CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 482

_id 82ff
authors Bhavnani, S.K., Flemming, U., Forsythe, D.E., Garrett, J.H., Shaw, D.S. and Tsai, A.
year 1996
title CAD usage in an architectural office: from observations to active assistance
source Automation in Construction 5 (3) (1996) pp. 243-255
summary The functionality and resources provided by CAD systems have been increasing rapidly, but productivity growth expected from their use has been difficult to achieve. Although many surveys describe this productivity puzzle, few studies have been conducted on actual CAD users to understand its causes. In an effort to arrive at such an understanding, the first author visited a federal architectural office and observed CAD users in their natural setting. This paper describes preliminary results obtained from the study, which used ethnographic techniques developed by cultural anthropologists. The study revealed that users had leveled-off in their learning and experimentation and were using the CAD system in suboptimal ways. By asking why users were not using many resources available to them to improve performance, the observer uncovered issues of communication and management that needed to be addressed. Based on this understanding, the authors provide explicit recommendations to CAD users and vendors. In addition, they hypothesize that users might benefit from a system that provides active assistance, that is, intervenes spontaneously with advice, assistance, and relevant information while the user interacts with the CAD system. They conclude with some issues revealed by the study that should be considered when developing such active assistance.
series journal paper
email ujf@cmu.edu
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id cf57
authors Anumba, C.J.
year 1996
title Functional Integration in CAD Systems
source Advances in Engineering Software, 25, 103-109
summary This paper examines the issue of integration in CAD systems and argues that for integration to be effective, it must address the functional aspects of a CAD system. It discusses the need for integrated systems and, within a structural engineering context, identifies several facets of integration that should be targeted. These include 2-D drafting and 3-D modelling, graphical and non-graphical design information, the CAD data structure and its user interface, as well as integration of the drafting function with other engineering applications. Means of achieving these levels of integration are briefly discussed and a prognosis for the future development of integrated systems explored. Particular attention is paid to the emergence (and potential role) of `product models' which seek to encapsulate the full range of data elements required to define completely an engineering artefact.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 78f0
authors Cotton, J.F.
year 1996
title Solid modeling as a tool for constructing solar envelopes
source Automation in Construction 5 (3) (1996) pp. 185-192
summary This paper presents a method for constructing solar envelopes in site planning using a 3D solid-modeling program. The solar envelope for a site is a mechanism for ensuring that planning regulations on the solar access rights of others are observed. In this application, solid modeling offers the advantage of being a general-purpose tool having the capability to handle sets of site conditions that are complex. The paper reviews the concept of solar envelopes and demonstrates the method of application of solar envelope construction to a site. Techniques for displaying the constraints on building sections imposed by a solar envelope are presented.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 3451
authors Harrison, Beverly L.
year 1996
title The Design and Evaluation of Transparent User Interfaces. From Theory to Practice
source University of Toronto, Toronto
summary The central research issue addressed by this dissertation is how we can design systems where information on user interface tools is overlaid on the work product being developed with these tools. The interface tools typically appear in the display foreground while the data or work space being manipulated typically appear in the perceptual background. This represents a trade-off in focused foreground attention versus focused background attention. By better supporting human attention we hope to improve the fluency of work, where fluency is reflected in a more seamless integration between task goals, user interface tool manipulations to achieve these goals, and feedback from the data or work space being manipulated. This research specifically focuses on the design and evaluation of transparent user interface 'layers' applied to graphical user interfaces. By allowing users to see through windows, menus, and tool palettes appearing in the perceptual foreground, an improved awareness of the underlying workspace and preservation of context are possible. However, transparent overlapping objects introduce visual interference which may degrade task performance, through reduced legibility. This dissertation explores a new interface technique (i.e., transparent layering) and, more importantly, undertakes a deeper investigation into the underlying issues that have implications for the design and use of this new technique. We have conducted a series of experiments, progressively more representative of the complex stimuli from real task domains. This enables us to systematically evaluate a variety of transparent user interfaces, while remaining confident of the applicability of the results to actual task contexts. We also describe prototypes and a case study evaluation of a working system using transparency based on our design parameters and experimental findings. Our findings indicate that similarity in both image color and in image content affect the levels of visual interference. Solid imagery in either the user interface tools (e.g., icons) or in the work space content (e.g., video, rendered models) are highly interference resistant and work well up to 75% transparent (i.e., 25% of foreground image and 75% of background content). Text and wire frame images (or line drawings) perform equally poorly but are highly usable up to 50% transparent, with no apparent performance penalty. Introducing contrasting outlining techniques improves the usability of transparent text menu interfaces up to 90% transparency. These results suggest that transparency is a usable and promising interface alternative. We suggest several methods of overcoming today's technical challenges in order to integrate transparency into existing applications.  
