CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 484

_id 5e49
authors Deering, Michael F.
year 1996
title HoloSketch: A Virtual Reality Sketching/Animation Tool Special Issue on Virtual Reality Software and Technology
source Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 1995 v.2 n.3 pp. 220-238
summary This article describes HoloSketch, a virtual reality-based 3D geometry creation and manipulation tool. HoloSketch is aimed at providing nonprogrammers with an easy-to-use 3D "What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get" environment. Using head-tracked stereo shutter glasses and a desktop CRT display configuration, virtual objects can be created with a 3D wand manipulator directly in front of the user, at very high accuracy and much more rapidly than with traditional 3D drawing systems. HoloSketch also supports simple animation and audio control for virtual objects. This article describes the functions of the HoloSketch system, as well as our experience so far with more-general issues of head-tracked stereo 3D user interface design.
keywords Computer Graphics; Picture/Image Generation; Display Algorithms; Computer Graphics; Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism; Human Factors; 3D Animation; 3D Graphics; Graphics Drawing Systems; Graphics Painting Systems; Man-Machine Interface; Virtual Reality
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id ebd6
authors Dobson, Adrian
year 1996
title Teaching Architectural Composition Through the Medium of Virtual Reality Modelling
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 91-102
summary This paper describes an experimental teaching programme to enable architectural students in the early years of their undergraduate study to explore their understanding of the principles of architectural composition, by the creation and experience of architectural form and space in simple virtual reality environments. Principles of architectural composition, based upon the ordering and organisation of typological architectural elements according to established rules of composition, are introduced to the students, through the study of recognised works of architectural design theory. Virtual reality modelling is then used as a tool by the students for the testing and exploration of these theoretical concepts. Compositional exercises involving the creation and manipulation of a family of architectural elements to create form and space within a three dimensional virtual reality environment are carried out using Superscape VRT, a PC based virtual reality modelling system. The project seeks to bring intuitive and immersive computer based design techniques directly into the context of design theory teaching and studio practice, at an early stage in the architectural education process.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 3905
authors Duffy, T.M. and Cunningham, D.J.
year 1996
title Constructivism: Implications for the design and delivery of instruction
source D.H. Jonassen, (Ed) Handbook of research for educational communications and technology, N.Y; Macmillan Library reference USA
summary This will be a seminar that examines Constructivist theory as it applies to our thinking about instruction. Many folks think of constructivism as a method of instruction -- it is not. It is a framework for thinking about learning or what it means to come to know. As such, it is a framework for understanding (interpreting) any learning environment as well as a framework for designing instruction. The seminar will be organized around weekly readings. We will examine the alternative constructivist theories, e.g., socio-cultural constructivism and cognitive constructivism, and the pragmatism of Richard Rorty. However, rather than focusing on the differences between these frameworks, our emphasis will be on the implications of the broader, common framework for the design of instruction. Hence we will spend most of the semester discussing strategies for designing and delivering instruction, e.g., the work of Bransford, Collins, Pea, Jonassen, Spiro, Fosnot, Senge, and Schank. We will consider both business and schooling environments for learning -- there is significant work in both domains. There will be particular emphasis of the use of technology in instruction. We will look at the communication, information, and context providing roles of technology as contrasted to the traditional approach of using technology to deliver instruction (to teach). We will also pay particular attention to problem based learning as one instructional model. In PBL there is particular emphasis on the role of the facilitator as a learning coach (process orientation) as opposed to a content provider. There is also a particular emphasis on supporting the development of abductive reasoning skills so that the learner develops the ability to be an effective problem solver in the content domain. The major paper/project for the course will be the design of instruction to train individuals to be learning coaches in a problem based learning or goal based scenario learning environment. That is, how do you support teachers in adapting the role of learning coach (which, of course, requires us to understand what it means to be a learning coach). Design teams will be formed with the teams all working on this same design problem. A comprehensive prototype of the learning environment is required as well as a paper provide the theoretical framework and rationale for the design strategy. While not required, I would expect that computer technology will play a significant role in the design of your learning environment. With that in mind, let me note that it is not required that the prototype be delivered on the computer, i.e., I am not requiring programming skills but rather design skills and so "storyboards" is all that is required.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 819d
