CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 101 to 120 of 483

_id a4a4
authors Pellegrino, Anna and Caneparo, Luca
year 1996
title Lighting Simulation for Architectural Design: a Case Study
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 335-346
summary The paper considers some of the lighting simulation instruments at present available to architects for lighting design. We study the usability and accuracy of various systems, scale models, numerical simulations, rendering programs. An already built environment is the reference comparison for the accuracy of the simulation systems. The accuracy of the systems is evaluated for respectively quantitative simulation and qualitative visualisation. Quantitatively, the programs compute photometric values in physical units in a discrete number of points of the environment. Qualitatively, the programs generate images of visible radiation comparable to photographs of the real environment. They combine calculations with computer graphics, that is, they translate numerical values into images.

series eCAADe
email luca.caneparo@polito.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id ddssup9611
id ddssup9611
authors Polidori, MaurIcio Couto
year 1996
title Built Form Impact Assessment Method of Description
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Continuous change in contemporary cities heve produced an urban space tipollogically diverse, particulary in fast growing South-American countries. As a result, the straight contextual analysis, usually used to assess the degree of innovation/permanence of new buildings in urban settings becomes ineffective, for the simple reason that frequently it is virtually impossible to establish what the context dominance actually is. The method proposed in this paper takes the issue of tipological analysis from a systems approach. This is carried out by a series of procedures, such as: a) identifying buildings'constitutive parts, which can be done at any degree of detail; b) listing them according to their attributes of repertory and formal composition. ;with this it is obtained a extensive catalogue of the entities taking part of the considered urban setting, from which the actual context can be depicted; c) listing each entity's participation in the landscape composition, or the role each one has in the landscape configuration. The software that operates the analysis does the rest, measuring the degree of innovation/permanence of each entity, in relation to the others, and defining what the context is made of.. From this, any inclusion/exclusion in the considered townscape is automatically evaluated in terms of impact on the pre-existing setting. The system can be used at any urban scale, as well as at the building scale.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 8804
authors QaQish, R. and Hanna, R.
year 1997
title A World-wide Questionnaire Survey on the Use of Computers in Architectural Education
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The paper reports on a study which examines the impact on architectural education needs arising from the changes brought about by the implications of CAD teaching/learning (CAI/CAL). The findings reflect the views of fifty-one (51) architecture schools through a world-wide questionnaire survey conducted in mid 1996. The survey was structured to cover four continents represented by seven countries, namely the USA, UK, Israel, Australia, Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands. Structurally the main findings of this study are summarised under five areas, namely: 1) General Information, 2) Program of Study (curriculum) and CAD course, 3) CAD Laboratories: Hardware, Software, 4) Departmental Current and Future Policies, 5) Multi-media and Virtual Reality. Principally, there were three main objectives for using the computers survey. Firstly, to accommodate a prevalent comprehension of CAD integration into the curriculum of architecture schools world wide. Secondly, to identify the main key factors that control the extent of association between CAD and architectural curriculum. Thirdly, to identify common trends of CAD teaching in Architecture schools world-wide and across the seven countries to establish whether there are any association between them. Several variables and factors that were found to have an impact on AE were examined, namely: the response rate, the conventional methods users and the CAD methods users amongst students, CAD course employment in the curriculum, age of CAD employment, the role of CAD in the curriculum, CAD training time in the Curriculum, CAD laboratories/Hardware & Software, computing staff and technicians, department policies, Multi-Media (MM) and Virtual-Reality (VR). The statistical analysis of the study revealed significant findings, one of which indicates that 35% of the total population of students at the surveyed architecture schools are reported as being CAD users. Out of the 51 architecture schools who participated in this survey, 47 have introduced CAD courses into the curriculum. The impact of CAD on the curriculum was noted to be significant in several areas, namely: architectural design, architectural presentation, structural engineering, facilities management, thesis project and urban design. The top five CAD packages found to be most highly used across universities were, namely, AutoCAD (46), 3DStudio (34), Microstation (23), Form Z (17), ArchiCAD (17). The findings of this study suggest some effective and efficient future directions in adopting some form of effective CAD strategies in the curriculum of architecture. The study also serves as an evaluation tool for computing teaching in the design studio and the curriculum.