series thesis:PhD
email beverly@dgp.utoronto.ca
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id bb5e
authors Heintze, J., Teerhuis, P.C. and Weiden, A.J.J. v.d.
year 1996
title Controlled hydraulics for a direct drive brick laying robot
source Automation in Construction 5 (1) (1996) pp. 23-29
summary Starting from a specific task requirement a brick laying robot has been designed. The tight performance claims which have been imposed by the task specification, constitute the basis for the research on control of hydraulically driven manipulators. The main goal is to increase robot efficiency and task suitability by application of modern control techniques. The introduced cascade p inner-loop for hydraulic actuators is presented as a solution for the posed control problem.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id ddssar9615
id ddssar9615
authors Hill, S.M., Sinclair, B.S., Sandall, D., Butt, T.S., Sampson, N. and Blackie, N.
year 1996
title A Computer-Facilitated Approach for Development, Visualization and Testing of Functional Programming Information
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Functional programming processes for complex architectural projects have traditionally been hampered by the static nature of available tools and technologies. Connection with user groups have likewise been disadvantaged through the employment of sender-oriented communications models that limit feedback and interaction. In addition, diminishing project budgets place increasing pressure on clients and consult-ants to develop more effective and efficient methods for the design and construction of buildings. This paper discusses a case-study involving the design of a highly complex medical laboratory wherein infoc mation technologies were used to facilitate the development, visualization and testing of functional pro-gramming information. The objectives for the project involved creating an environment where users and clients actively participate in consideration of programming directions and implications in a manner that would not only increase confidence that the program would meet user requirements now and in the future, but also would reduce redundant and or inefficient space within the overall building programme. In the approach used the distinction between programming and design is diminished to improve communication of desires and design responses. The findings of the study indicate that the computer-facilitated approach met the objectives of the project and that the methods developed hold promise for application across a broader range of project types.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2a99
authors Keul, A. and Martens, B.
year 1996
title SIMULATION - HOW DOES IT SHAPE THE MESSAGE?
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4], pp. 47-54
summary Architectural simulation techniques - CAD, video montage, endoscopy, full-scale or smaller models, stereoscopy, holography etc. - are common visualizations in planning. A subjective theory of planners says "experts are able to distinguish between 'pure design' in their heads and visualized design details and contexts like color, texture, material, brightness, eye level or perspective." If this is right, simulation details should be compensated mentally by trained people, but act as distractors to the lay mind.

Environmental psychologists specializing in architectural psychology offer "user needs' assessments" and "post occupancy evaluations" to facilitate communication between users and experts. To compare the efficiency of building descriptions, building walkthroughs, regular plans, simulation, and direct, long-time exposition, evaluation has to be evaluated.

Computer visualizations and virtual realities grow more important, but studies on the effects of simulation techniques upon experts and users are rare. As a contribution to the field of architectural simulation, an expert - user comparison of CAD versus endoscopy/model simulations of a Vienna city project was realized in 1995. The Department for Spatial Simulation at the Vienna University of Technology provided diaslides of the planned city development at Aspern showing a) CAD and b) endoscopy photos of small-scale polystyrol models. In an experimental design, they were presented uncommented as images of "PROJECT A" versus "PROJECT B" to student groups of architects and non-architects at Vienna and Salzburg (n= 95) and assessed by semantic differentials. Two contradictory hypotheses were tested: 1. The "selective framing hypothesis" (SFH) as the subjective theory of planners, postulating different judgement effects (measured by item means of the semantic differential) through selective attention of the planners versus material- and context-bound perception of the untrained users. 2. The "general framing hypothesis" (GFH) postulates typical framing and distraction effects of all simulation techniques affecting experts as well as non-experts.