authors Eiteljorg, H.
year 1988
title Computing Assisted Drafting and Design: new technologies for old problems
source Center for the study of architecture, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
summary In past issues of the Newsletter, George Tressel and I have written about virtual reality and renderings. We have each discussed particular problems with the technology, and both of us mentioned how compelling computer visualizations can be. In my article ("Virtual Reality and Rendering," February, 1995, Vol. 7, no. 4), I indicated my concerns about the quality of the scholarship and the level of detail used in making renderings or virtual worlds. Mr. Tressel (in "Visualizing the Ancient World," November, 1996, Vol. IX, no. 3) wrote about the need to distinguish between real and hypothetical parts of a visualization, the need to differentiate materials, and the difficulties involved in creating the visualizations (some of which were included in the Newsletter in black-and-white and on the Web in color). I am returning to this topic now, in part because the quality of the images available to us is improving so fast and in part because it seems now that neither Mr. Tressel nor I treated all the issues raised by the use of high-quality visualizations. The quality may be illustrated by new images of the older propylon that were created by Mr. Tressel (Figs. 1 - 3); these images are significantly more realistic than the earlier ones, but they do not represent the ultimate in quality, since they were created on a personal computer.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ec0e
authors Engeli, M. and Kurmann, D.
year 1996
title A Virtual Reality Design Environment with Intelligent Objects and Autonomous Agents
source H.J.P. Timmermans (ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Conference, Vol. 1: Architecture Proceedings, pp. 132-142
summary New technological achievements and research results allow for the creation of innovative design tools for architects, that do not originate from paper-based paradigms but instead make optimised use of the present technology and programming concepts. The core of our system is comprised of an intuitive interactive modelling tool. It runs in a virtual reality set-up, where the user can use 3D glasses to experience rooms and 3D input devices to model in three dimensions. The interface is free from widget-like buttons or menus, so that the user is undisturbed when moving into the virtual world of the design. The system can also run in a distributed fashion, so that a number of users can look at and modify the same design. The 3D model can be generated in a sketch-like fashion using solids and voids, void modelling turns out to be very valuable for architectural design. The objects in this system can contain forms of intelligence to produce such behaviour as: falling because of gravity, collision avoidance, and autonomous motion. Interactive behaviour can also be assigned to the objects. Autonomous Agents are added to the system to enhance the designer support. These are agents that enhance the virtual environment, agents that take over tasks, and agents that help to test the design. The system shows new interface and interaction approaches that support the architectural design process intelligently.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddssar9609
id ddssar9609
authors Engeli, Maia and Kurmann, David
year 1996
title A Virtual Reality Design Environment with Intelligent Objects and Autonomous Agents
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary New technological achievements and research results allow for the creation of innovative design tools for architects, that do not originate from paper-based paradigms but instead make optimised use of the present technology and programming concepts. The core of our system is comprised of an intuitive interactive modelling tool. It runs in a virtual reality set-up, where the user can use 3D glasses to expe-rience rooms and 31) input devices to model in three dimensions. The interface is free from widget-like buttons or menus, so that the user is undisturbed when moving into the virtual world of the design. The system can also run in a distributed fashion, so that a number of users can look at and modify the same design. The 31) model can be generated in a sketch-like fashion using solids and voids, void modelling turns out to be very valuable for architectural design. The objects in this system can contain forms of intelligence to produce such behaviour as: falling because of gravity, collision avoidance, and autonomous motion. Interactive behaviour can also be assigned to the objects. Autonomous Agents are added to the system to enhance the designer support. These are agents that enhance the virtual environment, agents that take over tasks, and agents that help to test the design. The system shows new interface and interaction approaches that support the architectural design process intelligently.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ga0024
id ga0024
authors Ferrara, Paolo and Foglia, Gabriele
year 2000
title TEAnO or the computer assisted generation of manufactured aesthetic goods seen as a constrained flux of technological unconsciousness