 

keywords CAD Integration, Employment, Users and Effectiveness
series eCAADe
email r.qaqish@gsa.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/qaqish/qaqish.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id ddssup9623
id ddssup9623
authors Qingming, Zhan and Zhengdong, Huang
year 1996
title GIS Support for urban planning in wuhan, p.r.china
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The shift from a planned economy to a market economy has been a great challenge for the urban planning bureau of Wuhan. This challenge lies partially in finding new land for the rapid urban expansion as well as redeveloping existing urban areas especially inner city areas. The urban planning bureau initiated two projects: the revision of the master plan and the development of an urban renewal plan. In both plans the university assisted in spatial data analysis and the development of a spatial data model to support the inner city redevelopment process.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e09a
authors Rüdiger, Bjarne
year 1996
title The Masonry House Raised as an Exhibition and Information Building
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 387-390
summary At many schools of architecture the studies are directed to practical, professional use, and this fact results in different attitudes. But normally, it will be so that the longer the student goes in the study the more aspects from practice will be involved. Therefore, the studies passes from the work with the design itself and the more artistic sides to the work with planning and production. The basis of the educational progress and the professional level is research and development. Within CAD it is important that this research develops as well the theoretical foundation and includes experience in the practical use. An attitude which prioritizes the practical qualifications late in the studies has of course an effect in the CAD instruction. Tendencies to consider the computer to be a tool of drawing and visualization will dominate, and the work with structuralized information models for a general documentation has had minor interest until now, and this also includes the use of professional applications developed from different conventions in support of collaboration and quality control. The dialogue between the environment of education and research on one hand and the professional business in practice must be considered important for the developing process in the use of CAD and for the building of usable IT models. The work with "The Masonry House" and later "The Building Trade House" tries to expose how a deliberate structuralization of the CAD model early in the sketching- and planning process can support as well the more esthetic estimates as the building technology documentation. And also point out the professional qualifications bound up with 11 to be integrated in the study course.
series eCAADe
email Bjarne.Rudiger@karch.dk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id ddssar9626
id ddssar9626
authors Sariyildiz, Sevil and Schwenck, Mathias
year 1996
title Integrated Support Systems for Architectural Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Many software systems are used in the field of architectural design. On the other hand, we can state that there is a significant lack of integrated systems providing a general support for the designer during the whole design process from initiative till demolition. This research project deals with the development of such an integrated design support system. We consider a complete automation of architectural design as an unlikely proposition and undesirable for the architect. Therefore, the general objective is to give support to the architect to improve the quality and to increase the efficiency of the design process. So far there are different tools providing such functionality. Nevertheless, there are no appropriate tools for many of the sub-processes. Furthermore, the current state of available design software is characterised by a lack of integration of different tools. To overcome these two problems our research project involves the development of tools as well as it deals with the aspect of tool integration. We will give a general description of the support that software can offer to architects during the materialisation phase of design. We conclude that many different tools are needed which have to be integrated in an open, modular, distributed, user friendly and efficient environment.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup9616
id ddssup9616
authors Schmidt-Belz, B., Voß, A., Emkes, L. and Coulon, C.H.
year 1996
title How to support city planning using map interpretation techniques
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary We suggest and motivate a system to support city traffic planning. Our approach is derived from Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), where former experiences (cases) are stored and made available for reuse. To start with, a collection of examples from books or other sources is stored as hypermedia documents. Retrieval of useful examples is enabled by describing (indexing) the examples in several aspects. While some descriptors have to be attached by users or system administrators, others could be automatically inferred. The vision is, that in the long run cases are derived from GIS plans and the CBR support is an integrated tool in a GIS working environment.
series DDSS
email Barbara.Schmidt-Belz@gmd.de
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup9618
id ddssup9618
authors Stamps, Arthur E.
year 1996
title Significant visual impact: Is it or isn't it?
