CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 846c
authors Achten, Henri
year 1996
title Generic Representations: Intermediate Structures in Computer Aided Architectural Composition.
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 9-24
summary The paper discusses research work on typological and generic knowledge in architectural design. Architectural composition occurs predominantly through drawings as a medium. Throughout the process, architects apply knowledge. The paper discusses the question how to accommodate this process in computers bearing in mind the medium of drawings and the application of knowledge. It introduces generic representations as one particular approach and discusses its implications by the concept of intermediate structures. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the presented ideas.
keywords
series other
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id ddssar9601
id ddssar9601
authors Achten, H.H., Bax, M.F.Th. and Oxman, R.M.
year 1996
title Generic Representations and the Generic Grid: Knowledge Interface, Organisation and Support of the (early) Design Process
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Computer Aided Design requires the implementation of architectural issues in order to support the architectural design process. These issues consist of elements, knowledge structures, and design processes that are typical for architectural design. The paper introduces two concepts that aim to define and model some of such architectural issues: building types and design processes. The first concept, the Generic grid, will be shown to structure the description of designs, provide a form-based hierarchical decomposition of design elements, and to provide conditions to accommodate concurrent design processes. The second concept, the Generic representation, models generic and typological knowledge of building types through the use of graphic representations with specific knowledge contents. The paper discusses both concepts and will show the potential of implementing Generic representations on the basis of the Generic grid in CAAD systems.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id diss_fox
id diss_fox
authors Fox, M.A.
year 1996
title Novel Affordances of Computation to the Design Process of Kinetic Structures
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA
summary This paper is a discourse into the relationship between the process, computational tools and the role which symbolic structure can play in both. I argue the relationship of the process and tools is dialectic, whereby the tools we utilize in design develop new heuristics, the methodologies in turn, if reflectively understood, can be more aptly facilitated through the development of novel tools. The tools and the process then evolve together. A theory is laid out exploring the human visual information processing systems pertinence to the limitations in mental three-dimensional imaging and transformation operations as relevant to the operations of drawing and mental visualization within the architectural design processes, substantiating the designers necessity to draw (by traditional means, but more importantly here, through the inclusive integration of CAD within the process). The necessity to draw is explored as a representational process to the visual system as predicated upon the existence of a structured internal library of diagram-like representations in our heads. I argue that the ways we utilize such idiosyncratic libraries is predicated upon the ways in which we go about structuring the perceived experienced world around us into symbol systems. And finally, the ways we utilize our reflective understanding of the heuristic transformations of these symbols within the design process in the context of a CAD environment are explored as a means to an enhanced understanding of that which is being designed and consequently as a vehicle for the development of future CAD systems to better facilitate such methodologies of designing. A personal design process of several kinetic structures is carried out in order to arrive at a localized process analysis within computer-aided design environment. Through an interactive, reflective process analysis, conclusions are drawn as to the affordances and limitations of such tools as suggestive of the operations a CAD environment might perform so as to better foster future methodologies of designing. The design experiments are utilized as a vehicle to understand the process. Specifically three kinetic projects are exploited for the prototypical operations they display. When difficulties or mental limitations are encountered with the operations, specific tools are developed to facilitate the limitation or to overcome the problem.
series thesis:MSc
more http://www.mafox.net/sm_thesis/Thesis11.pdf
last changed 2003/11/28 06:35