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary TEAnO (Telematica, Elettronica, Analisi nell'Opificio) was born in Florence, in 1991, at the age of 8, being the direct consequence of years of attempts by a group of computer science professionals to use the digital computers technology to find a sustainable match among creation, generation (or re-creation) and recreation, the three basic keywords underlying the concept of “Littérature potentielle” deployed by Oulipo in France and Oplepo in Italy (see “La Littérature potentielle (Créations Re-créations Récréations) published in France by Gallimard in 1973). During the last decade, TEAnO has been involving in the generation of “artistic goods” in aesthetic domains such as literature, music, theatre and painting. In all those artefacts in the computer plays a twofold role: it is often a tool to generate the good (e.g. an editor to compose palindrome sonnets of to generate antonymic music) and, sometimes it is the medium that makes the fruition of the good possible (e.g. the generator of passages of definition literature). In that sense such artefacts can actually be considered as “manufactured” goods. A great part of such creation and re-creation work has been based upon a rather small number of generation constraints borrowed from Oulipo, deeply stressed by the use of the digital computer massive combinatory power: S+n, edge extraction, phonetic manipulation, re-writing of well known masterpieces, random generation of plots, etc. Regardless this apparently simple underlying generation mechanisms, the systematic use of computer based tools, as weel the analysis of the produced results, has been the way to highlight two findings which can significantly affect the practice of computer based generation of aesthetic goods: ? the deep structure of an aesthetic work persists even through the more “desctructive” manipulations, (such as the antonymic transformation of the melody and lyrics of a music work) and become evident as a sort of profound, earliest and distinctive constraint; ? the intensive flux of computer generated “raw” material seems to confirm and to bring to our attention the existence of what Walter Benjamin indicated as the different way in which the nature talk to a camera and to our eye, and Franco Vaccari called “technological unconsciousness”. Essential references R. Campagnoli, Y. Hersant, “Oulipo La letteratura potenziale (Creazioni Ri-creazioni Ricreazioni)”, 1985 R. Campagnoli “Oupiliana”, 1995 TEAnO, “Quaderno n. 2 Antologia di letteratura potenziale”, 1996 W. Benjiamin, “Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reprodizierbarkeit”, 1936 F. Vaccari, “Fotografia e inconscio tecnologico”, 1994
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id b04c
authors Goerger, S., Darken, R., Boyd, M., Gagnon, T., Liles, S., Sullivan, J. and Lawson, J.
year 1996
title Spatial Knowledge Acquisition from Maps and Virtual Environments in Complex Architectural Space
source Proc. 16 th Applied Behavioral Sciences Symposium, 22-23 April, U.S. Airforce Academy, Colorado Springs, CO., 1996, 6-10
summary It has often been suggested that due to its inherent spatial nature, a virtual environment (VE) might be a powerful tool for spatial knowledge acquisition of a real environment, as opposed to the use of maps or some other two-dimensional, symbolic medium. While interesting from a psychological point of view, a study of the use of a VE in lieu of a map seems nonsensical from a practical point of view. Why would the use of a VE preclude the use of a map? The more interesting investigation would be of the value added of the VE when used with a map. If the VE could be shown to substantially improve navigation performance, then there might be a case for its use as a training tool. If not, then we have to assume that maps continue to be the best spatial knowledge acquisition tool available. An experiment was conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School to determine if the use of an interactive, three-dimensional virtual environment would enhance spatial knowledge acquisition of a complex architectural space when used in conjunction with floor plan diagrams. There has been significant interest in this research area of late. Witmer, Bailey, and Knerr (1995) showed that a VE was useful in acquiring route knowledge of a complex building. Route knowledge is defined as the procedural knowledge required to successfully traverse paths between distant locations (Golledge, 1991). Configurational (or survey) knowledge is the highest level of spatial knowledge and represents a map-like internal encoding of the environment (Thorndyke, 1980). The Witmer study could not confirm if configurational knowledge was being acquired. Also, no comparison was made to a map-only condition, which we felt is the most obvious alternative. Comparisons were made only to a real world condition and a symbolic condition where the route is presented verbally.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 6598
authors Goldman, Glenn
year 1996
title Reconstructions, Remakes and Sequels: Architecture and Motion Pictures
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 11-21
summary Motion pictures can illustrate worlds that have never been. They may show fantastic depictions of the future or an interpretation of the past. In either case, they have the power to reach millions of people across cultures, generations, and educational backgrounds with visions of our environment that do not exist in our everyday world.

