CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id c05e
authors Brown, Andy and Nahab, May
year 1996
title Human Interpretation of Computer Generated Architectural Images
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 61-70
summary The hardware and software used by architects to produce drawings and rendered images (static and dynamic) has advanced over the past decade to the point where it is now routine for architects to add rendered (and otherwise manipulated) images to the more routine 2D drawing as a product to convey the building to others. Although the 2D drawing (as plan section, elevation or detail) remains the fundamental and most prevalent kind of image being produced by architects, we regard it as timely to take stock of the effect of how we interpret the computer generated images that are being produced. We want to address the question of how humans, with a wide range of backgrounds and predispositions interpret such images. This paper takes previous studies which consider image interpretation and image generation by computer and begins to apply the techniques and jcndings to contemporary CAD image making.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 85d9
authors Plocke, Thomas
year 1996
title Post-Virtual mentality
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 189-196
summary The title comes from two different motives. At first it is a trial of excuse and introduces the subject of my exposure. The second reason is a way of improve dramatic accents from the beginning of my presentation. Computers are changing the world. Nobody can imagine a contemporary world without a useful help of them. We got used to the presence of computers in practically each area of existence. This presence is the first way in which computers are changing the world. The second way is less spectacular, but it completes the first one. It is an influence onto the human mentality and human way of thinking and working. This influence is often difficult to see and realize, but in my opinion is more interesting. Everybody knows that the computers are making the work of architects different. Is it a difference of quantity only or maybe also of quality? Which was the influence of computers onto an architectural space? Would it be different (better? worst?) if we were not used CAAD technology?
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/09 13:30

_id ddssup9611
id ddssup9611
authors Polidori, MaurIcio Couto
year 1996
title Built Form Impact Assessment Method of Description
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Continuous change in contemporary cities heve produced an urban space tipollogically diverse, particulary in fast growing South-American countries. As a result, the straight contextual analysis, usually used to assess the degree of innovation/permanence of new buildings in urban settings becomes ineffective, for the simple reason that frequently it is virtually impossible to establish what the context dominance actually is. The method proposed in this paper takes the issue of tipological analysis from a systems approach. This is carried out by a series of procedures, such as: a) identifying buildings'constitutive parts, which can be done at any degree of detail; b) listing them according to their attributes of repertory and formal composition. ;with this it is obtained a extensive catalogue of the entities taking part of the considered urban setting, from which the actual context can be depicted; c) listing each entity's participation in the landscape composition, or the role each one has in the landscape configuration. The software that operates the analysis does the rest, measuring the degree of innovation/permanence of each entity, in relation to the others, and defining what the context is made of.. From this, any inclusion/exclusion in the considered townscape is automatically evaluated in terms of impact on the pre-existing setting. The system can be used at any urban scale, as well as at the building scale.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 05c4
authors Sliwinski, Jacek
year 1996
title CAAD - To Teach, or not to Teach?
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 403-406
summary Usefulness of CAAD in architectural practice is not a matter to discuss. Probably it is very hard nowadays to find an architect practitioner who really believes, that CAAD isn't a useful tool in architectural office. Finding a job after finishing the studies at faculty of architecture isn't easy without knowledge of computer. For us as teachers it is a great challenge. We want our students to be as well as possible prepared for their work. So problem, how to put CAAD into amount of their knowledge is a very important point. However, computers are nowadays probably the fastest changing element of our reality. Differences between software and hardware used a few years ago and now are sometimes colossal. In spite of the fact, that in the field of using computers in design we are usually ahead of most architects practitioners, I think we are sentenced to be backward contemporary demands. Program of teaching CAAD prepared even with great care and accuracy is obsolete even when it starts. It is impossible to catch up with future. Which is a right place for CAAD in architectural education? Is it not true, that sometimes we try to teach CAAD by architecture instead of teaching architecture by CAAD? For many students CAAD is the most natural tool for design, a tool which has replaced pencil and a sheet of paper. Is it our success? I am not so sure. Limitations of CAAD systems are much bigger than pencil's one. Like every sophisticated tool it limits amount of possible solutions. CAAD should not be a fetish! I think maybe it is not such a stupid idea not to teach CAAD, but let our students find a right place for it like for any other useful tools?
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/17 13:44

_id sigradi2003_030
id sigradi2003_030
authors Valderrama, Ana
year 2003
title Matéricosweb (Matericosweb)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary In 1996, the Taller Galli precariously initiated the diffusion and communication of it academic production and researches as well as the artistic and creative thoughts in relationship to other subjects, placing us on a wider space for the cultural, urbanistic and architectural debate towards the community in general. That was how we decided to start this independent and self-managed editorial project. The Matéricos Periféricos web site ( emerged when the produced material had overdone the diffusion and debate frequency and expectation of the paper magazine. We construct a complementary space to the paper magazine that can spread faster, interactively and widely everything that is published on the paper magazine and other subjects that could not be published for monetary reasons or simply due to real time. Nowadays, Matéricos Periféricos is a net that is trying to install a debate on the contemporary Latin-American culture.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 09:02

