CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id d7eb
authors Bharwani, Seraj
year 1996
title The MIT Design Studio of the Future: Virtual Design Review Video Program
source Proceedings of ACM CSCW'96 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 1996 p.10
summary The MIT Design Studio of the Future is an interdisciplinary effort to focus on geographically distributed electronic design and work group collaboration issues. The physical elements of this virtual studio comprise networked computer and videoconferencing connections among electronic design studios at MIT in Civil and Environmental Engineering, Architecture and Planning, Mechanical Engineering, the Lab for Computer Science, and the Rapid Prototyping Lab, with WAN and other electronic connections to industry partners and sponsors to take advantage of non-local expertise and to introduce real design and construction and manufacturing problems into the equation. This prototype collaborative design network is known as StudioNet. The project is looking at aspects of the design process to determine how advanced technologies impact the process. The first experiment within the electronic studio setting was the "virtual design review", wherein jurors for the final design review were located in geographically distributed sites. The video captures the results of that project, as does a paper recently published in the journal Architectural Research Quarterly (Cambridge, UK; Vol. 1, No. 2; Dec. 1995).
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 0dfb
authors Bovill, C.
year 1996
title Fractal Geometry in Architecture and Design
source Design Science Collection, Harvard University, Boston
summary My intention in this book was to explain the essence of fractal geometry to the design community. Many of the fractals can be drawn by hand and fractal rhythms for use in design can be derived from musical scores. This approach was taken to make the material more approachable. Much of the literature on fractal geometry is hidden behind computer programs or complex mathematical notation systems.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 22fd
authors Chou, Wen Huey
year 1996
title An Empirical Study of 2d Static Computer Art: An Investigation of How Contemporary Computer Art is Affected by Media
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 81-89
summary We are in the act of forming the Technology & Electronics society: a society which cultural, psychological, social and economical facets take shape according to the development of technology and electronics, specially in the fields of computer and information. The influence of these mighty functions, produced by the bit, is prevalent in all the science and social courses; in fact, it has already invaded the artistic world. It did not take long after the birth of the computer for it to become the new tool for artistic production; it revolutionized the traditional production habits, production procedures, methods of expression and the work place in artistic creativity, thus bringing the tides of change in the artistic context and attitude towards the study of the Arts.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:00

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id ab45
authors Gu, Jingwen
year 1996
title Natural Results from Advances in Computer Techniques - CAAD Teaching in China Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 21-26
summary The computer science has been becoming one of the most rapidly developed science areas in the world since 1970s. Many new and powerful solutions to engineering and scientific problems are based on computers. Now the applications and teaching of computer techniques are quickly towards almost all of the fields including architecture and urban planning. Of course, the advances of application of computers in particular fields and teachings are very different for some reasons. CAAD is one of few fields in which the teaching states, teaching ways and level are obviously different from university to university and from one area or country to another. In this paper the history of CAD and CAAD applications in China is first briefly reviewed. Then the CAAD activities including teaching and research work at Tongji University are introduced, and the social, economical, functional, technical and physical factors that have effects on CAAD teaching are discussed. What is currently included in our CAAD program is also discussed. As the further advances in computer technology including both software and hardware, What CAAD will include and in what way CAAD will be taught and the CAAD collaborative research projects will be taken remotely are shown finally.
series CAADRIA
email uplab@mail.tongji.edu.cn
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id b6a7
authors Jensen, K.
