CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 121 to 140 of 484

_id 88f4
authors Fu, S., Bao, H. and Peng, Q.
year 1996
title An Accelerated Rendering Algorithm for Stereoscopic Display
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 53-61
summary With the development of the scientific visualization and the virtual environment techniques, stereo viewing systems have not been used extensively. In this paper, we present an accelerated rendering algorithm for stereoscopic display. As the difference between the left view and the right view is slight, we generate the right view by a transformation of the left view conforming to the stereo disparity. The problem of visibility change of a few polygons during the transformation is discussed and an efficient algorithm is developed for filling the holes that may arise in the right view after the transformation. This method makes fully use of the coherence between the left view and the right view. Experiments prove its efficiency.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 13:56

_id 68e3
authors Fuchs, Wladek and Martinico, Anthony
year 1996
title THE V.C.NET - A DIGITAL STUDY IN ARCHITECTURE
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 23-29
summary The "V.C.net" project is an Internet-based educational and communication tool for the architectural community. Its goal is to encourage students from architecture programs across the country and around the world to examine problems and collaborate in the exploration of ideas through the World Wide Web. The central concept of the project involves the creation of a simulated, vital urban environment constructed from various forms of digital data. This "virtual city" will be comprised of projects executed by students of architecture and urban design in the U.S. and abroad. Projects will be proposed for specific sites and will reflect real-world questions as they are minored in the virtual world. The city exists as a heuristic tool and is not intended as a copy of any existing human habitat. The ultimate goal of the project is to create a dynamic platform to study the interrelationship of various forces effecting urban development: architecture, planning, civil engineering, economics, social sciences etc. The project originates at the School of Architecture of the University of Detroit Mercy and is intended to be truly interdisciplinary.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2006/03/15 17:40

_id ee14
authors Fukai, Dennis
year 1996
title A World of Data: An Animated Construction Information System as a Virtual Hypergraphic Environment
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 267-274
summary This paper describes research on an animated construction information system organized as a hypergraphic virtual environment. The user enters this environment to interact with the information it contains. A matrix of cubes sits as the gateway to an array of data chambers that give this information its virtual form. A mouse click on one of these cubes leads to a three-dimensional interface that is a simulation of the object to be constructed. Reflective-transparent panels surround the simulation and display two-dimensional projections of its pieces. These panels capture projections of slices through the pieces of the object represented by the simulation. Below the zero plane are slices of floor framing, foundation, excavation, utilities, and soil conditions. Above are ceilings, framing, and roofing. To the sides are finishes, wall framing, fixtures, and elevations. This immersive virtual environment extends as an array of data chambers partitioned by the suspended reflective-transparent panels. Pathways around these partitions lead to secondary chambers that contain sub-simulations of the plumbing, electrical, and HVAC systems. Design-team members access these chambers to coordinate the document's development, review progress, and make changes to the information system. The result is a WORLD of data where graphic information defines both space and time. This breaks with the notion of a construction document as an object-of-exchange and suggests a new focus for the use of computers in the design and construction process.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 16:06

