CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 481

_id e2c4
authors Comair, C., Kaga, A. and Sasada, T.
year 1996
title Collaborative Design System with Network Technologies in Design Projects
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 269-286
summary This paper depicts the work of the team of researchers at the Sasada Laboratory in the area of collaborative design and the integration of global area network such as the Internet in order to extend the architectural studio into cyber-space. The Sasada Laboratory is located at the University of Osaka, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental engineering, Japan. The portfolio of the Laboratory is extensive and impressive. The projects which were produced by the men and women of the Laboratory range from the production of databases and computer simulation of several segments of different cities throughout the world to specific studies of architectural monuments. The work performed on the databases was varied and included simulation of past, present, and future events. These databases were often huge and very complex to build. They presented challenges that sometimes seemed impossible to overcome. Often, specialised software, and in some cases hardware, had to be designed on the "fly” for the task. In this paper, we describe the advances of our research and how our work led us to the development of hardware and software. Most importantly, it depicts the methodology of work which our lab undertook. This research led to the birth of what we call the "Open Development Environment” (ODE) and later to the networked version of ODE (NODE). The main purpose of NODE is to allow various people, usually separated by great distances, to work together on a given project and to introduce computer simulation into the working environment. Today, our laboratory is no longer limited to the physical location of our lab. Thanks to global area networks, such as the Internet, our office has been extended into the virtual space of the web. Today, we exchange ideas and collaborate on projects using the network with people that are spread over the five continents.
series CAADRIA
email ccomair@digipen.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id 5fc4
authors Fruchter, R.
year 1996
title Conceptual Collaborative Building Design Through Shared Graphics
source IEEE Expert special issue on Al in Civil Engineering, June vol. 33-41
summary The Interdisciplinary Communication Medium computer environment integrates a shared graphic modeling environment with network-based services to accommodate many perspectives in an architecture/engineering/construction team. Communication is critical for achieving better cooperation and coordination among professionals in a multidisciplinary building team. The complexity of large construction projects, the specialization of the project participants, and the different forms of synchronous and asynchronous collaborative work increase the need for intensive information sharing and exchange. Architecture/engineering/construction (A/E/C) professionals use computers to perform a specific discipline's tasks, but they still exchange design decisions and data using paper drawings and documents. Each project participant investigates and communicates alternative solutions through representational idioms that are private to that member's profession. Other project participants must then interpret, extract, and reenter the relevant information using the conventional idioms of their disciplines and in the format required by their tools. The resulting communication difficulties often affect the quality of the final building and the time required to achieve design consensus. This article describes a computer environment, the Interdisciplinary Communication Medium (ICM), that supports conceptual, collaborative building design. The objective is to help improve communication among professionals in a multidisciplinary team. Collaborative teamwork is an iterative process of reaching a shared understanding of the design and construction domains, the requirements, the building to be built, and the necessary commitments. The understanding emerges over time, as team members begin to grasp their own part of the project, and as they provide information that lets others progress. The fundamental concepts incorporated in ICM include A communication cycle for collaborative teamwork that comprises propose-interpret-critique-explain-change notifications. An open system-integration architecture. A shared graphic modeling environment for design exploration and communication. A Semantic Modeling Extension (SME), which introduces a structured way to capture design intent. A change-notification mechanism that documents notes on design changes linked to the graphic models, and routes change notifications. Thus, the process involves communication, negotiation, and team learning.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cc90
authors Kolarevic, Branko
year 1998
title CAD@HKU
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 16-17
summary Since 1993, we have experimented with Virtual Design Studios (VDS) as an on-going research project that investigates the combination of current computer-aided design (CAD), computer networks (Internet), and computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) techniques to bring together studentsat geographically distributed locations to work in a virtual atelier. In 1993 the theme of the first joint VDS project was in-fill housing for the traditional Chinese walled village of Kat Hing Wai in the New Territories north of Hong Kong, and our partners included MIT and Harvard in Boston (USA), UBC in Vancouver (Canada), and Washington University in St. Louis (USA). In 1994 we were joined by Cornell (USA) and Escola Tecnica Superior d’Arquitectura de Barcelona (Spain) to re-design Li Long housing in Shanghai, and 1995 added the Warsaw Institute of Technology (Poland) for the ACSA/Dupont competition to design a Center for Cultural and Religious Studies in Japan. The 1996 topic was an international competition to design a monument located in Hong Kong to commemorate the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty in 1997. Communication was via e-mail, the WorldWide Web with limited attempts at VRML, and network video. Several teaching and research experiments conducted through these projects have demonstrated the viability and potential of using electronic, telecommunications, and videoconferencing technologies in collaborative design processes. Results of these VDS have been presented at conferences worldwide, explained in journal papers and published in Virtual Design Studio, edited by J. Wojtowicz, published by HKU Press.
series ACADIA
email branko@pobox.upenn.edu
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id d7eb
authors Bharwani, Seraj
year 1996
title The MIT Design Studio of the Future: Virtual Design Review Video Program
source Proceedings of ACM CSCW'96 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 1996 p.10
summary The MIT Design Studio of the Future is an interdisciplinary effort to focus on geographically distributed electronic design and work group collaboration issues. The physical elements of this virtual studio comprise networked computer and videoconferencing connections among electronic design studios at MIT in Civil and Environmental Engineering, Architecture and Planning, Mechanical Engineering, the Lab for Computer Science, and the Rapid Prototyping Lab, with WAN and other electronic connections to industry partners and sponsors to take advantage of non-local expertise and to introduce real design and construction and manufacturing problems into the equation. This prototype collaborative design network is known as StudioNet. The project is looking at aspects of the design process to determine how advanced technologies impact the process. The first experiment within the electronic studio setting was the "virtual design review", wherein jurors for the final design review were located in geographically distributed sites. The video captures the results of that project, as does a paper recently published in the journal Architectural Research Quarterly (Cambridge, UK; Vol. 1, No. 2; Dec. 1995).
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id cd74
authors Rezgui, Y., Brown, A., Cooper, G., Yip, J., Brandon, P. and Kirkham, J.
year 1996
title An information management model for concurrent construction engineering
source Automation in Construction 5 (4) (1996) pp. 343-355
summary Projects in the construction industry are increasingly characterised by large numbers of actors working concurrently at different locations and using heterogeneous technologies. In order to support this kind of collaborative engineering, project information needs to be conceptually modelled throughout its lifecycle, along with the events that impact upon it by causing state changes. There exists, therefore, an urgent need to provide a flexible framework in which the highly interleaved and interactive events and transactions inherent in complex construction projects can be managed effectively. This paper addresses these issues by proposing such a conceptual framework consisting of four levels of abstraction and functionality governed by the COMMIT (Construction Modelling and Methodologies for Intelligent inTegration of information) Information Management Model (CIMM). A comprehensive presentation of the CIMM (which tackles issues such as versioning, notification, object rights and ownership) is given. The CIMM also facilitates the recording of the intent behind construction project decisions, thereby providing a complete project history. Finally, the model is illustrated through two proposed scenarios dealing with selected objects' lifecycles during design stages and actor transaction management.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 80fb
authors Woo, S.,Takenaka, Y. and Sasada, T.
year 1996
title Architectural Virtual Space in Design Education
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 27-33
summary Our research in recent years has included the subject of providing collaborative work space in the field of architectural design. We propose to improve the quality of architectural design education by extending the physical space of the architectural laboratory into the virtual space of the network (i.e. Internet). In this paper, this extension is called the Architectural Virtual Space (AVS) system. The aim of this paper is to provide the AVS system with reality, interaction and real time, and to popularise architectural design education by providing the applications and power whenever needed for collaboration on the Internet in conjunction with the growth of various browsers of hypermedia.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2001/05/27 15:31