year 1996
title Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts
source 2nd ed., Springer Verlag, Berlin
summary This book presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN). It shows how CP-nets have been developed - from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and/or computers communicate by means of some more or less formal rules). The book contains the formal definition of CP-nets and the mathematical theory behind their analysis methods. However, it has been the intention to write the book in such a way that it also becomes attractive to readers who are more interested in applications than the underlying mathematics. This means that a large part of the book is written in a style which is closer to an engineering textbook (or a users' manual) than it is to a typical textbook in theoretical computer science. The book consists of three separate volumes. The first volume defines the net model (i.e., hierarchical CP-nets) and the basic concepts (e.g., the different behavioural properties such as deadlocks, fairness and home markings). It gives a detailed presentation of many small examples and a brief overview of some industrial applications. It introduces the formal analysis methods. Finally, it contains a description of a set of CPN tools which support the practical use of CP-nets. Most of the material in this volume is application oriented. The purpose of the volume is to teach the reader how to construct CPN models and how to analyse these by means of simulation. The second volume contains a detailed presentation of the theory behind the formal analysis methods - in particular occurrence graphs with equivalence classes and place/transition invariants. It also describes how these analysis methods are supported by computer tools. Parts of this volume are rather theoretical while other parts are application oriented. The purpose of the volume is to teach the reader how to use the formal analysis methods. This will not necessarily require a deep understanding of the underlying mathematical theory (although such knowledge will of course be a help). The third volume contains a detailed description of a selection of industrial applications. The purpose is to document the most important ideas and experiences from the projects - in a way which is useful for readers who do not yet have personal experience with the construction and analysis of large CPN diagrams. Another purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of using CP-nets and the CPN tools for such projects. Together the three volumes present the theory behind CP-nets, the supporting CPN tools and some of the practical experiences with CP-nets and the tools. In our opinion it is extremely important that these three research areas have been developed simultaneously. The three areas influence each other and none of them could be adequately developed without the other two. As an example, we think it would have been totally impossible to develop the hierarchy concepts of CP-nets without simultaneously having a solid background in the theory of CP-nets, a good idea for a tool to support the hierarchy concepts, and a thorough knowledge of the typical application areas.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ab3c
authors Kramer, G.
year 1996
title Mapping a Single Data Stream to Multiple Auditory Variables: A Subjective Approach to Creating a Compelling Design
source Proceedings of the Third International Conferenceon Auditory Display, Santa FO Institute
summary Representing a single data variable changing in time via sonification, or using that data to control a sound in some way appears to be a simple problem but actually involves a significant degree of subjectivity. This paper is a response to my own focus on specific sonification tasks (Kramer 1990, 1993) (Fitch & Kramer, 1994), on broad theoretical concerns in auditory display (Kramer 1994a, 1994b, 1995), and on the representation of high-dimensional data sets (Kramer 1991a & Kramer & Ellison, 1991b). The design focus of this paper is partly a response to the others who, like myself, have primarily employed single fundamental acoustic variables such as pitch or loudness to represent single data streams. These simple representations have framed three challenges: Behavioral and Cognitive Science-Can sonifications created with complex sounds changing simultaneously in several dimensions facilitate the formation of a stronger internal auditory image, or audiation, than would be produced by simpler sonifications? Human Factors and Applications-Would such a stronger internal image of the data prove to be more useful from the standpoint of conveying information? Technology and Design-How might these richer displays be constructed? This final question serves as a starting point for this paper. After years of cautious sonification research I wanted to explore the creation of more interesting and compelling representations.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ca47
authors Lee, Shu Wan
year 1996
title A Cognitive Approach to Architectural Style Several Characteristics of Design Thinking in Architecture
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 223-226
summary Designing is a complicated human behaviour and method, and is often treated as a mysterious "black box” operation in human mind. In the early period as for theory-studying of design thinking, the way of thinking that the researchers took were mostly descriptive discussions. Therefore, they lacked direct and empirical evidence although those studies provided significant exploration of design thinking (Wang, 1995). In recent years as for the study of cognitive science, they have tried to make design "glass box”. That is to try to make the thinking processes embedded in designers publicized. That is also to externalize the design procedure which provided the design studies another theoretical basis of more accurate and deeply researched procedure (Jones, 1992). Hence the studying of design thinking has become more important and the method of designing has also progressed a lot. For example, the classification of the nature of design problem such as ill-defined and well-defined (Newell, Shaw, and Simon, 1967), and different theoretical procedure modes for different disciplines, such as viewing architectural models as conjecture-analysis models and viewing engineering models as analysis-synthesis (Cross, 1991).