The study of imaginary worlds in this design studio case study is limited to motion pictures that postulate unique, or new environments rather than those films that faithfully attempt to document or reconstruct reality. In this sense, the movies used for study have a lineage traceable to Georges Melies "who came to film from illusionism and the "heater," rather than to the reality of the Lumiere brothers who came from photography which ultimately would lead to "cinema-verite."

Discussions, assignments and presentations in the studio are organized to provide students with an opportunity to gain a different awareness of architecture and use varying stimuli as source material for design. The study of architectural history, art, formal principles of design, visual perception, and media are required in order to complete the reconstructions and creations of proposed environments.

All student work throughout the entire semester is created with electronic media and the computer is used as an integral component of the studio enabling analysis and study, design, model creation, and animation. The available capabilities of computer graphics in the studio enables students to explore analytic and synthetic issues of design in motion pictures in a manner not readily available when restricted to traditional media. Through the use of digital media we have an opportunity to better understand the imaginary worlds for what they communicate and the ideas they contain, and therefore create an opportunity to modify our own concept of architecture.

series ACADIA
email goldman@njit.edu
last changed 2003/04/17 13:47

_id 6e0f
authors Goldstein, Laurence
year 1996
title Teaching Creativity with Computers
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 307-316
summary Using computers as an aid to architectural design promotes efficiency – of that there is no doubt – but its real merit must surely lie in provoking inventiveness. The medium makes possible the speedy creation and manipulation of images, a holistic, integrational approach to design, the exploration of virtual environments, the real time collaboration in design by individuals at remote sites and so on – these all fall under my heading of ‘efficiency’, since more or less the same ends can be achieved, albeit much more slowly and tediously, by traditional methods. But inventiveness, that’s something different. For comparison, think of the advent of reinforced concrete. In the early years, the new medium was used, roughly speaking, as a substitute for timber beams; but the genius of Le Corbusier was required to appreciate that concrete had fluid qualities which afforded completely different kinds of design opportunities. Can computers likewise revolutionise design? Will new kinds of building get constructed as a result of the advent of computers into the design arena?
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:31

_id ddssar9614
id ddssar9614
authors Halman, J.I.M.and Prins, M.
year 1996
title Virtual Reality in Architectural Design Management
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary In this paper new forms of network-based organizations are discussed in general and within the building industry in particular. Special attention is given to cross functional network teams. New emerging building design and construction functions within these network teams are explained. Network-based organizations in the building industry are considered to be virtual organizations "avant la lettre". The shift to these types of organizations in the building industry can strongly be supported by developments in information technology. A new IT-concept, the extranet is introduced and explained in the paper.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id bd19
authors Harrison, Steve and Dourish, Paul
year 1996
title Re-Place-ing Space: The Roles of Place and Space in Collaborative Systems Learning from Space and Place
source Proceedings of ACM CSCW'96 Conferenc on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 1996 p.10
summary Many collaborative and communicative environments use notions of "space" and spatial organisation to facilitate and structure interaction. We argue that a focus on spatial models is misplaced. Drawing on understandings from architecture and urban design, as well as from our own research findings, we highlight the critical distinction between "space" and "place". While designers use spatial models to support interaction, we show how it is actually a notion of "place" which frames interactive behaviour. This leads us to re-evaluate spatial systems, and discuss how "place", rather than "space", can support CSCW design.
keywords Space; Place; Media Space; Virtual Reality; MUDs; Metaphor
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 06e1
authors Keul, Alexander
year 1996
title LOST IN SPACE? ARCHITECTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary A methodological review by Kaminski (1995) summed up five perspectives in environmental psychology - patterns of spatial distribution, everyday “jigsaw puzzles”, functional everyday action systems, sociocultural change and evolution of competence. Architectural psychology (named so at the Strathclyde conference 1969; Canter, 1973) as psychology of built environments is one leg of environmental psychology, the second one being psychology of environmental protection. Architectural psychology has come of age and passed its 25th birthday. Thus, a triangulation of its position, especially in Central Europe, seems interesting and necessary. A recent survey mainly on university projects in German-speaking countries (Kruse & Trimpin, 1995) found a marked decrease of studies in psychology of built environments. 1994, 25% of all projects were reported in this category, which in 1975 had made up 40% (Kruse, 1975). Guenther, in an unpublished survey of BDP (association of professional German psychologists) members, encountered only a handful active in architectural psychology - mostly part-time, not full-time. 1996, Austria has two full-time university specialists. The discrepancy between the general interest displayed by planners and a still low institutionalization is noticeable.