_id acadia16_140
id acadia16_140
authors Nejur, Andrei; Steinfeld, Kyle
year 2016
title Ivy: Bringing a Weighted-Mesh Representations to Bear on Generative Architectural Design Applications
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 140-151
summary Mesh segmentation has become an important and well-researched topic in computational geometry in recent years (Agathos et al. 2008). As a result, a number of new approaches have been developed that have led to innovations in a diverse set of problems in computer graphics (CG) (Sharmir 2008). Specifically, a range of effective methods for the division of a mesh have recently been proposed, including by K-means (Shlafman et al. 2002), graph cuts (Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008; Katz and Tal 2003), hierarchical clustering (Garland et al. 2001; Gelfand and Guibas 2004; Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008), primitive fitting (Athene et al. 2004), random walks (Lai et al.), core extraction (Katz et al.) tubular multi-scale analysis (Mortara et al. 2004), spectral clustering (Liu and Zhang 2004), and critical point analysis (Lin et al. 20070, all of which depend upon a weighted graph representation, typically the dual of a given mesh (Sharmir 2008). While these approaches have been proven effective within the narrowly defined domains of application for which they have been developed (Chen 2009), they have not been brought to bear on wider classes of problems in fields outside of CG, specifically on problems relevant to generative architectural design. Given the widespread use of meshes and the utility of segmentation in GAD, by surveying the relevant and recently matured approaches to mesh segmentation in CG that share a common representation of the mesh dual, this paper identifies and takes steps to address a heretofore unrealized transfer of technology that would resolve a missed opportunity for both subject areas. Meshes are often employed by architectural designers for purposes that are distinct from and present a unique set of requirements in relation to similar applications that have enjoyed more focused study in computer science. This paper presents a survey of similar applications, including thin-sheet fabrication (Mitani and Suzuki 2004), rendering optimization (Garland et al. 2001), 3D mesh compression (Taubin et al. 1998), morphin (Shapira et al. 2008) and mesh simplification (Kalvin and Taylor 1996), and distinguish the requirements of these applications from those presented by GAD, including non-refinement in advance of the constraining of mesh geometry to planar-quad faces, and the ability to address a diversity of mesh features that may or may not be preserved. Following this survey of existing approaches and unmet needs, the authors assert that if a generalized framework for working with graph representations of meshes is developed, allowing for the interactive adjustment of edge weights, then the recent developments in mesh segmentation may be better brought to bear on GAD problems. This paper presents work toward the development of just such a framework, implemented as a plug-in for the visual programming environment Grasshopper.
keywords tool-building, design simulation, fabrication, computation, megalith
series ACADIA
type paper
email ksteinfe@berkeley.edu
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id 89ca
authors Garcia, Renato
year 1996
title Sound Structure: Using Data Sonification to Enhance Building Structures CAI
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 109-117
summary Although sound is now extensively used to enrich multimedia applications in the form of simple audio signals, earcons, musical passages and speech, it has unfortunately been under-utilized as a means of data representation. Sound, having many characteristics which enable it to convey multi-dimensional information, provides a broad channel for dynamically presenting data in a learning environment. This paper looks into how teaching concepts of building structures to students of architecture and engineering through computers and multimedia can be enhanced by enlisting the use of appropriate sound parameters. Sound is useful in presenting redundant or supplementary information such as in portraying building structural response to static and dynamic external loading. This process of audiolization, which refers to the use of sounds to present data, can alleviate much of the cognitive load that usually burdens visual displays and has been used to some degree of success in various studies on scientific representation. Where appropriate, audiolization can be synchronized to more established visualization processes to provide more effective multi-modal multimedia systems for the study of building structures.
series CAADRIA
email rjgarcia@hkusua.hku.hk
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id 8832
authors MacCallum, C. and Hanna, R.
year 1996
title DEFLECT: A Computer Aided Learning Package For Teaching Structural Design
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 253-262
summary The teaching of structures and its integration with design teaching has been seen as one of the major problems in design education in schools of architecture world-wide. A number of suggestions have been put forward to improve the quality of teaching in structures in architecture. These include the production of computer based learning materials, and the use of the computer as a ‘substitute’ tutor.

This paper reports on a SHEFC funded project jointly carried out by the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Paisley, the Mackintosh School of Architecture, and Lamp Software. The project aims to build a computer-assisted learning package on the response of structures to load. The software will be used as an interactive teaching tool for both architectural and engineering students.

The package has three levels: Beginners (Level 1), Intermediate (Level 2) and Advanced (Level 3). The first two levels have been completed after continuous feedback from both institutions. Level 1 is geared towards architectural and engineering students to help them understand structural behaviour of building components, such as deflection. Level 2 is a graphical editor that enables students to draw precisely the structure of their designs, investigate the deflection of structural members and identify areas of tension and compression. Level 3 is a design tool aimed at architectural and civil engineering students where they can design and analyse realistic structures by choosing structural members from a library, and specify materials and multiple loads.