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Thirty-eight countries, from all continents except Antarctica, have formal environmental impact review procedures. These impact procedures typically require distinctions between "significant impacts" and "non-significant" impacts. For some issues, such as visual quality, distinguishing the major from the trivial impacts is especially difficult. This paper outlines a theory of visual impacts, shows how the theory can be implemented, and illustrates the theory with three cases histories and a survey of research on the effects of various planning policies. The case histories are examples of statutory and discretionary design review in California and include specifying bay windows on houses, specifying contextual fit, and a before and after study of decisions of a review board. The talk concludes with a discussion of the ranges over which the theory will or will not be applicable and of the opportunities for future cooperative international research.
series DDSS
email aestamps@ix.netcom.com
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar9632
id ddssar9632
authors Sun M. and Lockley S.R.
year 1996
title A STEP Towards a Computer based Integrated Building Design System
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Building design is a multi-actor and multi-task process. In a design project architects, engineers and other specialists need to exchange information in order to produce a coherent design. These design participants often have different views of the design from their own perspectives. The aim of an integrated building design system is to develop a building data model that integrates all views so that building information can be exchanged in electronic form between the designers and also throughout various design stages. This paper introduces an integrated building design system developed as part of the European project, Computer Models for the Building Industry in Europe. It concentrates on the development of the Data Exchange System which is a central data repository implemented using an object oriented database and ISO STEP technology and it is able to support concurrent engineering, versioning, history tracing and other data transaction management
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar9633
id ddssar9633
authors Szalapaj, Peter and Kane, Andrew
year 1996
title Techniques of Superimposition
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary This paper addresses the issues of 2-D and 3-D image manipulation in the context of a Computational Design Formulation System. The central feature of such a system is the ability to bring together two or more design objects in the same reference space for the purpose of analysis. Studies of traditional design methods has revealed the effectiveness of this technique of superimposition. This paper describes ways in which superimposition can be achieved, and, in particular, focuses on a range of domain-independent knowledge-based graphical operators that enable the decomposition of complex design forms into simpler aspects (secondary models) that can then be superimposed and/or analysed from a design-theoretic point of view. Examples of domain-independent knowledge-base graphical operators include object selection, planar bisection, 2-D closure (the grouping of lines into regions), aggregation (the decomposition of 2-D regions into aggregations of lines), spatial bisection, 3-D closure (the grouping of 2-D regions into volumes), 3-D aggregation (the decomposition of volumes into aggregations of 2-D regions). The representation of these operators is dependent upon the notion of a parameterisable volume, thus avoiding the need for translations between multiple representations of graphical objects by providing a common representation form for all objects. Secondary models can therefore subsequently be manipulated either through subtractive procedures (e.g. carving voids from solids), or by additive ones (e.g. assembling given design elements), or by other means such as transformation or distortion. The same techniques of superimposition can also be used to support the visualisation of design forms in two ways: by the juxtaposition of plans and sections with the 3-D form; by the multiple superimposition of alternative design representations e.g. structural schematic, parti schematic, volumetric schematic and architectural model.
keywords Design Formulation, Superimposition, Primary Model, Secondary Model, Parameterisable Volume
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9851
id ddss9851
authors Torre, Carmelo and Selicato, Francesco
year 1998
title Consequences of Interdisciplinary Approaches in the Construction ofKnowledge-Bases
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The character of interdisciplinarity in planning approaches create a new, intriguing, emerging complexity (Funtowitcz and Ravetz, 1994) in problems and in knowledge-structuring of contexts of planning practices. The key-role played by information systems (IS) implicates a re-consideration ofcharacter of knowledge to be used in knowledge-bases. The necessity of considering knowledge domains coming from social, cultural, economical, technical, physical and naturalistic approaches means dealing with different scales of value, with non homogenous parameters. The necessity ofmanaging flexible knowledge rises on the fore as fundamental issue for future information system oriented to supporting decisions. Might information systems be useful in this interdisciplinary approach ? It is necessary to contain in a knowledge-base both quantitative and qualitativeinformation ? Three alternatives are available for a conceptual discussion :the possibility of identify new approaches, in order to develop information systems able in managing new knowledge; the necessity of adding new support systems oriented to manage soft knowledge, to traditionalgeographic information systems (GIS); the possibility of non using support systems coming from a technological vision of problem for nontechnical knowledge (Latouche 1996). The first two paragraphs are due to F. Selicato. The third and the fourth paragraph are due to C. Torre.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup9606