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id f5ee
authors Erhorn, H., De Boer, J. and Dirksmueller, M.
year 1997
title ADELINE, an Integrated Approach to Lighting Simulation
source Proceedings of Right Light 4, 4th European Conference on Energy-Efficient Lighting, pp.99-103
summary The use of daylighting and artificial lighting simulation programs to calculate complex systems and models in the design practice often is impeded by the fact that the operation of these programs, especially the model input, is extremely complicated and time-consuming. Programs that are easier to use generally do not show the calculation capabilities required in practice. A second obstacle arises as the lighting calculations often do not allow any statements regarding the interactions with the energetic and thermal building performance. Both problems are mainly due to a lacking integration of the design tools of other building design practitioners as well as due to insufficient user interfaces. The program package ADELINE (Advanced Daylight and Electric Lighting Integrated New Environment) being available since May 1996 as completely revised version 2.0 presents a promising approach to solve these problems. This contribution describes the approaches and methods used within the international project IEA Task 21 for a further development of the ADELINE system. Aim of this work is a further improvement of user interfaces based on the inclusion of new dialogs and on a portation of the program system from MS-DOS to the Windows NT platform. Additional focus is laid on the use of recent developments in the field of information technology and experiences gained in other projects on integrated building design systems, like for example EU-COMBINE, in a pragmatical way. An integrated building design system with open standardized interfaces is to be achieved inter alia by using ISOSTEP formats, database technologies and a consequent, object-oriented design.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 8ee5
authors Koutamanis, A., Mitossi, V.
year 1996
title SIMULATION FOR ANALYSIS: REQUIREMENTS FROM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Computerization has been a positive factor in the evolution of both kinds of analysis with respect to cost, availability and efficiency. Knowledge-based systems offer an appropriate implementation environment for normative analysis which can be more reliable and economical than evaluation by human experts. Perhaps more significant is the potential of interactive computer simulation where designs can be examined intuitively in full detail and at the same time by quantitative models. The advantages of this coupling are evident in the achievements of scientific visualization. Another advantage of computational systems is that the analysis can be linked to the design representation, thereby adding feedback to the conventional visualization of designs in drawing and modeling systems. Such connections are essential for the development of design guidance systems capable of reflecting consequences of partial inadequacies or changes to other aspects in a transparent and meaningful network of design constraints.

