CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 479

_id ddssar9615
id ddssar9615
authors Hill, S.M., Sinclair, B.S., Sandall, D., Butt, T.S., Sampson, N. and Blackie, N.
year 1996
title A Computer-Facilitated Approach for Development, Visualization and Testing of Functional Programming Information
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Functional programming processes for complex architectural projects have traditionally been hampered by the static nature of available tools and technologies. Connection with user groups have likewise been disadvantaged through the employment of sender-oriented communications models that limit feedback and interaction. In addition, diminishing project budgets place increasing pressure on clients and consult-ants to develop more effective and efficient methods for the design and construction of buildings. This paper discusses a case-study involving the design of a highly complex medical laboratory wherein infoc mation technologies were used to facilitate the development, visualization and testing of functional pro-gramming information. The objectives for the project involved creating an environment where users and clients actively participate in consideration of programming directions and implications in a manner that would not only increase confidence that the program would meet user requirements now and in the future, but also would reduce redundant and or inefficient space within the overall building programme. In the approach used the distinction between programming and design is diminished to improve communication of desires and design responses. The findings of the study indicate that the computer-facilitated approach met the objectives of the project and that the methods developed hold promise for application across a broader range of project types.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id fb63
id fb63
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 1996
title An Outline of the Requirements for a Computer-Supported Collaborative Design System
source Open House International, vol 21, no 1, March 1996
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) systems have adequately satisfied several needs so far. They have dramatically improved the accuracy and consistency of working drawings, enabled designers to visualize their design ideas in three-dimensions, allowed the analysis of designs through data exchange and integrated databases, and even allowed the designers to evaluate (and in some cases generate) designs based on comparisons to previous cases and/or the formalization of grammars. Yet, there is a consensus that CAAD systems have not yet achieved their full potential. First, most systems employ a single-user approach to solving architectural problems which fails to grapple with the fact that most design work is done through teamwork. Second, current systems still can not support early design stages which involve client briefing, data collection, building program formulation, and schematic design generation. This paper seeks to study remedies to both of the afore-mentioned limitations through focusing on the fundamental dialectic and collaborative nature of what is called designing: a concerned social activity that proceeds by creating architectural elements to address a set of requirements and their re-thinking as a result of architectural conjecture. To investigate this relationship, it is proposed to build a computer-supported collaborative design environment using the tools of conceptual modeling, object-oriented algorithms, and distributed agents. Based on findings regarding the role of artifacts in collaborative design and a literature survey, this paper concludes with an outline of the requirements for the above system.
series journal paper
type normal paper
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2008/06/12 14:34

_id 2f3c
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 1996
title An Outline of the Requirements for a Computer-Supported Collaborative Design System
source Open House International, vol. 21 no 1, March 1996, pp. 22-30
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) systems have adequately satisfied several needs so far. They have dramatically improved the accuracy and consistency of working drawings, enabled designers to visualize their design ideas in three-dimensions, allowed the analysis of designs through data exchange and integrated databases, and even allowed the designers to evaluate (and in some cases generate) designs based on comparisons to previous cases and/or the formalization of grammars. Yet, there is a consensus that CAAD systems have not yet achieved their full potential. First, most systems employ a single-user approach to solving architectural problems which fails to grapple with the fact that most design work is done through teamwork. Second, current systems still can not support early design stages which involve client briefing, data collection, building program formulation, and schematic design generation. This paper seeks to study remedies to both of the afore-mentioned limitations through focusing on the fundamental dialectic and collaborative nature of what is called designing: a concerned social activity that proceeds by creating architectural elements to address a set of requirements and their re-thinking as a result of architectural conjecture. To investigate this relationship, it is proposed to build a computer-supported collaborative design environment using the tools of conceptual modeling, object-oriented algorithms, and distributed agents. Based on findings regarding the role of artifacts in collaborative design and a literature survey, this paper concludes with an outline of the requirements for the above system.
keywords Computer Supported Collaborative Design
series other
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2002/03/05 18:54

_id 3151
authors Sanders, K.