id ddssup9606
authors Van der Flier, C.L. and Thomsen, A.F.
year 1996
title Weighing alternatives decision support systems for housing management in the Netherlands
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Under nowadays market conditions housing quality will be a major issue for the management of the housing stock. Even under the existing housing shortness in the Netherlands vacancy and demolition of post-war housing blocks is not any more a rare incident. In most cases the reason of depreciation and decay is found in a mismatch between supply and demand, caused by either an inadequate design or shifted market conditions.To cure the problems a range of possible interventions has been developed, varying from neglection and minor changes to radical redesign and demolition. Recently some decision support systems are developed to overview and compare the consequences of different concepts and strategies. Our paper provides an overview of recent Dutch tools and systems for this purpose, partly including computer software. Special attention is paid to the weighing of alternative interventions and practical experiences.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup9620
id ddssup9620
authors van der Waerden, P., Borgers, A. and Timmerinans, H.
year 1996
title Route related data of shopping centre visitors and geographical information systems
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Pedestrian route information can support different research activities such as the calculation of economic performances of shopping streets, the evaluation of parking policy measures, and the development of pedestrian design standards. These research activities are helpful in planning and designing shopping centres. Pedestrians' routes are used to measure walking distances, calculate other route related data, and estimate pedestrians' densities. To use route related data efficiently, it is necessary to capture the observed routes of pedestrians in some kind of computer system. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) might offer an opportunity to deal with route related data because they can handle spatial and non-spatial data for example of line segments. However, very few GIS offer tools to enter, store, analyze and display route related data. In the new version of TransCAD a special Route System module is implemented to handle routes. The route system stores the routes, the different links routes are made up, and the possible stops on the route in separate tables that can be analyzed and displayed in a map. This paper describes the structure and the contents of pedestrians' route information as it can be used in various research projects. From these research projects some general requirements to handle route related, are extracted. Special attention is paid to the way TransCAD deals with routes. A parking research conducted in the main shopping centre of Veldhoven is used to describe and illustrate the possibilities of route related data of pedestrians, and evaluate the possibilities TransCAD offers to deal with this kind of data.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar9635
id ddssar9635
authors Vasquez de Velasco de la Puente, G.P. and Angulo MendIvil, A.H.
year 1996
title Professional Decision Support Clients and Instructional Knowledge Based Servers
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The paper sets its focus on the problem of supporting the decision making process of the architect by means of Knowledge Based Systems that tend to concentrate on narrow domains of knowledge and fail to support global domain integration in our path towards an architectural synthesis. In response to this concern, the paper recognises the theoretical soundness of Integrated Decision Support Systems that seek the articulation of diversified knowledge based resources in pursue of achieving integral design support, but at the same time, the paper needs to acknowledge the multiple factors that have limited their wide spread development, in particular: lack of true commercial interest and a related absence of relevant authorship. From a conceptual and a commercial perspective, the paper transfers the traditional development scenario of our Integrated Decision Support Systems, and their array of knowledge based resources, into the market place of world-wide networks where Integrated Decision Support Platforms may perform as professional high-end clients and Knowledge Based Systems may be clustered within multimedia instructional servers. The paper ends by making reference to the positive reaction of a given group of practising architects that were recently exposed to a simulation of the intelligent front-end of a professional decision support client.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e7e0
authors Watanabe, Shun
year 1996
title Computer Literacy in Design Education
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 1-10
summary Many Schools of Architecture in Japan installed many computers in their class rooms, and have already begun courses for CAAD skill. But in many cases, few teachers make their efforts for this kind of education personally. Having limited staff prevents one from making the global program of design education by using computers.