_id 3386
authors Gavin, L., Keuppers, S., Mottram, C. and Penn, A.
year 2001
title Awareness Space in Distributed Social Networks
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 615-628
summary In the real work environment we are constantly aware of the presence and activity of others. We know when people are away from their desks, whether they are doing concentrated work, or whether they are available for interaction. We use this peripheral awareness of others to guide our interactions and social behaviour. However, when teams of workers are spatially separated we lose 'awareness' information and this severely inhibits interaction and information flow. The Theatre of Work (TOWER) aims to develop a virtual space to help create a sense of social awareness and presence to support distributed working. Presence, status and activity of other people are made visible in the theatre of work and allow one to build peripheral awareness of the current activity patterns of those who we do not share space with in reality. TOWER is developing a construction set to augment the workplace with synchronous as well as asynchronous awareness. Current, synchronous activity patterns and statuses are played out in a 3D virtual space through the use of symbolic acting. The environment itself however is automatically constructed on the basis of the organisation's information resources and is in effect an information space. Location of the symbolic actor in the environment can therefore represent the focus of that person's current activity. The environment itself evolves to reflect historic patterns of information use and exchange, and becomes an asynchronous representation of the past history of the organisation. A module that records specific episodes from the synchronous event cycle as a Docudrama forms an asynchronous information resource to give a history of team work and decision taking. The TOWER environment is displayed using a number of screen based and ambient display devices. Current status and activity events are supplied to the system using a range of sensors both in the real environment and in the information systems. The methodology has been established as a two-stage process. The 3D spatial environment will be automatically constructed or generated from some aspect of the pre-existing organisational structure or its information resources or usage patterns. The methodology must be extended to provide means for that structure to grow and evolve in the light of patterns of actual user behaviour in the TOWER space. We have developed a generative algorithm that uses a cell aggregation process to transcribe the information space into a 3d space. In stage 2 that space was analysed using space syntax methods (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier 1996) to allow the properties of permeability and intelligibility to be measured, and then these fed back into the generative algorithm. Finally, these same measures have been used to evaluate the spatialised behaviour that users of the TOWER space show, and will used to feed this back into the evolution of the space. The stage of transcription from information structure to 3d space through a generative algorithm is critical since it is this stage that allows neighbourhood relations to be created that are not present in the original information structure. It is these relations that could be expected to help increase social density.
keywords Algorithmic Form Generation, Distributed Workgroups, Space Syntax
series CAAD Futures
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id a322
authors Gavin, Lesley
year 1996
title Practice and On -Line Learning
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 163-170
summary In response to the growing need for the provision of continuing education for architects in practice, the Open University has been examining the possibilities of offering postgraduate courses in the Built Environment. The Open University is a unique institution within the UK, in that all of its 150,000 students are taught through supported open learning. The production of teaching material for distance learning on this scale has involved the exploration of various teaching and learning methods. The OU has had over 25 years experience of distance learning as such and although many of its current teaching methods lend themselves admirably to the development of computer based distance learning, there is still ample opportunity to exploit new technologies in teaching methods. Recent developments within the field of multimedia, video conferencing etc. lend themselves admirably to visually orientated subjects such as architecture. Over the last year the programme of development into the Built Environment has involved the production of 3 pilot modules in the areas of Conservation, Sustainability in Architecture & Planning, and in Construction Technology. These modules are currently being developed for production on CD-ROM, but with a long term view that they may be offered on-line.

This paper will discuss how computer technology can be utilised in continuing education beyond schools of architecture and into a practice based environment.

series eCAADe
email ucftleg@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/17 13:40