_id af53
authors Boyer, E. and Mitgang, L.
year 1996
title Building community: a new future for architecture education and practice
source Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
summary Internships, before and after graduation, are the most essential link connecting students to the world of practice. Yet, by all accounts, internship is perhaps the most troubled phase of the continuing education of architects. During this century, as architectural knowledge grew more complex, the apprenticeship system withered away and schools assumed much of the responsibility for preparing architects for practice. However, schools cannot do the whole job. It is widely acknowledged that certain kinds of technical and practical knowledge are best learned in the workplace itself, under the guidance of experienced professionals. All state accrediting boards require a minimum period of internship-usually about three years-before a person is eligible to take the licensing exam. The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) allows students to earn up to two years of work credit prior to acquisition of an accredited degree. The Intern Development Program (IDP), launched by NCARB and the American Institute of Architects in 1979, provides the framework for internship in some forty states. The program was designed to assure that interns receive adequate mentoring, that experiences are well-documented, and that employers and interns allocate enough time to a range of educational and vocational experiences to prepare students for eventual licensure. As the IDP Guidelines state, "The shift from school to office is not a transition from theory to pragmatism. It is a period when theory merges with pragmatism.... It's a time when you: apply your formal education to the daily realities of architectural practice; acquire comprehensive experience in basic practice areas; explore specialized areas of practice; develop professional judgment; continue your formal education in architecture; and refine your career goals." Whatever its accomplishments, however, we found broad consensus that the Intern Development Program has not, by itself, solved the problems of internship. Though we found mutually satisfying internship programs at several of the firms we visited or heard about around the country, at many others interns told us they were not receiving the continuing education and experience they needed. The truth is that architecture has serious, unsolved problems compared with other fields when it comes to supplying on-the-job learning experiences to induct students into the profession on a massive scale. Medicine has teaching hospitals. Beginning teachers work in actual classrooms, supported by school taxes. Law offices are, for the most part, in a better financial position to support young lawyers and pay them living wages. The architecture profession, by contrast, must support a required system of internship prior to licensure in an industry that has neither the financial resources of law or medicine, the stability and public support of teaching, nor a network of locations like hospitals or schools where education and practice can be seamlessly connected. And many employers acknowledged those problems. "The profession has all but undermined the traditional relationship between the profession and the academy," said Neil Frankel, FAIA, executive vice president of Perkins & Will, a multinational firm with offices in New York, Chicago, Washington, and London. "Historically, until the advent of the computer, the profession said, 'Okay, go to school, then we in the profession will teach you what the real world is like.' With the coming of the computer, the profession needed a skill that students had, and has left behind the other responsibilities." One intern told us she had been stuck for months doing relatively menial tasks such as toilet elevations. Another intern at a medium-sized firm told us he had been working sixty to seventy hours per week for a year and a half. "Then my wife had a baby and I 'slacked off' to fifty hours. The partner called me in and I got called on the carpet for not working hard enough." "The whole process of internship is being outmoded by economics," one frustrated intern told us. "There's not the time or the money. There's no conception of people being groomed for careers. The younger staff are chosen for their value as productive workers." "We just don't have the best structure here to use an intern's abilities to their best," said a Mississippi architect. "The people who come out of school are really problems. I lost patience with one intern who was demanding that I switch him to another section so that he could learn what he needed for his IDP. I told him, 'It's not my job to teach you. You are here to produce.'" What steps might help students gain more satisfying work opportunities, both during and after graduation?
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4daf
authors Berdinsky, Dimitry V.
year 1996
title CAAD Creations in Moscow
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 27-30
summary In the history of architecture we saw changing ideas, styles and methods of designing. From the charcoal in an ancient man's hand, architectural tools transformed into contemporary pens, papers and copying machines. They made the creative architectural work more productive and informative. Today, in the last quarter of our century, evolution of the architectural design is influenced by brandnew intellectual tools and instruments. Invasion of those tools make new problems appear. All the people can be divided into two groups- the first group can be defined as mechanically or mathematically oriented one while the second group can be defined as art oriented one.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/09 13:30

