input interface is the input or update method between users and application systems. The output interface is the method of presenting architecture drawings like plans, elevations, sections and details based on input data. Under the constraints of a predefined data structure, the computational interface determines the efficiency and characteristics of input and output data. Drawing production methods can be classified into three types: segregating drawing files, applying reference files and constructing a virtual building model. These types come with different interfaces: 2D drafting has the same input and output interface, whereas constructing a 3D model is achieved using a different interface. A digital building model is defined as the electronic information of a whole building which is assembled by components with attributes. 2D- and 3D-oriented drawing methods are compared, based on items such as the required preparation before drafting, consistency of plans, elevations and sections, ease of modification, drafting efficiency, number of persons involved, and analysis potential.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id a447
authors Ng, E., Lam, K.P., Wu., W. and Nagakura, T
year 1996
title Advanced lighting Visualisation in Architectural Design
source Research Report RP960019, National University of Singapore, Singapore
summary To visually simulate a building interior before it is built has always been the wishes of the designer and his client. The visualised image serves to help the designer in interacting with the client on improving the design. Recently, advanced lighting simulation techniques are becoming available thanks to the advancements in software design and hardware speed. This paper reports how these advanced techniques could be harness to serve the local design professionals. The author argues that to serve the professonals well, it is important to look beyond technology and to synerise technology with design method and work-flow in a typical architectural design office.
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 82d3
authors Park, Hoon
year 1996
title Digital and Manual Media in Design
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 325-334
summary Although there is an important commitment to the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems in the design studio, there are still technologies that are not broadly accepted as useful to the designer especially in the early design stage. This is because CAD systems use the monitor and mouse which differ from the sketch paper and pen of manual media. This presentation explores how CAD systems can be applicable and integrated to this early design stage by allowing paper as a digital medium. With this exploration, I look at some ways for bridging manual media and digital media. For accommodating this approach, this article includes the evaluation of a prototype CAD system that discusses enhancing the role of CAD systems in the early design stage and linking the realms of the two currently distinct media — manual and digital. This system allows the designer to work with computer based and paper based tools in the same conventional environment. The method provides interesting insights into the relationship between digital and manual media.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 04:58

_id c363
authors Pieglb, Les and Tillera, Wayne
year 1996
title Algorithm for approximate NURBS skinning
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 28 (9) (1996) pp. 699-706
summary An algorithm for approximate skinning through cross-sectionalNURBS curves is presented. The method eliminates the problem of dealing with huge amounts of control points obtained during the curvecompatability process. It also allows the designer to specify large numbers of cross-sections and approximately fit a smooth surface to these curves to any given tolerance. Depending on the tolerances used, up to99% of the control points can be eliminated.
keywords NURBS, Surface Skinning, Curves and Surfaces, Algorithms
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id ddssup9611
id ddssup9611
authors Polidori, MaurIcio Couto
year 1996
title Built Form Impact Assessment Method of Description
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Continuous change in contemporary cities heve produced an urban space tipollogically diverse, particulary in fast growing South-American countries. As a result, the straight contextual analysis, usually used to assess the degree of innovation/permanence of new buildings in urban settings becomes ineffective, for the simple reason that frequently it is virtually impossible to establish what the context dominance actually is. The method proposed in this paper takes the issue of tipological analysis from a systems approach. This is carried out by a series of procedures, such as: a) identifying buildings'constitutive parts, which can be done at any degree of detail; b) listing them according to their attributes of repertory and formal composition. ;with this it is obtained a extensive catalogue of the entities taking part of the considered urban setting, from which the actual context can be depicted; c) listing each entity's participation in the landscape composition, or the role each one has in the landscape configuration. The software that operates the analysis does the rest, measuring the degree of innovation/permanence of each entity, in relation to the others, and defining what the context is made of.. From this, any inclusion/exclusion in the considered townscape is automatically evaluated in terms of impact on the pre-existing setting. The system can be used at any urban scale, as well as at the building scale.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id f912
authors Pritschow, G., Dalacker, M., Kurz, J. and Gaenssle, M.
year 1996
title Technological aspects in the development of a mobile bricklaying robot
source Automation in Construction 5 (1) (1996) pp. 3-13
summary This paper presents a process for automated masonry construction on a building site by means of a mobile robot. A scenario for the on-site operation of a man-machine-system comprising the mobile bricklaying robot and a skilled worker is outlined. An automated method for the application of thin-bed mortar is presented and verified by experiments. Furthermore, the vacuum handling system of the bricklaying robot and a device which integrates technological functions such as calibration of the brick position, determination of material tolerances and application of bonding material in a single unit are described in detail. Finally, the realised prototype of the mobile bricklaying robot is presented.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id d320
authors Rihani, R.A. and Bernold, L.E.
year 1996
title Methods of control for robotic brick masonry
source Automation in Construction 4 (4) (1996) pp. 281-292
summary The major use of brick masonry units in the U.S. is in facades for office buildings and single family homes. The traditional method for building masonry walls is on-site by bricklayers. An alternative method is panelization or prefabrication of brick panels in a plant environment. While many mechanical problems exist, the real-time control represents a challenging aspect of robotizing brick masonry work. This paper presents an effort to study the development of an experimental robotic masonry system and its relevant control modules. It also describes two control frameworks for different levels in a robotic brick masonry prototype: (a) local control, and (b) global control. The local control system includes three work cells: (a) gripping and handling, (b) quality control, and (c) brick placement. First, the components and equipment used in a work cell are listed, then the experimental work performed with them is discussed to show how sensors are used for dehacking, brick placement, brick color detection, and brick size measurements. The paper then continues to describe a global control system that will integrate the three local work cells utilizing a hierarchical structure.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id acadia07_284
id acadia07_284
authors Robinson, Kirsten; Gorbet, Robert; Beesley, Philip
year 2007
title Evolving Cooperative Behaviour in a Reflexive Membrane
source Expanding Bodies: Art • Cities• Environment [Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 978-0-9780978-6-8] Halifax (Nova Scotia) 1-7 October 2007, 284-293
summary This paper describes the integration of machine intelligence into an immersive architectural sculpture that interacts dynamically with users and the environment. The system is conceived to function as an architectural envelope that might transfer air using a distributed array of components. The sculpture includes a large array of interconnected miniature structural and kinetic elements, each with local sensing, actuation, and machine intelligence. We demonstrate a model in which these autonomous, interconnected agents develop cooperative behaviour to maximize airflow. Agents have access to sensory data about their local environment and ‘learn’ to move air through the working of a genetic algorithm. Introducing distributed and responsive machine intelligence builds on work done on evolving embodied intelligence (Floreano et al. 2004) and architectural ‘geotextile’ sculptures by Philip Beesley and collaborators (Beesley et al. 1996-2006). The paper contributes to the general field of interactive art by demonstrating an application of machine intelligence as a design method. The objective is the development of coherent distributed kinetic building envelopes with environmental control functions. A cultural context is included, discussing dynamic paradigms in responsive architecture.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2007/10/02 06:14