The experiment showed that -counter-intuitive to expert opinions- framing and distraction were prominent both for experts and lay people (= GFH). A position effect (assessment interaction of CAD and endoscopy) was present with experts and non-experts, too. With empirical evidence for "the medium is the message", a more cautious attitude has to be adopted towards simulation products as powerful framing (i.e. perception- and opinion-shaping) devices.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id fe09
authors Morozumi, Mitsuo and Homma, Riken
year 2001
title A Design Studio Program that Applied Groupware to Stimulate Students’ Interactions - A Case Study of Junior Studio
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 317-322
summary Since 1996, Kumamoto University has repeated several experiments to apply web-based collaborative design techniques to a junior design studio to stimulate students’ interaction in the class and to enhance their design abilities. As it became evident after a two-year experiment that writing web pages and uploading them to a web server was a barrier of communication for students, the authors developed a web-based groupware called GWNotebook, and started using it in 1998. In the fall semester of 2000, the authors tested the groupware in a revised version, and a new program of studio instructions that assumed the use of the groupware. This paper, referring students’ answers to two sets of questionnaire respectively carried out in 1997 and 2000, discusses the effectiveness of groupware and the instruction program.
keywords Design Studio, Groupware, Www, Information Sharing, Design Communication
series eCAADe
email moro@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id fadd
authors Mullet, Kevin E.
year 1996
title Designing Visual Interfaces: How to Create Communication -- Oriented Solutions Tutorial 3
source Proceedings of ACM CHI 96 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 1996 v.2 pp. 332-333
summary This tutorial describes a number of fundamental techniques applied routinely in communication-oriented visual design. The orientation, process, training, and culture of the visual design disciplines (graphic design, industrial design, interior design, architecture) are essential components of effective interface design. Unfortunately, few software developers or human factors engineers receive any training in these disciplines. This tutorial describes important design rules and techniques internalized by every visual designer through coursework and studio experience. While mastery will indeed require extended practice, the techniques we describe are not difficult to understand and can be immediately applied to real-world problems. We draw our background, training, and influence from the rational, functional, information-oriented perspective of the Modernist design ethic. Because all graphical user interfaces are communication systems, we believe their design should reflect these same values. Our tutorial is organized not along the traditional subdisciplines of color, typography, or ideation, but along the problems of graphical interface design as experienced in commercial software development. We describe basic design principles (the what and why), common errors, and practical techniques (the how) for each of the six major areas outlined below.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 7c92
authors Nickerson, S.
year 1996
title CART, Report on a Computer Assisted Recording Tool
source Automation in Construction 5 (3) (1996) pp. 161-170
summary Unlike other areas of architecture which today rely heavily on computers, as-found recording is still in the paper age. The tools available, such as Computer Aided Drafting, are better suited to describing ideas than objects, and modern survey techniques are generally slow and expensive when applied to small architectural objects. This paper describes a synthesis between these tools that allows the high speed collection of points in a simple database which is then used to automatically generate a CAD model. The final result is a Geographic Information System with each object linked to one or more database tables.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 24
authors PayssÈ, M., Piperno, P., Grompone, J. and Somma, P.
year 1998
title ReconstrucciÛn Virtual de la Colonia del Sacramento de 1762 (Virtual Reconstruction of "Colonia del Sacramento" of 1762)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 192-197
summary Colonia del Sacramento (capital of Colonia department, in Uruguay) has been registered in the list of the Convention Heritage concerning the protection of worldwide cultural and natural heritage. The registration on this list (December 6th 1995) confirms the exceptional and universal value of a cultural or natural places which deserves protection for the whole humanity. The ancient Colonia del Sacramento founded in 1680 by Portugal, was a commercial and military site leading role of the historical controversy between Spain and Portugal. Main place of wars and treaties during a century, it keeps an urban design, unique in the area and valuable architectonical testimonies of different periods of this rich past, with a simple, popular profile. This work has been effected within the Clemente Estable Found 1996, which is promoted by National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICYT). Through virtual reality techniques, a three-dimensional model of Colonia del Sacramento city was built as it was in its period of prosperity (around 1762). For the achievement of this digital maquette, a great deal of written and graphic information was compiled and processed. This information was organized in an inventory way (with numerous readings and searches). The inventory and the digital maquette were joined in a multimedia application (CD-ROM) which allows potential users to move through virtual city and friendly and interactively consult images, graphics and texts.