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 465e
authors Burry, M.
year 1996
title The Generation and Degeneration of Form Using CAAD: Uncertain Certainty
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 71-90
summary Much contemporary architectural speculation is concerned with the exploration of 'free-form' composition, images located somewhere between the chimeric and the amorphous. While built manifestations are thin on the ground, the prevalence of 'formlessness' or 'inexactness' in competition entries and architecture schools may suggest a need for a critical response to develop at a similar rate as architectural software application. But how 'new' is the emergent free-form?
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 22fd
authors Chou, Wen Huey
year 1996
title An Empirical Study of 2d Static Computer Art: An Investigation of How Contemporary Computer Art is Affected by Media
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 81-89
summary We are in the act of forming the Technology & Electronics society: a society which cultural, psychological, social and economical facets take shape according to the development of technology and electronics, specially in the fields of computer and information. The influence of these mighty functions, produced by the bit, is prevalent in all the science and social courses; in fact, it has already invaded the artistic world. It did not take long after the birth of the computer for it to become the new tool for artistic production; it revolutionized the traditional production habits, production procedures, methods of expression and the work place in artistic creativity, thus bringing the tides of change in the artistic context and attitude towards the study of the Arts.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:00

_id eb51
authors Coyne, Richard
year 1996
title CAAD, Curriculum and Controversy
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 121-130
summary This paper brings some of the debate within educational theory to bear on CAAD teaching, outlining the contributions of conservatism, critical theory, radical hermeneutics and pragmatism. The paper concludes by recommending that CAAD teaching move away from conservative concepts of teaching, design and technology to integrate it into the studio. In a highly illuminating book on education theory, Shaun Gallagher (1991) outlines four current views on education that correspond to four major positions in contemporary social theory and philosophy. I will extend these categories to a consideration of attitudes to information technology, and the teaching of computing in architecture. These four positions are conservatism, critical theory, radical hermeneutics, and pragmatism. I will show how certain issues cluster around them, how each position provides the focus of various discursive practices, or intellectual conversations in contemporary thinking, and how information technology is caught up in those conversations. These four positions are not "cognitive styles," but vigorously argued domains of debate involving writers such as Gadamer, Habermas and Derrida about the theory of interpretation. The field of interpretation is known as hermeneutics, which is concerned less with epistemology and knowledge than with understanding. Interpretation theory applies to reading texts, interpreting the law, and appreciating art, but also to the application of any practical task, such as making art, drawing, defining and solving problems, and design (Coyne and Snodgrass, 1995). Hermeneutics provides a coherent focus for considering many contemporary issues and many domains of practice. I outline what these positions in education mean in terms of CAAD (computer-aided architectural design) in the curriculum.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/17 13:35

_id sigradi2018_1762
id sigradi2018_1762
authors de Albuquerque Montezi, Rafael; Tanoue Vizioli, Simone Helena
year 2018
title Digital morphogenesis and tectonics: an analysis of Peter Eisenman’s Aronoff Center
source SIGraDi 2018 [Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISSN: 2318-6968] Brazil, São Carlos 7 - 9 November 2018, pp. 359-366
summary The concept of architectural tectonics relates simultaneously to pragmatic and poetic aspects of the materiality, aiming the expression of these concerns in the result of the Form. Far from only a theoretical concerning, these design decisions affect how our society employs its natural and human resources. This work takes the Aronoff Center for Design and Arts (1988-1996), by Peter Eisenman, as a case study for a graphical analysis, dealing with the consequences of a free-form morphogenesis to its construction and investigating the tectonics of the contemporary architecture.
keywords Contemporary Architecture; Digital Project; Tectonics
series SIGraDi
last changed 2019/05/20 09:14

_id 6e6a
authors Gabova, Mariya
year 1996
title About Multivariant Designing of Buildings with a Flexible Planning Structure
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 95-97
summary During designing three-dimensional and spatial structure of the architectural object, computer program has a wide spectre of possibilities allowing to vary its parameters and create effective images for visual presentation. Besides the traditional ways of using the computer in order to perfect the architectural graphic ability during a compositional research, It is also very creative to develop new methods making the design process more effective in finding optimal solutions. The dynamics of social and economic relations in the contemporary society determined the flexibility and mobility of architectural object as a very important, especially for contemporary industrial architecture. The priority direction on this field is designing buildings with flexible planning spatial structure.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/09 13:30