Prior to its final release, the software package was appraised by students from both institutions. Analysis of results from questionnaires revealed that students expressed a great deal of 'satisfaction' with many of its teaching and learning attributes. The outcome of this project will promote and enhance students’ understanding of the response of structures to load; it will also help students grasp the impact of varying building materials and cross sectional properties on the structural form.

series eCAADe
email gtca09@udcf.gla.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/17 13:48

_id 8b8d
authors Martens, B., Voigt, A. and Linzer, H.
year 1996
title Information Technologies within Academic Context: Remote Teamwork – A Challenge for the Future
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 227-232
summary "Remote Teamwork”, i.e. the substance-related cooperation of people over spatial distances in decision-situations relies on "CIVIC” (Computer-Integrated Video-Conferencing-audio-visual communication at spatial distances integrating interactively digital, spatial computer models) and "CISP” (Computer-Integrated Spatial Planning) aiming at the elaboration of suited remote-working structures of research, project transactions and teaching preferably on the basis of "ATM” (a technology of broad band telecommunications). The generation and manipulation of digital spatial models and their virtual transportation within large spatial distances represent the main research objectives. The efficient use of teaching resources calls for the integration of new teaching possibilities within the framework of "Remote Teamwork”, e.g. Distributed and Shared Modelling, Distant Learning and Remote Teaching. The Faculty of Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning therefore is stressing information technologies within academic context. The following contribution is dedicated to the focal field of research and teaching "Remote Teamwork” of the Vienna University of Technology. This project is carried out in cooperation with the Institute of Spatial Interaction and Simulation (IRIS-ISIS), Vienna and the Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC Linz-Hagenberg). Teaching experience relevant for "Remote Teamwork” is derived from various experiments of cooperative teamwork.
series CAADRIA
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2002/09/04 13:43

_id 88a2
authors Zhang, Lei
year 1996
title The Design of a Test Program for Basic Design
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 253-267
summary Within the whole range of methods available in the teaching of design with computer the "Exercise" made, seems to be one of the most productive. Not only the student but also the teacher is involved in a step by step process of search, discovery and development. The continuous and controlled building of complexity in architecture design are the underlying issues. The student models in desecrate steps, exploring, testing, discovering and thus build a "repertoire" which combines knowledge skills, experience, attitudes as well as methodology. Symbiotically related the teacher prepares the exercise, one might call the process applied design research. Since based upon research, the teacher structures the learning process defining the what and why by indirect means. Leaving the how to the student's initiative and inventiveness. The design of the design or the design of the learning process poses one of the real challenges to the teacher. In the case of chains of exercise the interactiveness of the student and teacher are of specific interest, since feedback loops add to the process. The following test program is directly related to this line of thinking. In it a "teacher" is asked to develop a simple chain of exercises based on a given "theoretical model". Thus building his own experience in basic design. In this test run the student is introduced to the concept of continuous space as well as the notion of architecture form as the interaction between space, site and structure a course. It could be seen as a basic model since we could have much more complex resolutions if we change the given elements and limitations.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/04/01 17:57