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:14

_id b490
authors Mine, Mark
year 1996
title Working in a Virtual World: Interaction Techniques Used in the Chapel Hill Immersive Modeling Program
source Research report TR96-029, Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
summary This paper presents a description of the interaction techniques used in the Chapel Hill Immersive Modeling Program (CHIMP). CHIMP is intended for the preliminary stages of architectural design. It is an immersive system; users work directly within a virtual world. The main goal has been to develop interaction techniques that exploit the benefits of working immersed while compensating for its limitations. Interaction techniques described and discussed in this paper include: . Action at a distance . Look-at menus . Remote controls (hand-held widgets) . Constrained object manipulation using twohands . Two-handed control panel interaction . Worlds in miniature . Interactive numbers Keywords: Virtual reality, Virtual environments, Computeraided modeling, Geometric modeling, User interface design, Two-handed interaction, Two-handed interfaces, Interactive computer graphics. 1. Introduction 1.1. CHIMP Overview The UNC-Chapel Hill Immersive Modeling Program (or CHIMP for short) is a virtu...
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id acadia16_140
id acadia16_140
authors Nejur, Andrei; Steinfeld, Kyle
year 2016
title Ivy: Bringing a Weighted-Mesh Representations to Bear on Generative Architectural Design Applications
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 140-151
summary Mesh segmentation has become an important and well-researched topic in computational geometry in recent years (Agathos et al. 2008). As a result, a number of new approaches have been developed that have led to innovations in a diverse set of problems in computer graphics (CG) (Sharmir 2008). Specifically, a range of effective methods for the division of a mesh have recently been proposed, including by K-means (Shlafman et al. 2002), graph cuts (Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008; Katz and Tal 2003), hierarchical clustering (Garland et al. 2001; Gelfand and Guibas 2004; Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008), primitive fitting (Athene et al. 2004), random walks (Lai et al.), core extraction (Katz et al.) tubular multi-scale analysis (Mortara et al. 2004), spectral clustering (Liu and Zhang 2004), and critical point analysis (Lin et al. 20070, all of which depend upon a weighted graph representation, typically the dual of a given mesh (Sharmir 2008). While these approaches have been proven effective within the narrowly defined domains of application for which they have been developed (Chen 2009), they have not been brought to bear on wider classes of problems in fields outside of CG, specifically on problems relevant to generative architectural design. Given the widespread use of meshes and the utility of segmentation in GAD, by surveying the relevant and recently matured approaches to mesh segmentation in CG that share a common representation of the mesh dual, this paper identifies and takes steps to address a heretofore unrealized transfer of technology that would resolve a missed opportunity for both subject areas. Meshes are often employed by architectural designers for purposes that are distinct from and present a unique set of requirements in relation to similar applications that have enjoyed more focused study in computer science. This paper presents a survey of similar applications, including thin-sheet fabrication (Mitani and Suzuki 2004), rendering optimization (Garland et al. 2001), 3D mesh compression (Taubin et al. 1998), morphin (Shapira et al. 2008) and mesh simplification (Kalvin and Taylor 1996), and distinguish the requirements of these applications from those presented by GAD, including non-refinement in advance of the constraining of mesh geometry to planar-quad faces, and the ability to address a diversity of mesh features that may or may not be preserved. Following this survey of existing approaches and unmet needs, the authors assert that if a generalized framework for working with graph representations of meshes is developed, allowing for the interactive adjustment of edge weights, then the recent developments in mesh segmentation may be better brought to bear on GAD problems. This paper presents work toward the development of just such a framework, implemented as a plug-in for the visual programming environment Grasshopper.
keywords tool-building, design simulation, fabrication, computation, megalith
series ACADIA
type paper
email ksteinfe@berkeley.edu
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ddssar9627
id ddssar9627
authors Sariyildiz, S., Schwenck, M. and Jander, E.
year 1996
title Multimedia Teachware in the Field of Architectural Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Software systems for educational purposes have been developed and used in many application areas. In this paper we will describe a development in the field of building science. ClAD is a teachware system directed to be used in the education of students of architecture as well as a tool that gives a survey to architects and engineers in the practice. In the first place it provides information about the use of computer science technologies in the building design process. Furthermore, information about the architectural design process itself is included. Based on an analysis of general requirements and specific demands of the application field we describe our solution concept. Very important conclusions are that the system has to integrate the use of all media which are usually used by architects by offering a flexible and well-designed user interface and allowing a high degree of interactive work. After covering the development process as a combination of top down and bottom up strategies we describe the overall structure of ClAD as a modular system which can be extended and updated easily. Finally, we give an overview about some parts of the system to demonstrate the implementation of the concepts mentioned above.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e8ef
authors Soufi, B. and Edmonds, E.
