CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0ec9
authors Agranovich-Ponomareva. E., Litvinova, A. And Mickich, A.
year 1996
title Architectural Computing in School and Real Designing
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 25-28
summary The existing system of architectural education ( including computer ) as has shown practice has appeared not absolutly perfect. It not capable to dynamic changes, active introduction of a new engineering and computer technologies, to realization about of the inquiries of a modern time. It suggest of a way of search of new models of computer training. The computer education is represented by us as certain a universal system, which permits to solve the problem of arcitectural education at a higher level. The opportunities of computers and computer technologies at such approach are used as means of increase of efficiency teaching and training. The orientation goes on final result: a opportunity to generate of the creative decisions by learnees, based on attraction of received knowledge and use for their realization of arsenal of practical skills and skills. The system represents not only certain set of experiences elements, necessary and final result sufficient for achievement, but also quite certain interrelation between them. It means, that the knowledge from a initial rate " The Introduction in computer training" must be secured and transformed for utilization in special rates and through them- in practice. The functional nucleus of the software package of such universal system is under construction as opened, apparatus an independent system. A central part of a system is a database, the structure of which is uniform for all other modules and side of enclosures. The conceptual model of a system is under construction on principles structure idea, visualization, multimedia. The listed principles are realized in model so that to encourage the user to independent creative work.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 8ded
authors Anders, Peter
year 1996
title Envisioning Cyberspace: The Design of On-Line Communities
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 55-67
summary The development of the World Wide Web into an active, visual social environment poses unique opportunities for the design professions. Multi-user Domains, social meeting places in cyberspace, are mostly text-based virtual realities which use spatial references to set the stage for social interaction. Over the past year design students at the New Jersey Institute of Technology School of Architecture have investigated several text-based domains. In the course of their work, they envisioned and graphically portrayed these environments as immersive virtual realities through the use of computer animation. Their studies addressed issues ranging from the nature of symbolic motion to social/political structures of these domains.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id c4be
authors Bock, T., Stricker, D., Fliedner, J. and Huynh, T.
year 1996
title Automatic generation of the controlling-system for a wall construction robot
source Automation in Construction 5 (1) (1996) pp. 15-21
summary In this article we present several important aspects of a software system control. This is designed and developed for a wall assembly robot in an European Esprit III project called ROCCO, RObot assembly system for Computer integrated COnstruction. The system consists of an off-line program for planning of complex assembly tasks and for generating robot actions. The execution is controlled through an adaptive user interface and gives the user the possibilities to switch in an on-line mode command. All the software is designed with the object-oriented concept and implemented in C + +. The wall assembly system is organized on the base of the successive generation of different types of actions, called "Mission", "Task", and "Action". They represent different levels of assembly complexities. Those different actions are organized in a tree structure. Furthermore, the software system can be connected to a CAD-robot simulation software for checking the robot assembly motions. Added to the control system, a recovery module has been implemented for all possible errors during the construction. First the OO-model of the world and of robot activities will be presented. Secondly, several aspects of the algorithm will be explained and at the end we will show the strategy used for the robot motion.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 6abd
authors Dawson, Anthony and Burry, Mark
year 1996
title The Continuing Dichotomy: Practice vs. Education
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 131-142
summary While it is apparent from the architectural literature that some practices are innovative in their use of computers for architectural design, clear evidence indicates that most architectural practices have applied computing to traditional practice paradigms. Information technology is therefore being applied to practice systems which were in place prior to computers being available. This has significant implications for architectural education in which there is tension developing between the requirements of the commercially oriented architectural practice and the innovation driven computer-aided architectural design educator. The first wishes to equip graduates for immediate and productive employment in computerised architectural practices and may be loosely interpreted as a graduate’s ability to work as a CAD operator within an architectural practice environment. The second has the desire for students to be innovative in their use of information technology as an aid in informing and evaluating parts of both the design process and its outcomes. However, it is only when both architects and educators identify the architectural process as an integrated information system that these tensions can be resolved. This requires reconsideration of the function and use of information technology in both educational institutions and in architectural practices. The paper discusses how fruitful this can be in the current environment and outlines current developments at Deakin University which aim at providing a middle ground