How is the research situation? Using several standard research data banks, the author collected articles and book(chapter)s on architectural psychology in German- and English-language countries from 1990 to 1996. Studies on main architecture-psychology interface problems such as user needs, housing quality evaluations, participatory planning and spatial simulation / virtual reality did not outline an “old, settled” discipline, but rather the sketchy, random surface of a field “always starting anew”. E.g., discussions at the 1995 EAEA-Conference showed that several architectural simulation studies since 1973 caused no major impact on planner's opinions (Keul&Martens, 1996). “Re-inventions of the wheel” are caused by a lack of meetings (except this one!) and of interdisciplinary infrastructure in German-language countries (contrary to Sweden or the United States). Social pressures building up on architecture nowadays by inter-European competition, budget cuts and citizen activities for informed consent in most urban projects are a new challenge for planners to cooperate efficiently with social scientists. At Salzburg, the author currently manages the Corporate Design-process for the Chamber of Architecture, Division for Upper Austria and Salzburg. A “working group for architectural psychology” (Keul-Martens-Maderthaner) has been active since 1994.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id cc90
authors Kolarevic, Branko
year 1998
title CAD@HKU
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 16-17
summary Since 1993, we have experimented with Virtual Design Studios (VDS) as an on-going research project that investigates the combination of current computer-aided design (CAD), computer networks (Internet), and computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) techniques to bring together studentsat geographically distributed locations to work in a virtual atelier. In 1993 the theme of the first joint VDS project was in-fill housing for the traditional Chinese walled village of Kat Hing Wai in the New Territories north of Hong Kong, and our partners included MIT and Harvard in Boston (USA), UBC in Vancouver (Canada), and Washington University in St. Louis (USA). In 1994 we were joined by Cornell (USA) and Escola Tecnica Superior d’Arquitectura de Barcelona (Spain) to re-design Li Long housing in Shanghai, and 1995 added the Warsaw Institute of Technology (Poland) for the ACSA/Dupont competition to design a Center for Cultural and Religious Studies in Japan. The 1996 topic was an international competition to design a monument located in Hong Kong to commemorate the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty in 1997. Communication was via e-mail, the WorldWide Web with limited attempts at VRML, and network video. Several teaching and research experiments conducted through these projects have demonstrated the viability and potential of using electronic, telecommunications, and videoconferencing technologies in collaborative design processes. Results of these VDS have been presented at conferences worldwide, explained in journal papers and published in Virtual Design Studio, edited by J. Wojtowicz, published by HKU Press.
series ACADIA
email branko@pobox.upenn.edu
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id 8ee5
authors Koutamanis, A., Mitossi, V.
year 1996
title SIMULATION FOR ANALYSIS: REQUIREMENTS FROM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Computerization has been a positive factor in the evolution of both kinds of analysis with respect to cost, availability and efficiency. Knowledge-based systems offer an appropriate implementation environment for normative analysis which can be more reliable and economical than evaluation by human experts. Perhaps more significant is the potential of interactive computer simulation where designs can be examined intuitively in full detail and at the same time by quantitative models. The advantages of this coupling are evident in the achievements of scientific visualization. Another advantage of computational systems is that the analysis can be linked to the design representation, thereby adding feedback to the conventional visualization of designs in drawing and modeling systems. Such connections are essential for the development of design guidance systems capable of reflecting consequences of partial inadequacies or changes to other aspects in a transparent and meaningful network of design constraints.