year 1996
title The Digital Architect
source New York, NY, John Wiley &Sons
summary Written by an architect for design professionals, The Digital Architect is a gold mine of commonsense advice and guidance on the realities of using computer technology in design practice. Ken Sanders, AIA, takes you beyond the hyperbole to discover the practical reality of using computers today. He explains their strengths and weaknesses; what these tools do and what they don't do; and how they can be used strategically and tactically to improve quality, productivity, and profits in design firms of all sizes. Drawing on his own experiences and those of colleagues from across the nation whose comments appear throughout, he provides a wealth of valuable insights and advice on: * Choosing technology that leverages your professional value * Integrating technology seamlessly into your firm * Implementing cost-effective technology training and education * Managing the digital office, including liability, privacy, and security issues * Organizing the knowledge base of your firm * Using the Internet's World Wide Web as a global information resource * Hardware platforms, operating systems, and networks * Software tools and applications, including CAD, word processing, spreadsheets, multimedia, visualization, animation, virtual reality, on-line services, and more * The latest releases of major software products, including Windows 95TM and AutoCAD(r) Release 13(r) The only guide of its kind, The Digital Architect is a valuable tool for architects, engineers, designers, and all those who participate in creating the built environment.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4040
authors Smith, I., Stalker, R. and Lottaz, C.
year 1996
title Creating design objects from cases for interactive spatial composition
source Artificial Intelligence in Design ‚96, eds. J. S. Gero and F. Sudweeks, 97 - 116. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic
summary This paper describes IDIOM, a system for composing layouts using cases. Layouts are interactively composed by users rather than automatically generated as has been proposed by previous research. The design is incrementally parameterized as cases are added and therefore, case adaptation, user interpretation and model activation can occur at any stage. IDIOM supports designers through reducing constraint complexity and through managing design preferences, thereby restraining proposed solutions and further adaptation within globally feasible design spaces. Improvements to the algorithm over previous implementations have increased reliability. In general, designers, who currently carry out spatial composition tasks using standard drawing tools, have reacted favourably to the system, providing useful feedback for further work.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 6445
authors Zorgno, A., Brusasco, P. and Caneparo, L.
year 1996
title Large-scale Design Project Integration across Computer Networks
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 415-425
summary This paper presents the study of a computer system capable of supporting the information work connected with a design project at an urban scale. The computer system must fulfil a number of specific requirements. First, it must integrate a complex set of instruments for creating, retrieving, manipulating, processing, managing the interaction between the users and the overall information regarding the project. Secondly, it must operate at a geographical level to connect the various actors involved. Third, because of the heterogeneity of the participants involved, it must be compatible with numerous systems, even low entry, to ensure effective accessibility even to small companies, firms and citizens. The computer networks extend the possibility of accessing the information beyond the project employees, towards the citizens. In the computers and in the networks, which connect them, the idea of interaction as communication and reciprocal action is inherent. A result is the possibility of interacting dynamically with the information, of assimilating, modifying, and redistributing it in progress. An high level of accessibility and interactivity with respect to information points to different approaches to architectural design and urban planning.

series eCAADe
email luca.caneparo@polito.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id f5ee
authors Erhorn, H., De Boer, J. and Dirksmueller, M.
year 1997
title ADELINE, an Integrated Approach to Lighting Simulation
source Proceedings of Right Light 4, 4th European Conference on Energy-Efficient Lighting, pp.99-103
summary The use of daylighting and artificial lighting simulation programs to calculate complex systems and models in the design practice often is impeded by the fact that the operation of these programs, especially the model input, is extremely complicated and time-consuming. Programs that are easier to use generally do not show the calculation capabilities required in practice. A second obstacle arises as the lighting calculations often do not allow any statements regarding the interactions with the energetic and thermal building performance. Both problems are mainly due to a lacking integration of the design tools of other building design practitioners as well as due to insufficient user interfaces. The program package ADELINE (Advanced Daylight and Electric Lighting Integrated New Environment) being available since May 1996 as completely revised version 2.0 presents a promising approach to solve these problems. This contribution describes the approaches and methods used within the international project IEA Task 21 for a further development of the ADELINE system. Aim of this work is a further improvement of user interfaces based on the inclusion of new dialogs and on a portation of the program system from MS-DOS to the Windows NT platform. Additional focus is laid on the use of recent developments in the field of information technology and experiences gained in other projects on integrated building design systems, like for example EU-COMBINE, in a pragmatical way. An integrated building design system with open standardized interfaces is to be achieved inter alia by using ISOSTEP formats, database technologies and a consequent, object-oriented design.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 1d05
authors Finch, E.F., Flanagan, R. and Marsh, L.E.