_id 8d52
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander and Jakimowicz, Adam (Eds.)
year 1996
title Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition
source ISBN 83-905377-1-0, 1996, 234 p.
summary We have a pleasure to present a book of texts related to computer use in the field of architectural composition, showing its various aspects. As the field of composition is very wide - the papers represent also a wide spectrum of interests and approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition: from formal experiments, based either on mathematics or intuition, through educational and design methods, examples from architectural practice, computer based analytical systems to a new (and revolutionary) evolutionary model of design. We are sure that this publication occurs useful and interesting to all involved in Computer Aided Architectural Design, especially that it consists of papers of outstanding scientists in the field of CAD and design as well as articles of young researchers.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 6c97
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1996
title Using the Computer in Analysis of Architectural Form
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 25-34
summary One of the most important aspects of the designing process is: the design activity is usually conducted with incomplete information. Another important aspect of designing activity is: designing activity is usually based on past experience. As a matter of fact looking at designers in the early conceptual phases, one thing that appears clear is, instead starting from scratch, they spend a part of their time thinking about existing designing experience, reviewing the literature, and so on. That is why explicit representation of designing knowledge is needed if computers are to be used as the aid of design education and practice. Composition knowledge data base will be helpful during an architectural form analysis process as well. It makes possible to provide answers and explanations as well as allowing to view tutorials illustrating the particular problem. On its basic level such a program will present analysis of architectural objects and abstract forms based on subjective criteria. On its upper level allowing further exploration of various architectural composition attributes, as well as their influence on emotional- aesthetic judgements being formed during the process of analysis the architectural form.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 62c0
authors Barrallo, Javier and Iglesias, Alberto
year 1996
title Cybersculpture
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 35-43
summary From the first artistic expressions of mankind, the Mathematics has influence the shapes and proportions presents in the different artistic disciplines. The coming of Abstract art and modern Mathematics at the beginning of the century supposed a complete renovation of the way of understand the relationship between Mathematics and Art, reinforced by the huge expansion of computers nowadays. Chaos Theory or Fractal Geometry constitute examples of this tendencies, that normally are expressed in the two dimensional plane. The idea of this work consists on the utilisation of a series of elements from the contemporaneous Mathematics to express them in an artistic way in the three dimensional space. The result is a family of objects that we have called CYBERSCULPTURES, due to their sculptural character and the fact that they have Internet as their virtual museum.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id a0d3
authors Breen, Jack and Stellingwerff, Martijn
year 1996
title A Case For Computer Assisted Creativity Through Clarity - Project 12 CAD and Beyond ...
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 45-60
summary A paper exploring the opportunities of different Design Media for the benefit of Architectural and Urban Composition. It is argued that during the design process, the designer develops Models for a projected end result, which are visualised in the form of Images using traditional media. The Computer affords the possibility of creating (virtual) Models from which Images can be taken. Current types of Computer Interfaces still form an obstacle for creative computer assisted design, comparable to Sketching. It is argued that the Clarity of the medium will need to be enhanced, if it is to become an Instrument for truly creative design. Using the example of an educational, practical CAD exercise, the case for Clarity for the benefit of creative Computing is put forward.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 4931
authors Breen, Jack
year 1996
title Learning from the (In)Visible City
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 65-78
summary This paper focuses on results and findings of an educational project, in which the participating students had to develop a design strategy for an urban plan by using and combining endoscopic and computational design visualisation techniques. This educational experiment attempted to create a link between the Media research programme titled 'Dynamic Perspective' and an educational exercise in design composition. It was conceived as a pilot study, aimed at the investigation of emerging applications and possible combinations of different imaging techniques which might be of benefit in architectural and urban design education and potentially for the (future) design practice. The aim of this study was also to explore the relationship between spatial perception and design simulation. The point of departure for the student exercise was an urban masterplan which the Dynamic Perspective research team prepared for the workshop 'the (in)visible city' as part of the 1995 European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference in Vienna, Austria. The students taking part in the exercise were asked to develop, discuss and evaluate proposals for a given part of this masterplan by creating images through different model configurations using optical and computer aided visualisation techniques besides more traditional design media.The results of this project indicate that an active and combined use of visualisation media at a design level, may facilitate communication and lead to a greater understanding of design choices, thus creating insights and contributing to design decision-making both for the designers and for the other participants in the design process.
series eCAADe
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/Media/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 465e
authors Burry, M.
year 1996
title The Generation and Degeneration of Form Using CAAD: Uncertain Certainty
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 71-90
summary Much contemporary architectural speculation is concerned with the exploration of 'free-form' composition, images located somewhere between the chimeric and the amorphous. While built manifestations are thin on the ground, the prevalence of 'formlessness' or 'inexactness' in competition entries and architecture schools may suggest a need for a critical response to develop at a similar rate as architectural software application. But how 'new' is the emergent free-form?
keywords
series other
email mburry@arch.vuw.ac.nz
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id c2ab
authors Chiu, Mao Lin
year 1996
title Prototypes, Variation and Composition: A Formal Design Approach in Urban Housing Design with Computer Assistance
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 287-298
summary This paper outlines a formal design approach for teaching 3D modeling in computer-aided architecture design studios, and various design principles are used in the process, particularly the generalization, variation and composition. The teaching agenda includes: (1) a formal design approach of housing design, (2) design collaboration, and (3) computer-aided architectural design. // The research agenda includes: (1) incorporation of the formal design approach with the urban infill theory, and (2) development of a computation design method. // The studio project is demonstrated to highlight the implementation of the approach.