year 1996
title The cognitive basis of emergence: implications for design support
source Design Studies, Vol. 17 No. 4, 451-463
summary Emergent shapes play a significant role in the creative design process. Designers frequently visualize emergent shapes and structure their understanding of the design and their reasoning about it in terms of emergent entities and relations. In design research, effort has concentrated on developing computational models capable of representing emergent shapes. Much less attention has been paid to the cognitive processes that give rise to emergence. In cognitive science, however, emergence has been the subject of empirical study. It is suggested that both the study of perception and that of mental imagery can contribute to understanding the cognitive psychological basis of emergence and the nature of emergent shapes that arise. Relevant cognitive science research findings are reviewed in this paper. Based on these findings two main classes of emergence processes are developed. Their implications for the development of user-interactive computational models of emergent shapes are then discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a899
authors Stuart, Rory
year 1996
title The design of virtual environments
source McGraw-Hill, New York
summary Virtual reality (VR) is a highly interdisciplinary field involving computer science; perceptual psychology; human factors engineering; signal processing; and electrical, mechanical, and optical engineering. This unique book brings together vital information from all of these fields, providing both the theoretical and practical knowledge required to design VR systems capable of solving real-world problems. A serious treatment fo VR written specifically for engineers, researchers, and designers in industry and the military, this advanced-level handbook is up to date in every respect. Author and VR expert Rory Stuart describes each stage of the VR design process in detail, explaining a rigorous methodology for the planning, design, and testing of VR systems.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 5876
authors Tapia, Mark Andrew
year 1996
title From shape to style. Shape grammars: Issues in representation and computation, presentation and selection
source University of Toronto
summary Shape grammars provide a graphical mechanism for generating a variety of shapes. A shape grammar is a production system for specifying recursive graphical computations for shapes (finite arrangements of finite lines of non-zero length). The dissertation considers design as a plan in art and confines itself to abstract designs composed of lines of uniform color and thickness. The dissertation develops an implementation of shape grammars in which the drawing is the computation. Restricting itself to non-parametric shape grammars, the dissertation approaches the area as two related topics: computation and representation delineate the internal aspects of the problem; presentation and selection are crucial to the user interface. The dissertation applies shape grammars to design, promoting three claims: First, that this dissertation advances the field of shape grammars, by combining approaches in the humanities with those in science, articulating the issues and providing a solid foundation for future work. Second, supporting quality design depends on enumerating the alternatives and pruning the design space using the visual aspects of design. Third, the generative aspect of design is not as important as its presentation and selection.
series thesis:PhD
email matapia@mit.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 0ef8
authors Völker, H., Sariyildiz, S., Schwenck, M. and Durmisevic, S.
year 1996
title THE NEXT GENERATION OF ARCHITECTURE WITHIN COMPUTER SCIENCES
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Considering architecture as a mixture of exact sciences and the art, we can state that as in all other sciences, every technical invention and development has resulted in advantages and disadvantages for the well-being and prosperity of mankind. Think about the developments in the fields of nuclear energy or space travel. Besides bringing a lot of improvements in many fields, it also has danger for the well-being of a mankind. The development of the advanced computer techniques has also influence on architecture, which is inevitable. How did the computer science influence architecture till now, and what is going to be the future of the architecture with this ongoing of computer science developments? The future developments will be both in the field of conceptual design (form aspect) and also in the area of materialization of the design process.

These all are dealing with the material world, for which the tools of computer science are highly appropriate. But what will happen to the immaterial world? How can we put these immaterial values into a computers model? Or can the computer be creative as a human being? Early developments of computer science in the field of architecture involved two-dimensional applications, and subsequently the significance of the third dimension became manifest. Nowadays, however, people are already speaking of a fourth dimension, interpreting it as time or as dynamics. And what, for instance, would a fifth, sixth or X-dimension represent?