_id 4918
authors Rychter, Zenon and Kozikowska, A.
year 1996
title Forms, Eigenforms, Structural Form
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 215-229
summary The paper advocates an iterative approach, whose cycle is synthesized in the title, towards integrating exploratory geometric design with fundamental structural validation. The approach is geared towards the creative architect seeking free yet buildable forms on his own, in a CAD environment, without the premature intervention of the structural analyst checking design codes. Extraction of natural modes of vibration (eigenforms), within the method of finite elements, is the proposed vehicle for structural form-finding. A string of evolving illustrative examples is given.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/09 13:30

_id ddssar9625
id ddssar9625
authors Sanui, Junichiro
year 1996
title Visualization of users' requirements: Introduction of the Evaluation Grid Method
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary During the last decade, a new type of approaches have emerged in Japanese environmental psychology. These approaches have characteristics that they are aiming to clarify users' requirements for the environment as the design questions to be solved, compared with the traditional approaches aiming to clarify the environment-human relationship to provide actual design solutions. As an example of these new approaches, the Evaluation Grid Method (EGM), a semi-structured interview method developed by the author based on Kelly's Personal Construct Theory is introduced. In the EGM, by asking the reasons of why an environment is more preferable to others recurrently, together with leading questions (laddering), each participant's requirements to the environment are elicited structurally as well as phenomenologically. Also by cumulating each participant's requirements, the extensive structure of the requirements to the environment embraced by people is produced. In this paper, a detailed procedure and the outcome of the EGM are presented on the elicitation of workers' requirements for the office environment. Also recent applied examples where the EGM research was applied as an design aid in architectural as well as industrial field will be introduced.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ce5c
authors Scianna, Andrea
year 1996
title What Software for Instruction in Architecture: Today Features and Needs for the Future
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 391-402
summary In the last years the computer technology has evolved very fast; new tendencies were also exploded in computer programming, such as object oriented programming, but the world of Computer Science still records other news as the introduction in the market of new graphic environments or operating systems such as Windows 95. As results of this evolution all the applications currently used in CAAD teaching and for practice, were heavily updated; so they have acquired new power for the immediate use but some other features, interesting for CAAD instruction, were lost. Today, the creation inside some CAD programs of those little applications that are one of the highest moment of "learning by doing" method, starts to require more knowledge of some computer science techniques and of the operating systems too.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/17 14:02

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