keywords Computer-aided Design, Prototypes, Housing Design, Formal Design Method
series CAADRIA
email mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id ebd6
authors Dobson, Adrian
year 1996
title Teaching Architectural Composition Through the Medium of Virtual Reality Modelling
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 91-102
summary This paper describes an experimental teaching programme to enable architectural students in the early years of their undergraduate study to explore their understanding of the principles of architectural composition, by the creation and experience of architectural form and space in simple virtual reality environments. Principles of architectural composition, based upon the ordering and organisation of typological architectural elements according to established rules of composition, are introduced to the students, through the study of recognised works of architectural design theory. Virtual reality modelling is then used as a tool by the students for the testing and exploration of these theoretical concepts. Compositional exercises involving the creation and manipulation of a family of architectural elements to create form and space within a three dimensional virtual reality environment are carried out using Superscape VRT, a PC based virtual reality modelling system. The project seeks to bring intuitive and immersive computer based design techniques directly into the context of design theory teaching and studio practice, at an early stage in the architectural education process.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 2709
authors Jakimowicz, Adam
year 1996
title Creation Versus Simulation Synthesis Versus Analysis
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 119-132
summary The paper presents the work in progress: formal experiments in computer modelling, accenting a certain shift approaching the computer - creation, not just modelling (simulating). Two main approaches to architectural computing are formulated: creative and simulative, where computer creation involves and enables quick formal synthesis, and where simulation requires analysis. The attention is paid on creation. This paper as well as the research project on abstract modelling is sponsored from the Polish Committee of Scientific Research.
keywords
series other
email jakima@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 8de0
authors Kokosalakis, Jen
year 1996
title THE CAAC 3D Model as the Focus, or Vehicle for Effective Participation with the Design's Client, Observer or User
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 133-152
summary Architectural composition is central to most education and training of architects. Hence, though not every architect's role in practice deals directly with architectural composition, all will have a greater likelihood of ability to visualise and understand others' visual concepts than the average client. This text is concerned with the involvement of the client in composition of the building design. The medium of the three dimensional model, manoeuvrable at the computer screen or in Virtual Reality resembles well the intended physical reality of the designed building that the client will either own, use, occupy, or observe and so can assist tremendously. It is suggested that through this empowering vehicle of the CAAC model, far more informed response and tangible, visible vocabulary is accessible to the client to assist dialogue. This text proposes that practice can indicate better participation as a more evident principle. CAAC enables dynamic influences on the architectural composition of the building as accountable, truly potential dialogue towards design outcome from the construction team. The case rests with current exploratory cases of dynamic, participatory architectural composition activity, as a sign for the future.
keywords
series other
email J.Kokosalakis@livjm.ac.uk
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 4dcf
authors Kostogarova, Eugenia P.
year 1996
title CAAD Education at the Moscow Architectural Institute
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 159-162
summary Nowadays, teaching of computer aided design at Marchi seems to be subdivided into two relatively independent spheres- direct teaching.of the use of machine graphic systems and videotechniques as well as scientific and methodological work. Experimental work and the way of teaching of computer aided design determinate the specific character of architectural institute. This specific character consists in comprehensive designing (taking into consideration all related disciplines) as well as in a wide range of architectural topics with a special attention paid to the development of creative thinking and fantasy regarding the requirements of composition and laws of visual perception.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/09 13:30

_id 8006
authors Martens, B., Voigt, A. and Linzer, H.
year 1996
title Remote Teamwork CISP-CIVIC
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 153-161
summary The following contribution is dedicated to the focal field of research "Remote Teamwork" of the Vienna University of Technology in cooperation with the Institute of Spatial Interaction and Simulation (IRIS- ISIS), Vienna and the Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC Linz-Hagenberg).
series other
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at, voigt@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at, linzer@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/
last changed 2001/02/11 19:09

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