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/17 13:38

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id ga0024
id ga0024
authors Ferrara, Paolo and Foglia, Gabriele
year 2000
title TEAnO or the computer assisted generation of manufactured aesthetic goods seen as a constrained flux of technological unconsciousness
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary TEAnO (Telematica, Elettronica, Analisi nell'Opificio) was born in Florence, in 1991, at the age of 8, being the direct consequence of years of attempts by a group of computer science professionals to use the digital computers technology to find a sustainable match among creation, generation (or re-creation) and recreation, the three basic keywords underlying the concept of “Littérature potentielle” deployed by Oulipo in France and Oplepo in Italy (see “La Littérature potentielle (Créations Re-créations Récréations) published in France by Gallimard in 1973). During the last decade, TEAnO has been involving in the generation of “artistic goods” in aesthetic domains such as literature, music, theatre and painting. In all those artefacts in the computer plays a twofold role: it is often a tool to generate the good (e.g. an editor to compose palindrome sonnets of to generate antonymic music) and, sometimes it is the medium that makes the fruition of the good possible (e.g. the generator of passages of definition literature). In that sense such artefacts can actually be considered as “manufactured” goods. A great part of such creation and re-creation work has been based upon a rather small number of generation constraints borrowed from Oulipo, deeply stressed by the use of the digital computer massive combinatory power: S+n, edge extraction, phonetic manipulation, re-writing of well known masterpieces, random generation of plots, etc. Regardless this apparently simple underlying generation mechanisms, the systematic use of computer based tools, as weel the analysis of the produced results, has been the way to highlight two findings which can significantly affect the practice of computer based generation of aesthetic goods: ? the deep structure of an aesthetic work persists even through the more “desctructive” manipulations, (such as the antonymic transformation of the melody and lyrics of a music work) and become evident as a sort of profound, earliest and distinctive constraint; ? the intensive flux of computer generated “raw” material seems to confirm and to bring to our attention the existence of what Walter Benjamin indicated as the different way in which the nature talk to a camera and to our eye, and Franco Vaccari called “technological unconsciousness”. Essential references R. Campagnoli, Y. Hersant, “Oulipo La letteratura potenziale (Creazioni Ri-creazioni Ricreazioni)”, 1985 R. Campagnoli “Oupiliana”, 1995 TEAnO, “Quaderno n. 2 Antologia di letteratura potenziale”, 1996 W. Benjiamin, “Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reprodizierbarkeit”, 1936 F. Vaccari, “Fotografia e inconscio tecnologico”, 1994
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 5fc4
authors Fruchter, R.
year 1996
title Conceptual Collaborative Building Design Through Shared Graphics
source IEEE Expert special issue on Al in Civil Engineering, June vol. 33-41
summary The Interdisciplinary Communication Medium computer environment integrates a shared graphic modeling environment with network-based services to accommodate many perspectives in an architecture/engineering/construction team. Communication is critical for achieving better cooperation and coordination among professionals in a multidisciplinary building team. The complexity of large construction projects, the specialization of the project participants, and the different forms of synchronous and asynchronous collaborative work increase the need for intensive information sharing and exchange. Architecture/engineering/construction (A/E/C) professionals use computers to perform a specific discipline's tasks, but they still exchange design decisions and data using paper drawings and documents. Each project participant investigates and communicates alternative solutions through representational idioms that are private to that member's profession. Other project participants must then interpret, extract, and reenter the relevant information using the conventional idioms of their disciplines and in the format required by their tools. The resulting communication difficulties often affect the quality of the final building and the time required to achieve design consensus. This article describes a computer environment, the Interdisciplinary Communication Medium (ICM), that supports conceptual, collaborative building design. The objective is to help improve communication among professionals in a multidisciplinary team. Collaborative teamwork is an iterative process of reaching a shared understanding of the design and construction domains, the requirements, the building to be built, and the necessary commitments. The understanding emerges over time, as team members begin to grasp their own part of the project, and as they provide information that lets others progress. The fundamental concepts incorporated in ICM include A communication cycle for collaborative teamwork that comprises propose-interpret-critique-explain-change notifications. An open system-integration architecture. A shared graphic modeling environment for design exploration and communication. A Semantic Modeling Extension (SME), which introduces a structured way to capture design intent. A change-notification mechanism that documents notes on design changes linked to the graphic models, and routes change notifications. Thus, the process involves communication, negotiation, and team learning.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 3386
authors Gavin, L., Keuppers, S., Mottram, C. and Penn, A.