_id ddss2008-02
id ddss2008-02
authors Gonçalves Barros, Ana Paula Borba; Valério Augusto Soares de Medeiros, Paulo Cesar Marques da Silva and Frederico de Holanda
year 2008
title Road hierarchy and speed limits in Brasília/Brazil
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper aims at exploring the theory of the Social Logic of Space or Space Syntax as a strategy to define parameters of road hierarchy and, if this use is found possible, to establish maximum speeds allowed in the transportation system of Brasília, the capital city of Brazil. Space Syntax – a theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) – incorporates the space topological relationships, considering the city shape and its influence in the distribution of movements within the space. The theory’s axiality method – used in this study – analyses the accessibility to the street network relationships, by means of the system’s integration, one of its explicative variables in terms of copresence, or potential co-existence between the through-passing movements of people and vehicles (Hillier, 1996). One of the most used concepts of Space Syntax in the integration, which represents the potential flow generation in the road axes and is the focus of this paper. It is believed there is a strong correlation between urban space-form configuration and the way flows and movements are distributed in the city, considering nodes articulations and the topological location of segments and streets in the grid (Holanda, 2002; Medeiros, 2006). For urban transportation studies, traffic-related problems are often investigated and simulated by assignment models – well-established in traffic studies. Space Syntax, on the other hand, is a tool with few applications in transport (Barros, 2006; Barros et al, 2007), an area where configurational models are considered to present inconsistencies when used in transportation (cf. Cybis et al, 1996). Although this is true in some cases, it should not be generalized. Therefore, in order to simulate and evaluate Space Syntax for the traffic approach, the city of Brasília was used as a case study. The reason for the choice was the fact the capital of Brazil is a masterpiece of modern urban design and presents a unique urban layout based on an axial grid system considering several express and arterial long roads, each one with 3 to 6 lanes,
keywords Space syntax, road hierarchy
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id ddssup9607
id ddssup9607
authors Gordon, T., Karacapilidis, N., Voss, H. and Zauke, A.
year 1996
title Computer-Mediated Cooperative Spatial Planning
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Decision making on spatial planning problems has to integrate recent advancements on geographical information systems with a framework that supports fair, rational and efficient decision making procedures. Such a framework will assist government and businesses with the retrieval, use and reuse of information in cooperative, distributed planning procedures requiring access to spatial data. This paper gives an overview of a computer-mediated group decision support system for the World Wide Web, namely ZENO. The target is to provide intelligent assistance to human mediators and other kinds cf "trusted third parties" during the above procedures. The role of the system is to remain neutral and help assure that the interests and goals of all members of a group, regardless of their status, are respected and appreciated. In this paper, the system's features are illustrated with a retrospective model of a real urban planning example, concerning the allocation of a new technology park in the area of the city of Bonn, where more than eighty communities, local and federal authorities, and other organizations have been requested to submit their suggestions, objections and comments on a spatial planning problem.
series DDSS
email gordon@gmd.de
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ab45
authors Gu, Jingwen
year 1996
title Natural Results from Advances in Computer Techniques - CAAD Teaching in China Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 21-26
summary The computer science has been becoming one of the most rapidly developed science areas in the world since 1970s. Many new and powerful solutions to engineering and scientific problems are based on computers. Now the applications and teaching of computer techniques are quickly towards almost all of the fields including architecture and urban planning. Of course, the advances of application of computers in particular fields and teachings are very different for some reasons. CAAD is one of few fields in which the teaching states, teaching ways and level are obviously different from university to university and from one area or country to another. In this paper the history of CAD and CAAD applications in China is first briefly reviewed. Then the CAAD activities including teaching and research work at Tongji University are introduced, and the social, economical, functional, technical and physical factors that have effects on CAAD teaching are discussed. What is currently included in our CAAD program is also discussed. As the further advances in computer technology including both software and hardware, What CAAD will include and in what way CAAD will be taught and the CAAD collaborative research projects will be taken remotely are shown finally.
series CAADRIA
email uplab@mail.tongji.edu.cn
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id ddssup9608
id ddssup9608
authors Gupta, M.K., Groves M. and Moran, J.D.
year 1996
title An EMIC approach to design: Methodology for creating supportive environments for young children
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The responsibility of the designer is to understand the unique perspective of the users, in order to create functional and efficient environments. The task of creating supportive environments often becomes more difficult when there is discrepancy between the perspective of the designer and that of the user, which is the case when designing spaces for children. The interaction of children with their environment has been identified as the basis of their development Most of the previous research has focused on the perspectives that adults have of spaces for children (etic), rather than an understanding of the child's view as the primary user of the playspace (emic). Children's perceptions are influenced by their physical and cognitive perspectives thus posing a unique challenge for designers. The objective of this study was to learn about the perception and perspective of four-and five-year-olds of their favorite playspaces. The children needed to identify their favorite spaces and also be able to verbalize the activities and meanings associated with these spaces. To avoid adult bias at the onset, the idea of utilizing a Polaroid Captiva camera was formulated, facilitating an extremely short latency period between the child taking the pictures and the opportunity to talk about their favorite playspace. The process was extremely successful, and provides first hand insight into children's perception of their built environment Photographs taken by the young children include many spaces not designed for play. The emerging themes are a source of invaluable information for designers and planners for making informed design decisions and for creating supportive environments.
series DDSS
email mgupta@utk.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 665a
authors Haas, C.
year 1996
title Evolution of an automated crack sealer: a study in construction technology development
source Automation in Construction 4 (4) (1996) pp. 293-305
summary Demographic, regulatory and competitive forces impose increasing pressures on the construction industry. Automated pavement crack sealing is a typical example of the technology developments that are emerging in response to these industry pressures. Development of automated construction technology such as the crack sealer involves several issues including the design cycle, economic feasibility analysis, financing, and implementation. An examination of these issues, using the development of the crack sealer as a case study, leads to the conclusion that revolutionary construction technology developments are feasible and that in the United States (US) they will be financed and carried out in the form of a variety of industry, government, and academic consortia.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id a022
authors Hirschberg, U. and Streilein, A.
year 1996
title CAAD meets digital photogrammetry: modelling _weak forms_ for computer measurement
source Automation in Construction 5 (3) (1996) pp. 171-183
summary The integration of state-of-the-art photogrammetric methods with the capabilities of CAAD has great potential for a variety of architectural applications. This paper describes the current status of an ongoing research project which aims to develop an easy to use tool for the photogrammetric generation of accurate, reliable and well structured 3D CAAD models of architectural objects. The project adresses the whole range of issues that arise from the digital image acquisition to the data processing, the data integration between photogrammetry and CAAD and the architectural structuring of the geometric data. While also giving a brief overview of the project, the paper concentrates on one central aspect of the system: a method to model what we will define as 'weak forms' as the basis for qualitatively controlled computer measurement.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 8a8f
authors Hou, June Hao
year 1996
title Exploration of Extending the Communication Range in the Virtual Design Process
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 299-305
summary Computer Support for Collaborative Works (CSCW) and recently investigated Virtual Design Studio (VDS) are reviewed. By involving into two design projects and examining the virtual design process, several technical and procedural problems are notified and discussed. A community reconstruction was proceeded in the second project to help local communities to build their network communication. This paper tries to construct guidelines for future virtual design process and addresses the possibilities of extending the communication range to local communities and users.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:30