year 1996
title Electronic document management in construction using auto-ID
source Automation in Construction 5 (4) (1996) pp. 313-321
summary The construction process relies upon the effective management of a variety of project information including drawings; specifications; bills of quantities; and other technical data. The method of information transfer determines the ease with which information can be assimilated and used in the construction process. Despite the widespread use of computers for the generation of project information, hard copy documentation remains the primary method of information transfer within the construction industry. Electronic Document Management (EDM) systems offer a level of control over information flow within the construction process, whether documents are in hard copy or in electronic format. However, many of the existing methods of information transfer undermine the performance of EDM systems in two respects; (1) they require the user to re-enter information to register incoming documents into a data base; (2) they cannot interpret and manipulate information contained in or supporting the document. This paper describes a method of bar coding hard copy drawings in order to electronically transfer document information from designer to contractor. This approach is designed to improve the functionality of EDM systems where hard copy documents predominate. The paper also considers the requirements for bar code application standards which would further improve the data exchange process concerning documents.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 3451
authors Harrison, Beverly L.
year 1996
title The Design and Evaluation of Transparent User Interfaces. From Theory to Practice
source University of Toronto, Toronto
summary The central research issue addressed by this dissertation is how we can design systems where information on user interface tools is overlaid on the work product being developed with these tools. The interface tools typically appear in the display foreground while the data or work space being manipulated typically appear in the perceptual background. This represents a trade-off in focused foreground attention versus focused background attention. By better supporting human attention we hope to improve the fluency of work, where fluency is reflected in a more seamless integration between task goals, user interface tool manipulations to achieve these goals, and feedback from the data or work space being manipulated. This research specifically focuses on the design and evaluation of transparent user interface 'layers' applied to graphical user interfaces. By allowing users to see through windows, menus, and tool palettes appearing in the perceptual foreground, an improved awareness of the underlying workspace and preservation of context are possible. However, transparent overlapping objects introduce visual interference which may degrade task performance, through reduced legibility. This dissertation explores a new interface technique (i.e., transparent layering) and, more importantly, undertakes a deeper investigation into the underlying issues that have implications for the design and use of this new technique. We have conducted a series of experiments, progressively more representative of the complex stimuli from real task domains. This enables us to systematically evaluate a variety of transparent user interfaces, while remaining confident of the applicability of the results to actual task contexts. We also describe prototypes and a case study evaluation of a working system using transparency based on our design parameters and experimental findings. Our findings indicate that similarity in both image color and in image content affect the levels of visual interference. Solid imagery in either the user interface tools (e.g., icons) or in the work space content (e.g., video, rendered models) are highly interference resistant and work well up to 75% transparent (i.e., 25% of foreground image and 75% of background content). Text and wire frame images (or line drawings) perform equally poorly but are highly usable up to 50% transparent, with no apparent performance penalty. Introducing contrasting outlining techniques improves the usability of transparent text menu interfaces up to 90% transparency. These results suggest that transparency is a usable and promising interface alternative. We suggest several methods of overcoming today's technical challenges in order to integrate transparency into existing applications.  
series thesis:PhD
email beverly@dgp.utoronto.ca
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id b6a7
authors Jensen, K.
