CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 483

_id 9a0d
authors Debevec, P.E., Taylor, C.J. and Malik, J.
year 1996
title Modeling and rendering architecture from photographs: a hybrid geometry- and image-based approach
source SIGGRAPH'96, New Orleans, Louisiana
summary We present a new approach for modeling and rendering existing architectural scenes from a sparse set of still photographs. Our modeling approach, which combines both geometry-based and imagebased techniques, has two components. The first component is a photogrammetricmodelingmethodwhich facilitates the recovery of the basic geometry of the photographed scene. Our photogrammetric modeling approach is effective, convenient, and robust because it exploits the constraints that are characteristic of architectural scenes. The second component is a model-based stereo algorithm, which recovers how the real scene deviates from the basic model. By making use of the model, our stereo technique robustly recovers accurate depth from widely-spaced image pairs. Consequently, our approach canmodel large architectural environmentswith far fewer photographs than current image-based modeling approaches. For producing renderings, we present view-dependent texture mapping, a method of compositing multiple views of a scene that better simulates geometric detail on basic models. Our approach can be used to recover models for use in either geometry-based or image-based rendering systems. We present results that demonstrate our approach's ability to create realistic renderings of architectural scenes from viewpoints far from the original photographs.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 275b
authors Chase, Scott C.
year 1996
title Design Modeling With Shape Algebras and Formal Logic
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 99-113
summary A new method of describing designs by combining the paradigms of shape algebras and predicate logic representations is presented. Representing shapes and spatial relations in logic provides a natural, intuitive method of developing complete computer systems for reasoning about designs. The advantages of shape algebra formalisms over more traditional representations of geometric objects are discussed. The method employed involves the definition of a large set of high level design relations from a small set of simple structures and spatial relations. Examples in architecture and geographic information systems are illustrated.
series ACADIA
email s.c.chase@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 7b57
authors Chase, Scott Curland
year 1996
title Modeling Designs with Shape Algebras and Formal Logic
source University of California
summary A formal, hierarchical model of shape, spatial relations and non-spatial properties is presented, constructed from first principles of geometry, topology and logic. The combination of the two major paradigms used here, shape algebras and logic, is one which has been largely unexplored. The underlying interest is the development of generalized design modeling systems in which the components may be used for a variety of synthesis and recognition problems. The algebras of shape described by Stiny have been shown to be useful in the generation and analysis of designs. The generality of their representations, their non-reliance upon predetermined structure, and their use in combination provide a richness of expression lacking in more traditional representations. The use of formal logic as a specification tool for modeling spatial relations is investigated here. Logic has proven itself useful as a programming and specification tool, providing advantages over traditional procedural programming methods. Among those is the ability to specify the knowledge to be encapsulated in a model without the need to specify data manipulation procedures. It is argued that specification in logic provides a natural method of development. The model is developed by extending the formalisms of shape algebras with the use of logic to make more precise, generalized, parametric definitions of shape and spatial relations than has been previously possible. The value of such a model is demonstrated by the use of these generalized spatial relations for solving typical problems in the fields of geographic information systems and architecture. The advantages of the representations used over more traditional 'kit-of-parts' models is also illustrated.
series thesis:PhD
email s.c.chase@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 06e1
authors Keul, Alexander
year 1996
title LOST IN SPACE? ARCHITECTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary A methodological review by Kaminski (1995) summed up five perspectives in environmental psychology - patterns of spatial distribution, everyday “jigsaw puzzles”, functional everyday action systems, sociocultural change and evolution of competence. Architectural psychology (named so at the Strathclyde conference 1969; Canter, 1973) as psychology of built environments is one leg of environmental psychology, the second one being psychology of environmental protection. Architectural psychology has come of age and passed its 25th birthday. Thus, a triangulation of its position, especially in Central Europe, seems interesting and necessary. A recent survey mainly on university projects in German-speaking countries (Kruse & Trimpin, 1995) found a marked decrease of studies in psychology of built environments. 1994, 25% of all projects were reported in this category, which in 1975 had made up 40% (Kruse, 1975). Guenther, in an unpublished survey of BDP (association of professional German psychologists) members, encountered only a handful active in architectural psychology - mostly part-time, not full-time. 1996, Austria has two full-time university specialists. The discrepancy between the general interest displayed by planners and a still low institutionalization is noticeable.