The possibilities of computer simulation also extend to issues inadequately covered by normative analysis and in particular to dynamic aspects of design such as human movement and circulation. The paper reports on a framework for addressing two related problems, (a) the simulation of fire escape from buildings and (b) the simulation of human movement on stairs. In both cases we propose that current evaluation techniques and the underlying design norms are too abstract to offer a measure of design success, as testified by the number of fatal accidents in fires and on stairs. In addition, fire escape and stair climbing are characterized by great variability with respect to both the form of the possible designs and the profiles of potential users. This suggests that testing prototypical forms by typical users and publishing the results as new, improved norms is not a realistic proposition for ensuring a global solution. Instead, we should test every design individually, within its own context. The development of an affordable, readily available system for the analysis and evaluation of aspects such as fire escape and stair safety can be based on the combination of the technologies of virtual reality and motion capture. Testing of a design by a number of test people in an immersion space provides not only intuitive evaluations by actual users but also quantitative data on the cognitive and proprioceptive behaviour of the test people. These data can be compiled into profiles of virtual humans for further testing of the same or related designs.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:40

_id 0ed4
authors Kusama, H., Fukuda, T., Park, J.W. and Sasada, T.
year 1996
title Networked CAD System for Designer Group
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 153-161
summary Open Design Environment (ODE), the concept of which was proposed in 1991, is a platform on computers to support synthetic to proceed design. We have applied ODE in practical use of design, design review and presentation to make collaboration by using CG in design participants. Recent linkage between LAN and Wide Area Network, just as the Internet, gave ODE a new progress to make wide area collaboration. It leads to generate the concept of Network ODE (NODE). However, we have found some problems on system to proceed the wide area collaboration by using ODE’s Design Tools. Since they are developed on the specific computer system, they can not correspond to the wide area collaboration on various network environments. As a result, the re-arrangement of design environment and the development of Design Tools are needed, which are rather flexible and general purpose, i.e. independent of machine sort and network adaptive. In this paper, to proceed collaboration in a designer group, how to create the system of NODE is demonstrated with the new Key Technologies of network and CG.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:08

_id ddssar9623
id ddssar9623
authors Mitossi, V. and Koutamanis, A.
year 1996
title Parametric design of stairs
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Stairs represent one of the oldest and most intricate design problems in architecture. Aesthetics, pedestrian circulation, construction and safety combine to create a complex network of factors. Despite the essentially parametric nature of stairs, designers have been eager to adopt and apply simplistic standardization schemes, often unrelated to safety issues. Moreover, while there are several computerized systems for the automated design of stairs, there has been little if any interest in the computer-based analysis of stair designs. The objective of our research has been to develop a transparent and flexible computer system for the design and analysis of stairs. The system employs constraint propagation networks for the calculation of stair dimensions in generation and for the correlation of floor levels to stairs and their dimensions in analysis. Computerization also allows us to re-examine and refine the norms underlying stair design. We propose that our understanding of stair design can be improved by the analysis of proprioceptive sizes in ascent and descent. Simulation of these sizes with virtual robots combines accurate measurement with visual evaluation. This combination facilitates the effortless and direct integration of advanced technologies and new methods in architectural design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e7e0
authors Watanabe, Shun
year 1996
title Computer Literacy in Design Education
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 1-10
summary Many Schools of Architecture in Japan installed many computers in their class rooms, and have already begun courses for CAAD skill. But in many cases, few teachers make their efforts for this kind of education personally. Having limited staff prevents one from making the global program of design education by using computers.

On the other hand, only teaching how to use individual CAD/CG software in architectural and urban design is already out of date in education. Students will be expected to adapt themselves to the coming multi-media society. For example, many World Wide Web services were started commercially and the Internet has become very familiar within the last year. But I dare to say that a few people can enjoy Internet services actually in schools of Architecture and construction companies.

Students should be brought up to improve their ability of analysing, planning and designing by linking various software technologies efficiently in the word-wide network environment and using them at will. In future design education, we should teach that computers can be used not only as a presentation media of architectural form, but also as a simulation media of architectural and urban design from various points of view.