year 2001
title Awareness Space in Distributed Social Networks
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 615-628
summary In the real work environment we are constantly aware of the presence and activity of others. We know when people are away from their desks, whether they are doing concentrated work, or whether they are available for interaction. We use this peripheral awareness of others to guide our interactions and social behaviour. However, when teams of workers are spatially separated we lose 'awareness' information and this severely inhibits interaction and information flow. The Theatre of Work (TOWER) aims to develop a virtual space to help create a sense of social awareness and presence to support distributed working. Presence, status and activity of other people are made visible in the theatre of work and allow one to build peripheral awareness of the current activity patterns of those who we do not share space with in reality. TOWER is developing a construction set to augment the workplace with synchronous as well as asynchronous awareness. Current, synchronous activity patterns and statuses are played out in a 3D virtual space through the use of symbolic acting. The environment itself however is automatically constructed on the basis of the organisation's information resources and is in effect an information space. Location of the symbolic actor in the environment can therefore represent the focus of that person's current activity. The environment itself evolves to reflect historic patterns of information use and exchange, and becomes an asynchronous representation of the past history of the organisation. A module that records specific episodes from the synchronous event cycle as a Docudrama forms an asynchronous information resource to give a history of team work and decision taking. The TOWER environment is displayed using a number of screen based and ambient display devices. Current status and activity events are supplied to the system using a range of sensors both in the real environment and in the information systems. The methodology has been established as a two-stage process. The 3D spatial environment will be automatically constructed or generated from some aspect of the pre-existing organisational structure or its information resources or usage patterns. The methodology must be extended to provide means for that structure to grow and evolve in the light of patterns of actual user behaviour in the TOWER space. We have developed a generative algorithm that uses a cell aggregation process to transcribe the information space into a 3d space. In stage 2 that space was analysed using space syntax methods (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier 1996) to allow the properties of permeability and intelligibility to be measured, and then these fed back into the generative algorithm. Finally, these same measures have been used to evaluate the spatialised behaviour that users of the TOWER space show, and will used to feed this back into the evolution of the space. The stage of transcription from information structure to 3d space through a generative algorithm is critical since it is this stage that allows neighbourhood relations to be created that are not present in the original information structure. It is these relations that could be expected to help increase social density.
keywords Algorithmic Form Generation, Distributed Workgroups, Space Syntax
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id a322
authors Gavin, Lesley
year 1996
title Practice and On -Line Learning
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 163-170
summary In response to the growing need for the provision of continuing education for architects in practice, the Open University has been examining the possibilities of offering postgraduate courses in the Built Environment. The Open University is a unique institution within the UK, in that all of its 150,000 students are taught through supported open learning. The production of teaching material for distance learning on this scale has involved the exploration of various teaching and learning methods. The OU has had over 25 years experience of distance learning as such and although many of its current teaching methods lend themselves admirably to the development of computer based distance learning, there is still ample opportunity to exploit new technologies in teaching methods. Recent developments within the field of multimedia, video conferencing etc. lend themselves admirably to visually orientated subjects such as architecture. Over the last year the programme of development into the Built Environment has involved the production of 3 pilot modules in the areas of Conservation, Sustainability in Architecture & Planning, and in Construction Technology. These modules are currently being developed for production on CD-ROM, but with a long term view that they may be offered on-line.