How is the research situation? Using several standard research data banks, the author collected articles and book(chapter)s on architectural psychology in German- and English-language countries from 1990 to 1996. Studies on main architecture-psychology interface problems such as user needs, housing quality evaluations, participatory planning and spatial simulation / virtual reality did not outline an “old, settled” discipline, but rather the sketchy, random surface of a field “always starting anew”. E.g., discussions at the 1995 EAEA-Conference showed that several architectural simulation studies since 1973 caused no major impact on planner's opinions (Keul&Martens, 1996). “Re-inventions of the wheel” are caused by a lack of meetings (except this one!) and of interdisciplinary infrastructure in German-language countries (contrary to Sweden or the United States). Social pressures building up on architecture nowadays by inter-European competition, budget cuts and citizen activities for informed consent in most urban projects are a new challenge for planners to cooperate efficiently with social scientists. At Salzburg, the author currently manages the Corporate Design-process for the Chamber of Architecture, Division for Upper Austria and Salzburg. A “working group for architectural psychology” (Keul-Martens-Maderthaner) has been active since 1994.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 6237
authors Kiechle, Horst
year 1996
title CONSTRUCTING THE AMORPHOUS
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Constructing the Amorphous entails the ongoing research into a concept which aims to develop a new understanding for Art, Design and Architecture within society. Rigid, reductivist and confrontational methods based on static geometry, prejudice and competition are to be replaced by dynamic, interdisciplinary and integrative models. In his current art practice the author simulates existing architectural spaces whose interior are re-designed into sculpted environments, based on creative irregularity rather than idealised geometry. All the computer simulated “soft” environments can be realised on an architectural scale as temporary installations with the curved surfaces approximated through planar polygons cut from sheet materials. Within this framework the Darren Knight Gallery Project represents the most recently example.

The paper discusses furthermore various 3D modeling options, such as standard CAD representations, high quality rendered video walk-throughs, VRML models and physically produced, full-scale models, made of corrugated cardboard. The cost and equipment requirements necessary for full-scale modeling in cardboard are outlined.

keywords VRML, CAD, 3D Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email horst@vislab.usyd.edu.au
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:40

_id 4e8e
authors Lewin, Jenniffer S. and Gross, Mark D.
year 1996
title Resolving Archaeological Site Data With 3D Computer Modeling: The Case of Ceren
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 255-266
summary This paper reports on our experience working with a team of anthropologists to construct three- dimensional computer graphic models of Ceren, an archaeological site in western El Salvador, using inexpensive hardware and software. In constructing the model we discovered various ambiguities and inconsistencies in the raw site data and drawings we were provided. We resolved these problems by analysis and reinterpretation of the data, working closely with our archaeologist collaborator. What began as a simple exercise in rendering developed into a collaborative research effort to understand and interpret the source data. The process of computer modeling forced us to re-examine, analyze and interpret the information from the site.
series ACADIA
email mdgross@u.washington.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 44cc
authors Martens, Bob (ed.)
year 1996
title Full-scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality
source Proceedings of the 6th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-132-2 / Vienna (Austria) 4-6 September 1996, 140 p.
summary In times characterized by the growing "architectural criticism"; to the same extent as by the helplessness of the anonymous user the communication process between contractors, planner and users gains in importance. If communication is successful will not only depend on the quality of the project but also on the means of conveyance, e.g. visualizing or model representation. Can planning evaluation be effectively supported by virtual reality (VR)?

The principal item of a full-scale lab preferably features a court-like facility where the 1:1 simulations are performed. Such lab facilities can be found at various architecture education centers throughout Europe. In the early eighties the European Full-scale Modeling Association (abrev. EFA, full-scale standing for 1:1 or simulation in full-scale) was founded acting as the patron of a conference every two years. In line with the conference title "Full-scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality" the participants were particularly concerned with the relationship of physical 1:1 simulations and VR. The assumption that those creating architecture provide of a higher degree of affinity to physical than to virtual models and prototypes was subject of vivid discussions.