The possibilities of computer simulation also extend to issues inadequately covered by normative analysis and in particular to dynamic aspects of design such as human movement and circulation. The paper reports on a framework for addressing two related problems, (a) the simulation of fire escape from buildings and (b) the simulation of human movement on stairs. In both cases we propose that current evaluation techniques and the underlying design norms are too abstract to offer a measure of design success, as testified by the number of fatal accidents in fires and on stairs. In addition, fire escape and stair climbing are characterized by great variability with respect to both the form of the possible designs and the profiles of potential users. This suggests that testing prototypical forms by typical users and publishing the results as new, improved norms is not a realistic proposition for ensuring a global solution. Instead, we should test every design individually, within its own context. The development of an affordable, readily available system for the analysis and evaluation of aspects such as fire escape and stair safety can be based on the combination of the technologies of virtual reality and motion capture. Testing of a design by a number of test people in an immersion space provides not only intuitive evaluations by actual users but also quantitative data on the cognitive and proprioceptive behaviour of the test people. These data can be compiled into profiles of virtual humans for further testing of the same or related designs.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:40

_id 3a28
authors Laiserin, Jerry
year 2002
title From atelier to e-telier: virtual design studios
source Architectural Record
summary The design studio, as physical place and pedagogical method, is the core of architectural education. Ateliers clustered around rue Napoleon in Paris defined the École des Beaux Arts. The Carnegie Endowment report on architectural education, published in 1996, identified a comparably central role for studios in schools today. From programs, schemes, and parti to desk crits, pin-ups, and charrettes-language and behavior learned in the studio establish the profession's cultural framework. Advances in CAD and visualization, combined with technologies to communicate images, data, and "live" action, now enable virtual dimensions of studio experience. Students no longer need gather at the same time and place to tackle the same design problem. Critics can comment over the network or by e-mail, and distinguished jurors can make virtual visits without being in the same room as the pin-up-if there is a pin-up (or a room). Virtual design studios (VDS) have the potential to favor collaboration over competition, diversify student experiences, and redistribute the intellectual resources of architectural education across geographic and socioeconomic divisions. The catch is predicting whether VDS will isolate students from a sense of place and materiality, or if it will provide future architects the tools to reconcile communication environments and physical space.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 4a62
authors Leake, D.B. (ed.)
year 1996
title Case-Based Reasoning: Experiences, Lessons, and Future Directions
source The MIT Press
summary Case-based reasoning (CBR) is now a mature subfield of artificial intelligence. The fundamental principles of case-based reasoning have been established, and numerous applications have demonstrated its role as a useful technology. Recent progress has also revealed new opportunities and challenges for the field. This book presents experiences in CBR that illustrate the state of the art, the lessons learned from those experiences, and directions for the future. True to the spirit of CBR, this book examines the field in a primarily case-based way. Its chapters provide concrete examples of how key issues---including indexing and retrieval, case adaptation, evaluation, and application of CBR methods---are being addressed in the context of a range of tasks and domains. These issue-oriented case studies of experiences with particular projects provide a view of the principles of CBR, what CBR can do, how to attack problems with case-based reasoning, and how new challenges are being addressed. The case studies are supplemented with commentaries from leaders in the field providing individual perspectives on the state of CBR and its future impact. This book provides experienced CBR practitioners with a reference to recent progress in case-based reasoning research and applications. It also provides an introduction to CBR methods and the state of the art for students, AI researchers in other areas, and developers starting to build case-based reasoning systems. It presents experts and non-experts alike with visions of the most promising directions for new progress and for the roles of the next generation of CBR systems.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ac1d
authors Martens, B., Dokonal, W., Schmidinger, E. and Voigt, A.
year 1996
title Collaborative Teamwork - Challenges of the Future
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 263-272
summary Collaborative Teamwork is regarded to be one of the most outstanding fields of teaching and research within the context of Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning. This focal field is closely related to the research field of "Remote Teamwork", i.e. the substance-related cooperation of people over spatial distances in decision-situations aiming at the elaboration of suited remote-working structures for research, project transactions and teaching. The generation and manipulation of digital spatial models and their virtual transportation within large spatial distances represent the main research objectives. The Faculty of Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning therefore is stressing information technologies within academic context. The following contribution is dedicated to the description of two teaching projects, namely „BraGraLuWi" (collaborative teamwork between the universities of Technology Bratislava, Graz, Luton and Vienna) and carrying-out a VRML-workshop, furthermore to the development of Remote Teamwork-structures preferably on the basis of „ATM" (a technology of broad band telecommunications) at Vienna University of Technology.
series eCAADe
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at, dokonal@stdb.tu-graz.ac.at, voigt@www.ifoer.tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2001/02/11 18:04