In the future we will perhaps speak of the fifth dimension, comprising the tangible qualities of the building materials around us. And one day a sixth dimension might be created, when it will be possible to establish direct communication with computers, because direct exchange between the computer and the human brain has been realised. The ideas of designers can then be processed by the computer directly, and we will no longer be hampered by obstacles such as screen and keyboard. There are scientist who are working to realize bio-chips. If it will work, perhaps we can realise all these speculations. It is nearly sure that the emergence of new technologies will also affect our subject area, architecture and this will create fresh challenges, fresh concepts, and new buildings in the 21st century. The responsibility of the architects must be, to bear in mind that we are dealing with the well-being and the prosperity of mankind.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email i.s.sariyildiz@dutkitm.bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:43

_id acd7
authors Yueh, Shing
year 1996
title Architecture Design as Two Searches - Knowledge of Spatial Organization and Knowledge of Shape in Design Process
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 217-221
summary In the theory of design research, design thinking has gradually become an important direction for the research. In early research of design thinking, due to the insufficiency of academic research in human thinking, we have been unable to make further research in the field of design thinking. However, with the remarkable development of a variety of subjects: such as management science, cognitive psychology as well as artificial intelligence and others, researchers engaged in design thinking have more clear methodologies and solid background to conduct research studies of design thinking process.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:13

_id a9ca
authors Abadi Abbo, Isaac
year 1996
title EFFECTIVENESS OF MODELS
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Architects use many types of models to simulate space either in their design process or as final specifications for building them. These models have been proved useful or effective for specific purposes. This paper evaluates architectural models in terms of five effectiveness components: time of development, cost, complexity, variables simulated and ecological validity. This series of models, used regularly in architecture, are analysed to finally produce a matrix that shows the effectiveness of the different models for specific purposes in architectural design, research and education. Special emphasis is given to three specific models: 1/10 scale, full-scale and computer generated.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2016/02/17 12:47

_id ascaad2004_paper11
id ascaad2004_paper11
authors Abdelfattah, Hesham Khairy and Ali A. Raouf
year 2004
title No More Fear or Doubt: Electronic Architecture in Architectural Education
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary Operating electronic and Internet worked tools for Architectural education is an important, and merely a prerequisite step toward creating powerful tele-collabortion and tele-research in our Architectural studios. The design studio, as physical place and pedagogical method, is the core of architectural education. The Carnegie Endowment report on architectural education, published in 1996, identified a comparably central role for studios in schools today. Advances in CAD and visualization, combined with technologies to communicate images, data, and “live” action, now enable virtual dimensions of studio experience. Students no longer need to gather at the same time and place to tackle the same design problem. Critics can comment over the network or by e-mail, and distinguished jurors can make virtual visits without being in the same room as the pin-up—if there is a pin-up (or a room). Virtual design studios (VDS) have the potential to support collaboration over competition, diversify student experiences, and redistribute the intellectual resources of architectural education across geographic and socioeconomic divisions. The challenge is to predict whether VDS will isolate students from a sense of place and materiality, or if it will provide future architects the tools to reconcile communication environments and physical space.
series ASCAAD
email hkhairy@archcairo.org
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id ddssar9601
id ddssar9601
authors Achten, H.H., Bax, M.F.Th. and Oxman, R.M.
year 1996
title Generic Representations and the Generic Grid: Knowledge Interface, Organisation and Support of the (early) Design Process
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Computer Aided Design requires the implementation of architectural issues in order to support the architectural design process. These issues consist of elements, knowledge structures, and design processes that are typical for architectural design. The paper introduces two concepts that aim to define and model some of such architectural issues: building types and design processes. The first concept, the Generic grid, will be shown to structure the description of designs, provide a form-based hierarchical decomposition of design elements, and to provide conditions to accommodate concurrent design processes. The second concept, the Generic representation, models generic and typological knowledge of building types through the use of graphic representations with specific knowledge contents. The paper discusses both concepts and will show the potential of implementing Generic representations on the basis of the Generic grid in CAAD systems.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

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