Furthermore, the participants devoted some time to issues such as the integration of model-like ideas and built reality thus uncovering any such synergy-effects. Thus some major considerations had to be given to the question of how the architectís model-like ideas and built reality would correspond, also dealing with user-suitability as such: what the building artist might be thrilled with might not turn out to be the residentsí and usersí everyday delight. Aspects of this nature were considered at the îArchitectural Psychology Meeting” together with specialists on environment and aesthetics. As individual space perception as well as its evaluation differ amongst various architects, and these being from various countries furnishing cultural differences, lively discussions were bound to arise.

keywords VR, Virtual Reality, Simulation in Full-scale, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/EFA-Proceedings.html
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

_id 2b9f
authors Nasar, Jack
year 1996
title DESIGN BY COMPETITION: LOOKING AT COMPETITION ARCHITECTURE THROUGH TIME
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary We have seen an increase in design competitions for delivery of public buildings. Architectural groups such as the AIA or RIBA often call for a jury dominated by architects. A series of studies of a highly publicized design competition (Peter Eisenman's Wexner Center for the Visual Arts) show the building as a functional and "aesthetic" failure for the public. Some may argue that this is only a short-term appraisal, and that eventually the aesthetic statement will come into favor. To the question of whether architects (the experts) lead public tastes over time, we only have anecdotal evidence. Otherwise, there has been consistent findings of differences between what architects like and what the public likes. How can we look at long-term trends? This paper discusses two historiographic studies of competition architecture through history. One looks at the record of "masterpiece" buildings derived from frequency of reference in books and encyclopedias, and then tallies how many of those "masterpieces" result from competitions. Because of potential flaws in generalizing from these numbers, a second study has architects and non-architects judge photos of competition winning and competition losing designs from a 100-year period. The results show that both groups preferred more losers to winners. This suggests a need for an alternative model for design competition juries.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:41

_id 8c51
authors Schmitt, G., Wenz, F., Kurmann, D., Van der Mark, E.
year 1996
title Toward Virtual Reality in Architecture: Concepts and Scenarios from Architectural Space Laboratory
source Presence, Vol. 4, No. 3, July, pages pp. 267-285
summary Contributed by Bharat Dave (b.dave@architecture.unimelb.edu.au)
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:23

_id 4710
authors Senyapili, Burcu
year 1996
title THE TRUE MODEL CONCEPT IN COMPUTER GENERATED SIMULATIONS
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Each design product depends on a design model originated in the designer's mind. From initial design decisions even to the final product, each design step is a representation of this design model. Designers create and communicate using the design models in their minds. They solve design problems by recreating and transforming the design model and utilize various means to display the final form of the model. One of these means, the traditional paper-based media of design representation (drawings, mockup models) alienate the representation from the design model, largely due to the lack of the display of the 4th dimension. Architecture is essentially a four-dimensional issue, incorporating the life of the edifice and the dynamic perception of the space by people. However, computer generated simulations (walkthrough, flythrough, virtual reality applications) of architectural design give us the chance to represent the design model in 4D, which is not possible in the traditional media. Thus, they introduce a potential field of use and study in architectural design.

Most of the studies done for the effective use of this potential of computer aid in architectural design assert that the way architects design without the computer is not "familiar" to the way architects are led to design with the computer. In other words, they complain that the architectural design software does not work in the same way as the architects think and design the models in their brains. Within the above framework, this study initially discusses architectural design as a modeling process and defines computer generated simulations (walkthrough, flythrough, virtual reality) as models. Based on this discussion, the "familiarity" of architectural design and computer aided design is displayed. And then, it is asserted that the issue of familiarity should be discussed not from the point of the modeling procedure, but from the "trueness" of the model displayed.

Therefore, it is relevant to ask to what extent should the simulation simulate the design model. The simulation, actually, simulates not what is real, but what is unreal. In other words, the simulation tells lies in order to display the truth. Consequently, the study proposes measures as to how true a simulation model should be in order to represent the design model best.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:45

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id a73a
authors Streich, Bernd
year 1996
title 3D-Scanning and 3D-Printing for Media Experimental Design Work in Architecture
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 183-190
summary Architects and designers use multiple media to explore and express design solutions. The physical model remains one of the most important media to represent the architect’s work that cannot completely be substituted by computer graphics.