_id 9951
authors Johnson, R.E. and Clayton, M.J.
year 1998
title The impact of information technology in design and construction: the owner's perspective
source Automation in Construction 8 (1) (1998) pp. 3-14
summary This paper reports on findings of a November 1996 exploratory survey of architecture–engineering clients (Fortune 500 corporate facility managers). This research investigated how the practices of corporate facility managers are being influenced by rapid changes in information technology. The conceptual model that served as a guide for this research hypothesized that information technology acts as both an enabler (that is, information technology provides an effective mechanism for managers to implement desired changes), as well as a source of innovation (that is, new information technology innovations create new facility management opportunities). The underlying assumption of this research is that information technology is evolving from a tool that incrementally improves `back-office' productivity to an essential component of strategic positioning that may alter the basic economics, organizational structure and operational practices of facility management organizations and their interactions with service providers (architects, engineers, and constructors). The paper concludes with a discussion of researchable issues.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id e373
authors Johnson, Robert E. and Clayton, Mark
year 1997
title The Impact of Information Technology in Design and Construction: The Owner's Perspective
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 229-241
summary This paper reports on findings of a November 1996 exploratory survey of architecture-engineering clients (Fortune 500 corporate facility managers). This research investigated how the practices of corporate facility managers are being influenced by rapid changes in information technology. The conceptual model that served as a guide for this research hypothesized that information technology acts as both an enabler (that is, information technology provides an effective mechanism for managers to implement desired changes) as well as a source of innovation (that is, new information technology innovations create new facility management opportunities). The underlying assumption of this research is that information technology is evolving from a tool that incrementally improves "back-office" productivity to an essential component of strategic positioning that may alter the basic economics, organizational structure and operational practices of facility management organizations and their interactions with service providers (architects, engineers and constructors). The paper concludes with a discussion of researchable issues.
series ACADIA
email rejohnson@tamu.edu, mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 1998/12/31 12:45

_id e902
authors Kadysz, A.
year 1996
title Alternative Space for Creation
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 137-145
summary What is a computer in the hands of an architect? What it can develop into? This paper is an attempt at determining the main limitations and possibilities of the digital-circuit engineering with regard to the creation of three-dimensional forms. All the limitations seem to have a common reason, namely the user's lack of self-awareness. It is user who decides whether the instrument is just a secondary carrier of information about the designed object or whether it serves as a medium for the creation of three-dimensional designs, an environment for the incubation and presentation of the very idea. The reader will find here some remarks on creation in virtual space as a separate phenomenon of creating forms which are no longer restricted by reality. It presents a global computer network on the threshold of the era of three-dimensional virtual space with unlimited creation possibilities.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/09 13:30