_id sigradi2014_290
id sigradi2014_290
authors Molinas, Isabel Sabina
year 2014
title Contra la distinción: la libertad de las formas en la experiencia estética contemporánea [Against distinction: the freedom of the shapes in the contemporary esthetic experience]
source SiGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 446-449
summary In the field of Contemporary Esthetics is resumed the question of what is art and which are the readability conditions (reading). The questions relate to the displacement between representation and experimentation, beauty and esthetic experience, among others. In this context, we address the technology of poetry (Nancy (2012 [2013]) as technological exhibition that lets your experience the being of the object and become subjects. The corpus includes film and video (Kopystiansky 1996-97; Alys 2011 y Jaar 2013). The objective is to outline an analytical framework for thinking about the esthetic freedom of creation and the practical freedom of their recognition. (Wagner 2004).
keywords Art; Technology; Esthetics; Design; Freedom
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 2ca1
authors Montagu, A. and Bermudez, J.
year 1998
title Datarq: The Development of a Website of Modern Contemporary Architecture
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998
summary The pedagogic approach in the architectural field is suffering a deep change taking in consideration the impact that has been produced mainly by the CAD and multimedia procedures. An additional view to be taken in consideration is the challenge produced by the influence of advanced IT which since 1990-92, has affected positively the exchange of information among people of the academic environment. Several studies confirm this hypothesis, from the wide cultural spectrum when the digitalization process was emerging as an alternative way to data processing (Bateson 1976) to the pedagogical-computational side analyzed by (Papert 1996). One of the main characteristics indicated by S. Papert (op.cit) is the idea of "self teaching" which students are used everywhere due to the constant augment of "friendly" software and the decreasing costs of hardware. Another consequences to point out by S. Paper (op.cit) is that will be more probably that students at home will have more actualized equipment that most of the computer lab. of schools in general. Therefore, the main hypothesis of this paper is, "if we are able to combine usual tutorials design methods with the concept of "self-teaching" regarding the paradigmatic architectural models that are used in practically all the schools of architecture (Le Corbusier, F.L.Wright, M.v. der Rohe, M.Botta, T.Ando, etc.) using a Web site available to everybody, what we are doing is expanding the existing knowledge in the libraries and fulfill the future requirements of the newly generations of students".
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/25 17:23

_id 2fb2
authors Murison, Alison
year 1996
title Computer Based Learning for Architecture Students; A Methodology for Evaluating the Teaching and Learning
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 287-292
summary The paper describes a methodology applied to the production, and evaluation of a computer based teaching package. In producing multimedia materials for teaching or for presentation, too much emphasis is sometimes given to the beauty of the images while not enough thought is given to the structure of the material. Is the student or "viewer" led through all the most important information? Can the use of computer based learning improve the quality of the teaching and learning experience? These issues are addressed, using as an example the production and testing of a package designed to complement a course on History of Scottish Architecture intended for senior students and especially to emphasise the Scottish context for exchange students. The package describes Linlithgow Palace in Scotland, showing how the contemporary political links between the Scotland and Italy were influential in the development of Renaissance architecture in Scotland.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/17 13:52

_id 250a
authors Ojeda, Oscar R. and Guerra, Lucas H.
year 1996
title Hyper-Realistic, Computer Generated Architectural Renderings
source New York, NY: McGraw Hill
summary The Graphic Idea Resource series presents design in an affordable format. Each book in the series presents inspiring, contemporary, graphic design projects and focuses on a single area of design technique. With examples of finished work ranging from brochures to packaging to self-promotion, this series is a valuable resource for designers working in any specialty.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ae08
authors Plocke, Tomasz
year 1996
title Word and Picture in Education
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 365-370
summary Education is an authority, it is a power. The power of independence and freedom first for teachers and then for theirs students. Teachers are responsible for an intellectual formation of students, who will build the future world. The teachers decide will they become creative people or only a well instructed members of a society. We are used to treat the education as a process of discovering and extending, but it can either be a process of covering and distributing only a selected part of knowledge. In my text I am trying to present a "picture" and a "word" as symbols of two kinds of transferring information, two kinds of culture, and education. The division line goes between teaching instructions ("pictures") and teaching ideas ("words").I am undertaking that subject because of the fact, that our life is more and more dominated by consumption, subordination to technology, and overproduction of senseless information. People are loosing theirs individuality. Our civilisation becomes very superficial and "pictorial". I belong to the "books generation", probably it is the last generation for whom the books are so important. I am conscious of that, and that is why I am trying to emphasise the importance of a "word" for a contemporary world, and for education.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/17 13:59

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 1162
authors Malkawi, Ali and Jabi, Wassim
year 1996
title Integrating Shadow Casting Methodology and Thermal Simulation
source Proceedings of the Solar ‘96 Conference. Asheville, North Carolina: American Solar Energy Society, 1996, pp. 271-276
summary This paper describes an experiment that integrates shadow casting methodology and thermal simulation algorithms developed by the authors. The 3D shadow procedures use a polyhedral representation of solids within a Cartesian space that allows for accurate casting of shadows. The algorithm is also capable of calculating surface areas of polygonal shadows of any arbitrary shape and size. The thermal simulation algorithms – using the Transfer Function Method (TFM) – incorporate the shaded area calculations to better predict solar heat gain from glazing based on transmitted, absorbed, and conducted cooling loads. The paper describes the use of a 3D computer model to illustrate the impact of the pattern and area of shading on the visual and thermal properties of building apertures. The paper discusses the objectives of this experiment, the algorithms used, and their integration. Conclusions and findings are drawn.
keywords Shadow Casting Algorithms Energey Thermal Simulation
series other
last changed 2002/03/05 18:51

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