The experimental use of various media is of major Importance for architects. Nevertheless, the author of this article is convinced that architects and designers will continue to make physical models. During the design process. however, the designer might wish to transfer the design idea into the computer. If he has already made a physical model, it will take him much time to recreate the same model on the screen by means of his CAD programs. This would be different if it were possible to digitize the existing physical model and then to continue designing on the computer. In this paper, the author describes some 3D-scanning methods based, on computer tomograms. Also the inverse combination of modeling and digitizing would be useful. So-called 3D-printing methods could help architects to transform their model on the screen into physical models during or at the end of the computer supported design process.

In this paper, the author will give a survey on how designers can use input and output devices to generate digital data from a physical model and - vice versa - to transform a digital design solution into a physical model. The reader will get an impression of both procedures from the examples given.

series ACADIA
email streich@rhrk.uni-kl.de
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id acadia16_140
id acadia16_140
authors Nejur, Andrei; Steinfeld, Kyle
year 2016
title Ivy: Bringing a Weighted-Mesh Representations to Bear on Generative Architectural Design Applications
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 140-151
summary Mesh segmentation has become an important and well-researched topic in computational geometry in recent years (Agathos et al. 2008). As a result, a number of new approaches have been developed that have led to innovations in a diverse set of problems in computer graphics (CG) (Sharmir 2008). Specifically, a range of effective methods for the division of a mesh have recently been proposed, including by K-means (Shlafman et al. 2002), graph cuts (Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008; Katz and Tal 2003), hierarchical clustering (Garland et al. 2001; Gelfand and Guibas 2004; Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008), primitive fitting (Athene et al. 2004), random walks (Lai et al.), core extraction (Katz et al.) tubular multi-scale analysis (Mortara et al. 2004), spectral clustering (Liu and Zhang 2004), and critical point analysis (Lin et al. 20070, all of which depend upon a weighted graph representation, typically the dual of a given mesh (Sharmir 2008). While these approaches have been proven effective within the narrowly defined domains of application for which they have been developed (Chen 2009), they have not been brought to bear on wider classes of problems in fields outside of CG, specifically on problems relevant to generative architectural design. Given the widespread use of meshes and the utility of segmentation in GAD, by surveying the relevant and recently matured approaches to mesh segmentation in CG that share a common representation of the mesh dual, this paper identifies and takes steps to address a heretofore unrealized transfer of technology that would resolve a missed opportunity for both subject areas. Meshes are often employed by architectural designers for purposes that are distinct from and present a unique set of requirements in relation to similar applications that have enjoyed more focused study in computer science. This paper presents a survey of similar applications, including thin-sheet fabrication (Mitani and Suzuki 2004), rendering optimization (Garland et al. 2001), 3D mesh compression (Taubin et al. 1998), morphin (Shapira et al. 2008) and mesh simplification (Kalvin and Taylor 1996), and distinguish the requirements of these applications from those presented by GAD, including non-refinement in advance of the constraining of mesh geometry to planar-quad faces, and the ability to address a diversity of mesh features that may or may not be preserved. Following this survey of existing approaches and unmet needs, the authors assert that if a generalized framework for working with graph representations of meshes is developed, allowing for the interactive adjustment of edge weights, then the recent developments in mesh segmentation may be better brought to bear on GAD problems. This paper presents work toward the development of just such a framework, implemented as a plug-in for the visual programming environment Grasshopper.
keywords tool-building, design simulation, fabrication, computation, megalith
series ACADIA
type paper
email ksteinfe@berkeley.edu
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id a9ca
authors Abadi Abbo, Isaac
year 1996
title EFFECTIVENESS OF MODELS
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Architects use many types of models to simulate space either in their design process or as final specifications for building them. These models have been proved useful or effective for specific purposes. This paper evaluates architectural models in terms of five effectiveness components: time of development, cost, complexity, variables simulated and ecological validity. This series of models, used regularly in architecture, are analysed to finally produce a matrix that shows the effectiveness of the different models for specific purposes in architectural design, research and education. Special emphasis is given to three specific models: 1/10 scale, full-scale and computer generated.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2016/02/17 12:47