On the other hand, only teaching how to use individual CAD/CG software in architectural and urban design is already out of date in education. Students will be expected to adapt themselves to the coming multi-media society. For example, many World Wide Web services were started commercially and the Internet has become very familiar within the last year. But I dare to say that a few people can enjoy Internet services actually in schools of Architecture and construction companies.

Students should be brought up to improve their ability of analysing, planning and designing by linking various software technologies efficiently in the word-wide network environment and using them at will. In future design education, we should teach that computers can be used not only as a presentation media of architectural form, but also as a simulation media of architectural and urban design from various points of view.

The University of Tsukuba was established about 25 years ago, and its system is different from the other universities in Japan. In comparison with other faculties of Architecture and Urban Planning, our Faculty is very multi-disciplinary, and ability of using computers has been regarded as the essential skill of foundation. In this paper, I will introduce how CAAD education is situated in our global program, and discuss the importance of computer literacy in architectural and urban design education.

keywords Computer Literacy, Design Education, CAD, Internet
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/03/03 20:34

_id ef47
authors Wiegand, T.
year 1996
title Interactive Rendering of CSG Models
source Computer Graphics Forum, Vol. 15, No. 4.
summary We describe a CSG rendering algorithm that requires no evaluation of the CSG tree beyond normalization and pruning. It renders directly from the normalized CSG tree and primitives described (to the graphics system) by their facetted boundaries. It behaves correctly in the presence of user defined, "near'' and "far'' clipping planes. It has been implemented on standard graphics workstations using Iris GL and OpenGL graphics libraries. Modestly sized models can be evaluated and rendered at interactive (less than a second per frame) speeds. We have combined the algorithm with an existing B-rep based modeller to provide interactive rendering of incremental updates to large models.
series journal
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id 2b76
authors Winkenbach, G. and Salesin, D.H.
year 1996
title Rendering free-form surfaces in pen and ink
source Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series 1996. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 469-476.
summary This paper presents new algorithms and techniques for rendering parametric free-form surfaces in pen and ink. In particular, we introduce the idea of "controlled-density hatching" for conveying tone, texture, and shape. The fine control over tone this method provides allows the use of traditional texture mapping techniques for specifying the tone of pen-and-ink illustrations.We also show how a planar map, a data structure central to our rendering algorithm, can be constructed from parametric surfaces, and used for clipping strokes and generating outlines. Finally, we show how curved shadows can be cast onto curved objects for this style of illustration.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddssup9622
id ddssup9622
authors Witlox, F.J.A., Arentze, T.A. and Timmermans, H.J.P.
year 1996
title Constructing and consulting fuzzy decision tables
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary In this paper, we investigate a methodological issue associated with the use of decision tables (DTs). In particular, a predominant problem concerns the categorization of the condition and action states in a DT. This categorization is assumed to exhibit a discrete (or crisp) character. Although sharply defined discrete categorizations imply an. accurate and precise decision-making, in many real time problems it proves to be a too stringent and severe assumption to impose on the choice maker. In order to solve this problem, we will enhance the DT formalism to incorporate elements from the theory of fuzzy sets. The construction of a fuzzy decision table (FDT) is explained in a step-by-step manner and illustrated by means of a brief example in the field of location theory. The paper concludes with an assessment of how to use and consult a FDT.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ae1b
authors Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga C.
year 1998
title Chaos, Databases and Fractal Dimension of Regional Architecture
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 267-270
summary Modern research on chaos started in the 60's from an incredible finding that simple mathematical equations can model systems as complicated as waterfalls. In the 70's some scientists in the USA and in Europe started to find their way through the chaos. They were dealing with different spheres of science: mathematics, physics, biology, chemistry, physiology, ecology, economy. In the next 10 years? time the term 'chaos' has become generally known in science. Scientists gather in research groups according to their interests as to chaos and secondly according to their scientific specialities. (Gleick 1996) Objects that described chaos were irregular in shape, ripped. In 1975 Benoit Mandelbrot called them fractals. Fractal dimension that described fractal objects was also his invention. Fractal dimension is a way to measure quality: the degree of harshness, uneveness, irregularity of a given object. Carl Bovill (1996) showed how one can use fractal geometry in architecture and designing. This very fact made me try to use fractal geometry to deal with regional architecture. What or who is the degree of regionality of a given object to be for? A specially qualified person is able to state it nearly automatically. However, regionality is in some sense an unmeasurable feature. While dealing with data basis or checking particular projects, creation of procedures of automatic acquiring information concerning regionality is becoming a necessity.
series eCAADe
email zarnow@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/20zarnowiecka/index.htm
last changed 1998/09/26 08:39

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