year 1996
title Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts
source 2nd ed., Springer Verlag, Berlin
summary This book presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN). It shows how CP-nets have been developed - from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and/or computers communicate by means of some more or less formal rules). The book contains the formal definition of CP-nets and the mathematical theory behind their analysis methods. However, it has been the intention to write the book in such a way that it also becomes attractive to readers who are more interested in applications than the underlying mathematics. This means that a large part of the book is written in a style which is closer to an engineering textbook (or a users' manual) than it is to a typical textbook in theoretical computer science. The book consists of three separate volumes. The first volume defines the net model (i.e., hierarchical CP-nets) and the basic concepts (e.g., the different behavioural properties such as deadlocks, fairness and home markings). It gives a detailed presentation of many small examples and a brief overview of some industrial applications. It introduces the formal analysis methods. Finally, it contains a description of a set of CPN tools which support the practical use of CP-nets. Most of the material in this volume is application oriented. The purpose of the volume is to teach the reader how to construct CPN models and how to analyse these by means of simulation. The second volume contains a detailed presentation of the theory behind the formal analysis methods - in particular occurrence graphs with equivalence classes and place/transition invariants. It also describes how these analysis methods are supported by computer tools. Parts of this volume are rather theoretical while other parts are application oriented. The purpose of the volume is to teach the reader how to use the formal analysis methods. This will not necessarily require a deep understanding of the underlying mathematical theory (although such knowledge will of course be a help). The third volume contains a detailed description of a selection of industrial applications. The purpose is to document the most important ideas and experiences from the projects - in a way which is useful for readers who do not yet have personal experience with the construction and analysis of large CPN diagrams. Another purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of using CP-nets and the CPN tools for such projects. Together the three volumes present the theory behind CP-nets, the supporting CPN tools and some of the practical experiences with CP-nets and the tools. In our opinion it is extremely important that these three research areas have been developed simultaneously. The three areas influence each other and none of them could be adequately developed without the other two. As an example, we think it would have been totally impossible to develop the hierarchy concepts of CP-nets without simultaneously having a solid background in the theory of CP-nets, a good idea for a tool to support the hierarchy concepts, and a thorough knowledge of the typical application areas.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddssar9618
id ddssar9618
authors Kanoglu, Alaattin
year 1996
title Application of General Purpose Project Planning & Programming Software for Production Planning & Control in Plants which Produce Prefabricated Building Components
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The "open systems" in building prefabrication may be qualified more flexible to some extent compared to the closed ones and may use the tools and approaches used in industrial production areas for the es-timation of demand and production. As for the closed systems in particular, it is not possible for these systems to apply this kind of an approach. Their production must be based on absolutely assured de-mands and projects. Because of this, they need detailed projects and assembly schedules for produc-tion. As a result of this, their production modes can be qualified "custom-made" type and production planning functions must provide the demand values from the assembly schedules of contracted pro-jects. The problem can be solved by integrating the work schedules of the sites that are served by fac-tory. Integration of data on a computerized system will be preferable and it is possible to realize the model in two alternative ways. The first is developing a new conceptual model and convert it into a software and the second is developing an approach for customizing general purpose project planning and programming software for using them in production planning. The second solution is studied in the paper following this. The aims of this study are analyzing outstanding general purpose project planning & programming software from the point of view of requirements of production planning function and their customizability; comparing the requirements of the model designed for production planning and capabilities of general purpose planning software and developing the conceptual and practical dimensions and basic principals of the model for using the general purpose planning and programming software for production planning.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 8ee5
authors Koutamanis, A., Mitossi, V.
year 1996
title SIMULATION FOR ANALYSIS: REQUIREMENTS FROM ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Computerization has been a positive factor in the evolution of both kinds of analysis with respect to cost, availability and efficiency. Knowledge-based systems offer an appropriate implementation environment for normative analysis which can be more reliable and economical than evaluation by human experts. Perhaps more significant is the potential of interactive computer simulation where designs can be examined intuitively in full detail and at the same time by quantitative models. The advantages of this coupling are evident in the achievements of scientific visualization. Another advantage of computational systems is that the analysis can be linked to the design representation, thereby adding feedback to the conventional visualization of designs in drawing and modeling systems. Such connections are essential for the development of design guidance systems capable of reflecting consequences of partial inadequacies or changes to other aspects in a transparent and meaningful network of design constraints.