This paper will discuss how computer technology can be utilised in continuing education beyond schools of architecture and into a practice based environment.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/17 13:40

_id maver_088
id maver_088
authors Henriques, P., Maver, T. and Retik, A.
year 1996
title Integration of Cost Planning in the Architectural Design of Housing - "CP/CAD Model"
source Application of the Performance Concept in Building (Ed: R Becker), vol 1, 2: 105-114
summary Cost estimation in the initial phases of a project is of great interest to the construction industry. This paper proposes a new way of the integration of an architectural project and its cost estimate so as to optimise the design solutions, according to technical and economic criteria. This work explores the capacity of an elemental cost estimation method for residential buildings, when integrated with Computer Aided Design systems, to increase cost estimate precision during the early stages of design. A Cost Planning and CAD model (CP/CAD) is developed by the integration of a database and a CAD system which provides for the automatic exchange of information relative to the geometric layout of the building, the construction element build-up and the construction costs of the same. Finally the CP/CAD model is tested through the estimation of costs for some theoretical cases and also for a group of one-family houses with similar architectural characteristics. The results show the increased precision and the advantages of the model for cost estimation in the early design stages.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2015/02/20 10:37

_id 8de0
authors Kokosalakis, Jen
year 1996
title THE CAAC 3D Model as the Focus, or Vehicle for Effective Participation with the Design's Client, Observer or User
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 133-152
summary Architectural composition is central to most education and training of architects. Hence, though not every architect's role in practice deals directly with architectural composition, all will have a greater likelihood of ability to visualise and understand others' visual concepts than the average client. This text is concerned with the involvement of the client in composition of the building design. The medium of the three dimensional model, manoeuvrable at the computer screen or in Virtual Reality resembles well the intended physical reality of the designed building that the client will either own, use, occupy, or observe and so can assist tremendously. It is suggested that through this empowering vehicle of the CAAC model, far more informed response and tangible, visible vocabulary is accessible to the client to assist dialogue. This text proposes that practice can indicate better participation as a more evident principle. CAAC enables dynamic influences on the architectural composition of the building as accountable, truly potential dialogue towards design outcome from the construction team. The case rests with current exploratory cases of dynamic, participatory architectural composition activity, as a sign for the future.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 8b8d
authors Martens, B., Voigt, A. and Linzer, H.
year 1996
title Information Technologies within Academic Context: Remote Teamwork – A Challenge for the Future
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 227-232
summary "Remote Teamwork”, i.e. the substance-related cooperation of people over spatial distances in decision-situations relies on "CIVIC” (Computer-Integrated Video-Conferencing-audio-visual communication at spatial distances integrating interactively digital, spatial computer models) and "CISP” (Computer-Integrated Spatial Planning) aiming at the elaboration of suited remote-working structures of research, project transactions and teaching preferably on the basis of "ATM” (a technology of broad band telecommunications). The generation and manipulation of digital spatial models and their virtual transportation within large spatial distances represent the main research objectives. The efficient use of teaching resources calls for the integration of new teaching possibilities within the framework of "Remote Teamwork”, e.g. Distributed and Shared Modelling, Distant Learning and Remote Teaching. The Faculty of Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning therefore is stressing information technologies within academic context. The following contribution is dedicated to the focal field of research and teaching "Remote Teamwork” of the Vienna University of Technology. This project is carried out in cooperation with the Institute of Spatial Interaction and Simulation (IRIS-ISIS), Vienna and the Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC Linz-Hagenberg). Teaching experience relevant for "Remote Teamwork” is derived from various experiments of cooperative teamwork.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2002/09/04 13:43

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 2423
authors Morozumi, M., Takahasi, M., Naka, R., Kawasumi, N., Homma, R., Mitchell. W.J., Yamaguchi, S. and Iki, K.