The University of Tsukuba was established about 25 years ago, and its system is different from the other universities in Japan. In comparison with other faculties of Architecture and Urban Planning, our Faculty is very multi-disciplinary, and ability of using computers has been regarded as the essential skill of foundation. In this paper, I will introduce how CAAD education is situated in our global program, and discuss the importance of computer literacy in architectural and urban design education.

keywords Computer Literacy, Design Education, CAD, Internet
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/03/03 20:34

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id c7d4
authors Davidson, James N. and Campbell, Dace A.
year 1996
title Collaborative Design in Virtual Space - GreenSpace II: A Shared Environment for Architectural Design Review
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 165-179
summary Design reviews and discussions are fundamental to the process of design. The ability to digitally represent three dimensional space in real-time is a new and potentially persuasive method for reviewing and analyzing a design proposal. The development of real-time rendering engines and network protocols supporting distributed interaction makes possible the idea of a shared virtual environment for architectural collaboration. This paper presents a system which facilitates the review of an architectural design between multiple participants who are remotely distributed.
series ACADIA
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id ijac20075301
id ijac20075301
authors de Velasco, Guillermo Vasquez
year 2007
title A Group of Friends: The Las Americas Network, Virtual Studios, and Distance Education in Architecture
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 5 - no. 3, pp. 455-468
summary This paper celebrates the human factor by describing how our collective vocation towards innovation in design education has inspired the development of an active network across the Americas. Ten years after its creation, the Las Americas Digital Research Network has generated a stream of innovative implementations. This is the first time that the main stream of these research activities is articulated into a peer-reviewed journal publication. The narrative of the paper follows a time-line that starts with the creation of the Las Americas Digital Research Network in 1996. Supported by such a framework the paper continues to describe the implementation of virtual design studios as collaborations nested at the core of the network. Finally, the paper explains how the virtual design studios provide fundamental feasibility for the development of network-mediated distance education curricula in architecture and the opening of a new dimension in the development and deployment of collaborative networks.
series journal
email GVasquez@archmail.tamu.edu
last changed 2007/11/20 17:06

_id c6dd
authors Fruchter, Renate
year 1996
title COMPUTER INTEGRATED ARCHITECTURE/ENGINEERING/CONSTRUCTION PROJECT-CENTERED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 227-234
summary This paper describes an on-going effort, initiated at Stanford's Civil Engineering Department, to develop, implement, and test a new and innovative "Computer Integrated Architecture./Engineering/Construction" (A/E/C) course. The course takes a multi-site, cross- disciplinary, project-centered, team-oriented approach to teaching. The paper presents the motivation, methodology, computational infrastructure, and initial observations in the experimental A/E/C course. The course is sponsored by NSF Synthesis Coalition and is the result of the collaborative effort of faculty and researchers from Civil Engineering Department at Stanford University, and Architecture Department and Civil Engineering Department, at UC Berkeley. In this computer integrated A/EIC environment a new generation of architecture, engineering, construction students learns how to team up with other disciplines and the advantage of the emerging information technologies for collaborative work in order to design and build higher quality buildings faster.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
email fruchter@stanford.edu
last changed 2006/03/27 05:36

_id 8a8f
authors Hou, June Hao
year 1996
title Exploration of Extending the Communication Range in the Virtual Design Process
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 299-305
summary Computer Support for Collaborative Works (CSCW) and recently investigated Virtual Design Studio (VDS) are reviewed. By involving into two design projects and examining the virtual design process, several technical and procedural problems are notified and discussed. A community reconstruction was proceeded in the second project to help local communities to build their network communication. This paper tries to construct guidelines for future virtual design process and addresses the possibilities of extending the communication range to local communities and users.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:30

_id fb63
id fb63
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 1996
title An Outline of the Requirements for a Computer-Supported Collaborative Design System
source Open House International, vol 21, no 1, March 1996
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) systems have adequately satisfied several needs so far. They have dramatically improved the accuracy and consistency of working drawings, enabled designers to visualize their design ideas in three-dimensions, allowed the analysis of designs through data exchange and integrated databases, and even allowed the designers to evaluate (and in some cases generate) designs based on comparisons to previous cases and/or the formalization of grammars. Yet, there is a consensus that CAAD systems have not yet achieved their full potential. First, most systems employ a single-user approach to solving architectural problems which fails to grapple with the fact that most design work is done through teamwork. Second, current systems still can not support early design stages which involve client briefing, data collection, building program formulation, and schematic design generation. This paper seeks to study remedies to both of the afore-mentioned limitations through focusing on the fundamental dialectic and collaborative nature of what is called designing: a concerned social activity that proceeds by creating architectural elements to address a set of requirements and their re-thinking as a result of architectural conjecture. To investigate this relationship, it is proposed to build a computer-supported collaborative design environment using the tools of conceptual modeling, object-oriented algorithms, and distributed agents. Based on findings regarding the role of artifacts in collaborative design and a literature survey, this paper concludes with an outline of the requirements for the above system.
series journal paper
type normal paper
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2008/06/12 14:34

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