The possibilities of computer simulation also extend to issues inadequately covered by normative analysis and in particular to dynamic aspects of design such as human movement and circulation. The paper reports on a framework for addressing two related problems, (a) the simulation of fire escape from buildings and (b) the simulation of human movement on stairs. In both cases we propose that current evaluation techniques and the underlying design norms are too abstract to offer a measure of design success, as testified by the number of fatal accidents in fires and on stairs. In addition, fire escape and stair climbing are characterized by great variability with respect to both the form of the possible designs and the profiles of potential users. This suggests that testing prototypical forms by typical users and publishing the results as new, improved norms is not a realistic proposition for ensuring a global solution. Instead, we should test every design individually, within its own context. The development of an affordable, readily available system for the analysis and evaluation of aspects such as fire escape and stair safety can be based on the combination of the technologies of virtual reality and motion capture. Testing of a design by a number of test people in an immersion space provides not only intuitive evaluations by actual users but also quantitative data on the cognitive and proprioceptive behaviour of the test people. These data can be compiled into profiles of virtual humans for further testing of the same or related designs.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:40

_id 5764
authors Stouffs, R. and Krishnamurti, R.
year 1996
title On a query language for weighted geometries
source O. Moselhi, C. Bedard and S. Alkass (eds.), Third Canadian Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering, Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, Montreal, pp. 783–793
summary Computational design relies on effective models of geometry, for the creation of (geometries of) design artifacts and the querying of the characteristics of these (geometries). In the search for appropriate solid models, there is a consensus - namely, a solid model has to be complete - that is, the corresponding representations are "adequate for answering arbitrary geometric questions algorithmically''. However, this statement becomes more difficult to qualify as users and, in particular, designers pose new questions that go beyond geometry and require other information to be included. Current CAD systems tend to focus on the representation of design artifacts, and on the tools and operations for the creation and manipulation of these representations. Techniques for querying are mostly added as afterthoughts, constrained by the data representation system and methods. Yet, querying a design is as much an intricate aspect of the design process as is the creation or manipulation thereof. In this paper, we explore the foundation of a query language that allows for a rich body of queries, using both geometric and non-geometric data, and incorporating spatial rules as a syntactical expression for pattern matching on geometries.
series other
email R.Stouffs@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddssup9606
id ddssup9606
authors Van der Flier, C.L. and Thomsen, A.F.
year 1996
title Weighing alternatives decision support systems for housing management in the Netherlands
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Under nowadays market conditions housing quality will be a major issue for the management of the housing stock. Even under the existing housing shortness in the Netherlands vacancy and demolition of post-war housing blocks is not any more a rare incident. In most cases the reason of depreciation and decay is found in a mismatch between supply and demand, caused by either an inadequate design or shifted market conditions.To cure the problems a range of possible interventions has been developed, varying from neglection and minor changes to radical redesign and demolition. Recently some decision support systems are developed to overview and compare the consequences of different concepts and strategies. Our paper provides an overview of recent Dutch tools and systems for this purpose, partly including computer software. Special attention is paid to the weighing of alternative interventions and practical experiences.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup9620
id ddssup9620
authors van der Waerden, P., Borgers, A. and Timmerinans, H.