_id 6ec6
authors Alsayyad, Nezar, Elliott, Ame and Kalay, Yehuda
year 1996
title Narrative Models: A Database Approach to Modeling Medieval Cairo
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 247-254
summary This paper explores the use of three-dimensional simulations to investigate transformations of urban form in medieval Cairo, and lessons about using computers to support historical visualization. Our first attempt to create a single extremely detailed model of Cairo proved unworkable. From this experience we developed a database approach to organizing modeling projects of complex urban environments. The database consists of several complete models at different levels of abstraction. This approach has three advantages over the earlier one: the model is never viewed as incomplete, the framework supports both additive and subtractive chronological studies, and finally, the database is viewed as infinitely expandable. Using modeling software as a tool for inquiry into architectural history becomes more feasible with this new approach.
series ACADIA
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id e29d
authors Arvesen, Liv
year 1996
title LIGHT AS LANGUAGE
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary With the unlimited supply of electric light our surroundings very easily may be illuminated too strongly. Too much light is unpleasant for our eyes, and a high level of light in many cases disturbs the conception of form. Just as in a forest, we need shadows, contrasts and variation when we compose with light. If we focus on the term compose, it is natural to conceive our environment as a wholeness. In fact, this is not only aesthetically important, it is true in a physical context. Inspired by old windows several similar examples have been built in the Trondheim Full-scale Laboratory where depth is obtained by constructing shelves on each side of the opening. When daylight is fading, indirect artificial light from above gradually lightens the window. The opening is perceived as a space of light both during the day and when it is dark outside.

Another of the built examples at Trondheim University which will be presented, is a doctor's waitingroom. It is a case study of special interest because it often appears to be a neglected area. Let us start asking: What do we have in common when we are waiting to come in to a doctor? We are nervous and we feel sometimes miserable. Analysing the situation we understand the need for an interior that cares for our state of mind. The level of light is important in this situation. Light has to speak softly. Instead of the ordinary strong light in the middle of the ceiling, several spots are selected to lighten the small tables separating the seats. The separation is supposed to give a feeling of privacy. By the low row of reflected planes we experience an intimate and warming atmosphere in the room. A special place for children contributes to the total impression of calm. In this corner the inside of some shelves are lit by indirect light, an effect which puts emphasis on the small scale suitable for a child. And it also demonstrates the good results of variation. The light setting in this room shows how light is “caught” two different ways.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:34

_id d610
authors Burdea, G.C.
year 1996
title Force and Touch Feedback for Virtual Reality
source New York: John Wiley & Sons
summary Could weight, temperature, and texture combine to bring simulated objects to life? Describing cutting-edge technology that will influence the way we interact with computers for years to come, this pioneering book answers yes: not only is it possible, but devices capable of providing force and tactile sensory feedback already exist. Force and Touch Feedback for Virtual Reality is the first comprehensive source of information on the design, modeling, and applications of force and tactile interfaces for VR. It is a must have for scientists, engineers, psychologists, and developers involved in VR, and for anyone who would like to gain a deeper understanding of this exciting and fast-growing field. Complete with hundreds of tables, figures, and color illustrations, Force and Touch Feedback for Virtual Reality offers * Basic information on human tactile sensing and control and feedback actuator technology * A worldwide survey of force and tactile interface devices, from the simple joystick to full-body instrumented suits based on human factor tests * Step-by-step instructions for realistic physical modeling of virtual object characteristics such as weight, surface smoothness, compliance, and temperature * A unified treatment of the benefits of the new haptic interface technology for simulation and training based on human factor tests * A detailed analysis of optimum control requirements for force and tactile feedback devices * A review of emerging applications in areas ranging from surgical training and entertainment to telerobotics and the military
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c2ab
authors Chiu, Mao Lin
year 1996
title Prototypes, Variation and Composition: A Formal Design Approach in Urban Housing Design with Computer Assistance
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 287-298
summary This paper outlines a formal design approach for teaching 3D modeling in computer-aided architecture design studios, and various design principles are used in the process, particularly the generalization, variation and composition. The teaching agenda includes: (1) a formal design approach of housing design, (2) design collaboration, and (3) computer-aided architectural design. // The research agenda includes: (1) incorporation of the formal design approach with the urban infill theory, and (2) development of a computation design method. // The studio project is demonstrated to highlight the implementation of the approach.

keywords Computer-aided Design, Prototypes, Housing Design, Formal Design Method
series CAADRIA
email mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id 3ac1
authors Claridge, R.
year 1996
title Rendering: Then and Now
source CADENCE 11(8), pp. 28-30
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (spietsch@arch.adelaide.edu.au)
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:27

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