_id 8b8d
authors Martens, B., Voigt, A. and Linzer, H.
year 1996
title Information Technologies within Academic Context: Remote Teamwork – A Challenge for the Future
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 227-232
summary "Remote Teamwork”, i.e. the substance-related cooperation of people over spatial distances in decision-situations relies on "CIVIC” (Computer-Integrated Video-Conferencing-audio-visual communication at spatial distances integrating interactively digital, spatial computer models) and "CISP” (Computer-Integrated Spatial Planning) aiming at the elaboration of suited remote-working structures of research, project transactions and teaching preferably on the basis of "ATM” (a technology of broad band telecommunications). The generation and manipulation of digital spatial models and their virtual transportation within large spatial distances represent the main research objectives. The efficient use of teaching resources calls for the integration of new teaching possibilities within the framework of "Remote Teamwork”, e.g. Distributed and Shared Modelling, Distant Learning and Remote Teaching. The Faculty of Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning therefore is stressing information technologies within academic context. The following contribution is dedicated to the focal field of research and teaching "Remote Teamwork” of the Vienna University of Technology. This project is carried out in cooperation with the Institute of Spatial Interaction and Simulation (IRIS-ISIS), Vienna and the Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC Linz-Hagenberg). Teaching experience relevant for "Remote Teamwork” is derived from various experiments of cooperative teamwork.
series CAADRIA
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2002/09/04 13:43

_id 44cc
authors Martens, Bob (ed.)
year 1996
title Full-scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality
source Proceedings of the 6th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-132-2 / Vienna (Austria) 4-6 September 1996, 140 p.
summary In times characterized by the growing "architectural criticism"; to the same extent as by the helplessness of the anonymous user the communication process between contractors, planner and users gains in importance. If communication is successful will not only depend on the quality of the project but also on the means of conveyance, e.g. visualizing or model representation. Can planning evaluation be effectively supported by virtual reality (VR)?

The principal item of a full-scale lab preferably features a court-like facility where the 1:1 simulations are performed. Such lab facilities can be found at various architecture education centers throughout Europe. In the early eighties the European Full-scale Modeling Association (abrev. EFA, full-scale standing for 1:1 or simulation in full-scale) was founded acting as the patron of a conference every two years. In line with the conference title "Full-scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality" the participants were particularly concerned with the relationship of physical 1:1 simulations and VR. The assumption that those creating architecture provide of a higher degree of affinity to physical than to virtual models and prototypes was subject of vivid discussions.

Furthermore, the participants devoted some time to issues such as the integration of model-like ideas and built reality thus uncovering any such synergy-effects. Thus some major considerations had to be given to the question of how the architectís model-like ideas and built reality would correspond, also dealing with user-suitability as such: what the building artist might be thrilled with might not turn out to be the residentsí and usersí everyday delight. Aspects of this nature were considered at the îArchitectural Psychology Meeting” together with specialists on environment and aesthetics. As individual space perception as well as its evaluation differ amongst various architects, and these being from various countries furnishing cultural differences, lively discussions were bound to arise.

keywords VR, Virtual Reality, Simulation in Full-scale, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/EFA-Proceedings.html
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

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