year 1996
title Route related data of shopping centre visitors and geographical information systems
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Pedestrian route information can support different research activities such as the calculation of economic performances of shopping streets, the evaluation of parking policy measures, and the development of pedestrian design standards. These research activities are helpful in planning and designing shopping centres. Pedestrians' routes are used to measure walking distances, calculate other route related data, and estimate pedestrians' densities. To use route related data efficiently, it is necessary to capture the observed routes of pedestrians in some kind of computer system. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) might offer an opportunity to deal with route related data because they can handle spatial and non-spatial data for example of line segments. However, very few GIS offer tools to enter, store, analyze and display route related data. In the new version of TransCAD a special Route System module is implemented to handle routes. The route system stores the routes, the different links routes are made up, and the possible stops on the route in separate tables that can be analyzed and displayed in a map. This paper describes the structure and the contents of pedestrians' route information as it can be used in various research projects. From these research projects some general requirements to handle route related, are extracted. Special attention is paid to the way TransCAD deals with routes. A parking research conducted in the main shopping centre of Veldhoven is used to describe and illustrate the possibilities of route related data of pedestrians, and evaluate the possibilities TransCAD offers to deal with this kind of data.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e946
authors Wood, William H. and Agogino, Alice M
year 1996
title Case-based conceptual design information server for concurrent engineering
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 28 (5) (1996) pp. 361-369
summary Conceptual design requires processing information from diverse sources in order to define the functional requirements, operating constraints, and evaluation criteria pertinent to accomplishing a prescribed goal.Historically, the design process focused on the functionality of an artifact for the end customer. Concurrent engineering broadens this focus to account for the concerns of `customers' not previously considered --those along the entire life cycle of an artifact, i.e. marketing, design, manufacture, distribution, operation and disposal. Expanding the design focus to include all of these customers places far greater informationaldemands on the designer. Case-based reasoning applies experience stored in a computerized form to solving similar problems in slightly altered contexts. It has been applied successfully to routine design whereboth the form and the content of design information can be encoded symbolically and manipulated using artificial intelligence techniques. Concurrent conceptual design presents unique problems for such anapproach because design information must be considered at many levels of abstraction and from many viewpoints.We describe an approach that provides the designer with case-based conceptual design information stored in the richly expressive medium of hypermedia (hypertext incorporating multimedia). Design cases ofindustry `best practices' in concurrent engineering are indexed to provide access through multiple interfaces, allowing the user to browse, explore, or pinpoint design case information. The Conceptual DesignInformation Server (CDIS) is implemented using emerging internet standards, such as those associated with the World Wide Web (WWW) and Wide Area Information Service (WAIS), coupled to a robustStructured Query Language (SQL) database and traditional cad packages.
keywords Conceptual Design, Case-Based Reasoning, Hypermedia Information Systems
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 80f7
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2001
title Knowledge-based System to Support Architectural Design - Intelligent objects, project net-constraints, collaborative work
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 80-85
summary The architectural design business is marked by a progressive increase in operators all cooperating towards the realization of building structures and complex infrastructures (Jenckes, 1997). This type of design implies the simultaneous activity of specialists in different fields, often working a considerable distance apart, on increasingly distributed design studies. Collaborative Architectural Design comprises a vast field of studies that embraces also these sectors and problems. To mention but a few: communication among operators in the building and design sector; design process system logic architecture; conceptual structure of the building organism; building component representation; conflict identification and management; sharing of knowledge; and also, user interface; global evaluation of solutions adopted; IT definition of objects; inter-object communication (in the IT sense). The point of view of the research is that of the designers of the architectural artefact (Simon, 1996); its focus consists of the relations among the various design operators and among the latter and the information exchanged: the Building Objects. Its primary research goal is thus the conceptual structure of the building organism for the purpose of managing conflicts and developing possible methods of resolving them.
keywords Keywords. Collaborative Design, Architectural And Building Knowledge, Distributed Knowledge Bases, Information Management, Multidisciplinarity
series eCAADe
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 90a7
authors Eastman, C.M.
year 1996
title Managing Integrity in Design Information Flows
source Computer Aided Design (May, 1996). 28:6n, pp. 551-565
summary The purpose of this work is to develop automatic methods of semantic integrity maintenance, in support of concurrent engineering. Semantic integrity relations in any final engineering design are built up incrementally, through the use of different computer applications. Here, the structure of these integrity relations are formalized for representation within a database. When changes to a design have to be made, they can invalidate integrity relations in other parts of the design. Formal methods are defined for identifying what data and integrity relations are invalidated by any change. Methods for making changes that minimize re-design are described and formalized. Opportunities for using semantic integrity to assess progress on a design are reviewed.
series journal paper
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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