year 1997
title The Levels of Communications Achieved Through Network in an International Collaborative Design Project: An Analysis of VDS ’96 Project Carried Out By Kumamoto University, MIT and Kyoto Institute of Technology
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 143-152
summary This paper reviewed the process and the achievements of a five-week-long virtual design studio project the authors carried out with three universities in Japan and the United States in the summer of 1996, in which there was no communication among team members other than network media. After analyzing the use of communication tools in different situations of design communication, and the level of communications achieved in this project, the authors concluded that the present network technology could provide sufficient levels of communication, if only participants could put forth some amount of extra effort for communication among team members.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id a026
authors Nagakura, Takehiko
year 1996
title Form Processing: A System for Architectural Design
source Harvard University
summary This thesis introduces a new approach to developing software for formal synthesis in architectural design. It presents theoretical foundations, describes prototype specifications for computable implementation, and illustrates some examples. The approach derives from the observation that architects explore ideas through the use of sequences of drawings. Architects derive each drawing in a sequence from its predecessor by executing some transformation on a portion of the drawing. Thus, a formal design state is established by a sequence of drawings with historical information about their construction through progressive transformations. The proposed system allows an architect to develop a design in three ways. First, a new transformation can be added to a current sequence of drawings. Second, existing sequences can be edited by exchanging their subset sequences. Third, an existing sequence can be revised parametrically by assigning new values to its design variables. The system implements scripts that specify categories of shapes and transformations between any two shape categories. When an instance of a shape category is found in a design, a transformation can replace it with an instance of another shape category. Recursive application of a given set of transformations to an initial shape instance produces a sequence of drawings that represents a formal design state. The system encodes this formal design state as an assembly of all the shape instances used and their relationships (nesting, emergent and replacement). Furthermore, this assembly, called a construction graph, allows the existing sequences to be edited efficiently by exchanging subsets and to be revised parametrically. The advantage of this approach as demonstrated in the examples is that it allows intuitive, rapid and interactive construction of complex designs. Moreover, design knowledge can be captured by scripts that depict heuristic shapes and transformations as well as by assembled construction graphs which depict cases of formal design. Such a reusable and expandable knowledge base is essential for assisting disciplined and creative architectural design.
keywords Computer Software Development; Architectural Design; Data Processing
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id e09a
authors Rüdiger, Bjarne
year 1996
title The Masonry House Raised as an Exhibition and Information Building
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 387-390
summary At many schools of architecture the studies are directed to practical, professional use, and this fact results in different attitudes. But normally, it will be so that the longer the student goes in the study the more aspects from practice will be involved. Therefore, the studies passes from the work with the design itself and the more artistic sides to the work with planning and production. The basis of the educational progress and the professional level is research and development. Within CAD it is important that this research develops as well the theoretical foundation and includes experience in the practical use. An attitude which prioritizes the practical qualifications late in the studies has of course an effect in the CAD instruction. Tendencies to consider the computer to be a tool of drawing and visualization will dominate, and the work with structuralized information models for a general documentation has had minor interest until now, and this also includes the use of professional applications developed from different conventions in support of collaboration and quality control. The dialogue between the environment of education and research on one hand and the professional business in practice must be considered important for the developing process in the use of CAD and for the building of usable IT models. The work with "The Masonry House" and later "The Building Trade House" tries to expose how a deliberate structuralization of the CAD model early in the sketching- and planning process can support as well the more esthetic estimates as the building technology documentation. And also point out the professional qualifications bound up with 11 to be integrated in the study course.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id ddssup9617
id ddssup9617
authors Sidjanin, Predrag
year 1996
title A computer simulation model of the TU district of Delft with use of the GIS and VR