_id caadria2005_b_6a_b
id caadria2005_b_6a_b
authors Kai-Tzu Lu, Teng-Wen Chang
year 2005
title Experience Montage in the Virtual Space
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 426-435
summary According to three experimental virtual spaces above, the key factor for experience montage is identified—3D collage. General speaking, the theory of montage describes the connection of space and time. Time is a phenomenon of connection of points. Within 3D virtual space, the influence of Experience Montage generated in the experiments above is examined through the Exploration model (representation + rules + memory + policy = search exploration) proposed by Woodbury in 1996. Through browsing and reading, the originally intact virtual space is dissected into pieces and corners. By duplicated, dismantled and reorganized over this dissected space, a new personalized virtual space is then modeled. As a continuation of previous analysis, latter stages of the study use the Exploration model to explain anew the connection among the representation, rules, memory, and policy of Experience Montage.
series CAADRIA
email tzu@arch.nctu.edu.tw, tengwen@yuntech.edu.tw
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id cf2017_567
id cf2017_567
authors Kim, Ikhwan; Lee, Injung; Lee, Ji-Hyun
year 2017
title The Expansion of Virtual Landscape in Digital Games: Classification of Virtual Landscapes Through Five principles
source Gülen Çagdas, Mine Özkar, Leman F. Gül and Ethem Gürer (Eds.) Future Trajectories of Computation in Design [17th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2017, Proceedings / ISBN 978-975-561-482-3] Istanbul, Turkey, July 12-14, 2017, pp. 567-584.
summary This research established classification system which contains five principles and variables to classify the types of the virtual landscape in digital games. The principles of the classification are Story, Space Shape, Space and Action Dimension, User Complexity and Interaction Level. With this classification system, our research group found the most representative types of virtual landscape in the digital game market through 1996 to 2016. Although mathematically there can be 288 types of virtual landscape, only 68 types have been used in the game market in recent twenty years. Among the 68 types, we defined 3 types of virtual landscape as the most representative types based on the growth curve and a number of cases. Those three representative types of virtual landscapes are Generating / Face / 3D-3D / Single / Partial, Providing / Chain / 3D-3D / Single / Partial and Providing / Linear / 2D-2D / Single / Partial. With the result, the researchers will be able to establish the virtual landscape design framework for the future research.
keywords Digital Game, Virtual Landscape, Game Design, Game Classification
series CAAD Futures
email iikimiss@kaist.ac.kr, edndn@kaist.ac.kr, jihyunl87@kaist.ac.kr
last changed 2017/12/01 13:38

_id c4ae
id c4ae
authors Knapp, Robert W. and McCall, Raymond
year 1996
title PHIDIAS II - In Support of Collaborative Design
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 147-154
summary The World Wide Web in combination with Java and Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) create great opportunities for collaboration by distributed design teams. To take advantage of these opportunities, we have begun to create a version of the PHIDIAS hyperCAD system (McCall, Bennett and Johnson 1994) that will support communication and collaboration among designers over the Word Wide Web. PHIDIAS is an intelligent, hypermedia-based system for computer-aided design. Our strategy is to divide PHIDIAS into two parts: 1) a client-side user interface and 2) a server-side hyperCAD database engine. The client-side interface is being implemented using Java and VRML. Implementing the PHIDIAS front-end with Java enables program code distribution via the World Wide Web. VRML provides PHIDIAS with client-side computation and display of 3D graphics.
series ACADIA
last changed 2004/03/18 08:35

_id 8de0
authors Kokosalakis, Jen
year 1996
title THE CAAC 3D Model as the Focus, or Vehicle for Effective Participation with the Design's Client, Observer or User
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 133-152
summary Architectural composition is central to most education and training of architects. Hence, though not every architect's role in practice deals directly with architectural composition, all will have a greater likelihood of ability to visualise and understand others' visual concepts than the average client. This text is concerned with the involvement of the client in composition of the building design. The medium of the three dimensional model, manoeuvrable at the computer screen or in Virtual Reality resembles well the intended physical reality of the designed building that the client will either own, use, occupy, or observe and so can assist tremendously. It is suggested that through this empowering vehicle of the CAAC model, far more informed response and tangible, visible vocabulary is accessible to the client to assist dialogue. This text proposes that practice can indicate better participation as a more evident principle. CAAC enables dynamic influences on the architectural composition of the building as accountable, truly potential dialogue towards design outcome from the construction team. The case rests with current exploratory cases of dynamic, participatory architectural composition activity, as a sign for the future.
keywords
series other
email J.Kokosalakis@livjm.ac.uk
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 6153
authors Korbel, Wojciech
year 1996
title The Present and Future, Development of CAD Exploration in the Office of City’s Architect
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 147-157
summary The usage of computer as a standard tool for an architect became obvious in the past few years. Late 90's along with their rapid development of technology, followed by the growing amount of computer hardware on the market /constantly better and cheaper at the same time/ caused the big changes in the possibilities of project's presentation. The lack of necessary memory to perform proper calculations for high quality rendered images no longer exists. The question raised most commonly by all leading computer software producers concerns the amount of time in which those calculations can be carried out. The race continues while once again, the price of already existing hardware drops rapidly. All these facts make computer more accessible for a potential user such as an architect. Additionally CAD programmers try to make programs as friendly as possible, reducing constantly the amount of time required to learn the program, at least at its bases. As the result, in the next few years, computer may become a standard, at least in some ways of project's presentation. Once again we may face the problem, when the everyday life goes far beyond the expectations. The question appears, how can all kinds of architectural authorities be prepared for constant changes in this field.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/09 13:30

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