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary One of the big problems for GIS users is a luck of such an visual presentation of data which will easily transform them into a spatial image. Existing systems based on Human-Computer-Interfaces (Ha) have limitations and for this reason it is necessary to discover new explicit way of spatial data presentation and manipulation. Virtual Reality technology with its specificity and characteristics based on spatial displaying and multisensory interactivity, give to VR users a new promising possibility to solve GIS limitations. This research is an exploration of integration of GIS and yR. VR is a kind of production of a simulation of a real world, and GIS-databases contain data that describe this world, therefore a success of combination of both technologies is very probable. This research shows possibilities for creating a virtual GIS world in which is possible to handle, explore, analyse and present spatial data by free navigation through a virtual model. The virtual model of Delft University of Technology's Campus presents Virtual Reality as a new type of 3D interface for GIS and demonstrates some basic GIS functions in virtual environment. It has been created by importing of GIS databases into VR system. Virtual model is based on geometric and attributive data. GIS functionality is enabled by 3D interface objects, that symbolically and semantically represents GIS functions. Their use should initiate intuitive users action. This application combines spatial data, user interface, text, sound, thematic data and virtual hypertext. Virtual model enables the use of quantitative and qualitative information. The results of the research can be implemented to support design strategies ax! decision making in the field of physical and urban planning.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 096e
authors Papamichael, K., Porta, J.L., Chauvet, H., Collins, D., Trzcinski, T. , Thorpe, J. and Selkowitz, S.
year 1996
title The Building Design Advisor
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 85-97
summary The Building Design Advisor (BDA) is a software environment that supports the integrated use of multiple analysis and visualization tools throughout the building design process, from the initial, schematic design phases to the detailed specification of building components and systems. Based on a comprehensive design theory, the BDA uses an object-oriented representation of the building and its context, and acts as a data manager and process controller to allow building designers to benefit from the capabilities of multiple tools.

The BDA provides a graphical user interface that consists of two main elements: the Building Browser and the Decision Desktop. The Browser allows building designers to quickly navigate through the multitude of descriptive and performance parameters addressed by the analysis and visualization tools linked to the BDA. Through the Browser the user can edit the values of input parameters and select any number of input and/or output parameters for display in the Decision Desktop. The Desktop allows building designers to compare multiple design alternatives with respect to any number of parameters addressed by the tools linked to the BDA.

The BDA is implemented as a Windows-based application for personal computers. Its initial version is linked to a Schematic Graphic Editor (SGE), which allows designers to quickly and easily specify the geometric characteristics of building components and systems. For every object created in the SGE, the BDA supplies “smart” default values from a Prototypical Values Database (PVD) for all non-geometric parameters required as input to the analysis and visualization tools linked to the BDA. In addition to the SGE and the PVD, the initial version of the BDA is linked to a daylight analysis tool, an energy analysis tool, and a multimedia Case Studies Database (CSD). The next version of the BDA will be linked to additional tools, such as a photo-accurate rendering program and a cost analysis program. Future versions will address the whole building life-cycle and will be linked to construction, commissioning and building monitoring tools.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 4aaa
authors Cheng-Che, L., Oloufa, A.A. and Thomas, H.R.
year 1996
title A GIS-based system for tracking pavement compaction
source Automation in Construction 5 (1) (1996) pp. 51-59
summary Compaction is an important operation for improving construction material stability in construction operations such as soils and asphalt pavement. Through the process of compaction, soil strength and stability can be increased to the magnitude required by the design. Quality control is an extremely important concern of State Highway Agencies and contractors. For asphalt pavements, performance and quality are affected by three primary factors: a properly designed mix, drainage, and adequate compaction. These three factors must be performed together to assure quality. For this reason, compaction is considered to be very important in the performance of asphalt pavements. This paper reports on research to develop a system to map the moving compaction equipment, transform this result into a geometrical representation, and to investigate the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to develop a graphical representation depicting the number of coverages. Results are stored in a permanent record that can serve as a historical document.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

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