series SIGRADI
email idise@montevideo.com.uy
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id 3125
authors Peyret, F. Bétaille, D. and Hintzy, G.
year 2000
title High-precision application of GPS in the field of real-time equipment positioning
source Automation in Construction 9 (3) (2000) pp. 299-314
summary In the frame of its research concerning real-time positioning and control of road construction equipment, the Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, has carried out in 1996 a study to know more about the actual vertical accuracy that a real-time kinematic (RTK) global positioning system (GPS) sensor could reach, under work site conditions. This study has widely used the dedicated testing facility called SESSYL, built to perform high-accuracy and real-time evaluation tests on positioning systems. It has been performed in collaboration with the French road contractor COLAS and the Ecole Supérieure des Géomètres et Topographes (ESGT). First, there is the proposed adapted geodetic transformation procedure, compatible with the high accuracy requirements. Then, the main results of a special SESSYL tests program are presented, where the impacts of several influencing parameters on the vertical accuracy have been carefully examined. The core part of the paper is the analysis of the typical RTK GPS set of data, from which we have tried to extract two different components: a high-frequency noise, rather easy to filter, and a low-frequency bias. This bias, given its good repeatability, can be modelled and used in prediction to improve in real-time the raw accuracy of the data. As a full-scale validation of our study, a site experiment is finally described, carried out this time on a real piece of equipment (an asphalt paver) during real roadwork.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddssar9633
id ddssar9633
authors Szalapaj, Peter and Kane, Andrew
year 1996
title Techniques of Superimposition
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary This paper addresses the issues of 2-D and 3-D image manipulation in the context of a Computational Design Formulation System. The central feature of such a system is the ability to bring together two or more design objects in the same reference space for the purpose of analysis. Studies of traditional design methods has revealed the effectiveness of this technique of superimposition. This paper describes ways in which superimposition can be achieved, and, in particular, focuses on a range of domain-independent knowledge-based graphical operators that enable the decomposition of complex design forms into simpler aspects (secondary models) that can then be superimposed and/or analysed from a design-theoretic point of view. Examples of domain-independent knowledge-base graphical operators include object selection, planar bisection, 2-D closure (the grouping of lines into regions), aggregation (the decomposition of 2-D regions into aggregations of lines), spatial bisection, 3-D closure (the grouping of 2-D regions into volumes), 3-D aggregation (the decomposition of volumes into aggregations of 2-D regions). The representation of these operators is dependent upon the notion of a parameterisable volume, thus avoiding the need for translations between multiple representations of graphical objects by providing a common representation form for all objects. Secondary models can therefore subsequently be manipulated either through subtractive procedures (e.g. carving voids from solids), or by additive ones (e.g. assembling given design elements), or by other means such as transformation or distortion. The same techniques of superimposition can also be used to support the visualisation of design forms in two ways: by the juxtaposition of plans and sections with the 3-D form; by the multiple superimposition of alternative design representations e.g. structural schematic, parti schematic, volumetric schematic and architectural model.
keywords Design Formulation, Superimposition, Primary Model, Secondary Model, Parameterisable Volume
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 452d
authors Arlati, E., Bottelli, V. and Fogh, C.
year 1996
title Applying CBR to the Teaching of Architectural Design
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 41-50
summary This paper presents an approach to the analysis and description of the nature of process knowledge in architectural design, the development of a conceptual model for Galathea, a case-based navigation tool for its support, and the application of this theoretical foundation to the teaching of design to a group of about 100 second-year architecture students. Design is assumed as a globally coherent information, memory and experience-intensive process in which professional skill is the capability to govern a large number of continually evolving variables in the direction of desired change. This viewpoint on design has guided the development of Galathea, the model of a tool aimed at describing architectural design through the description, mapping and management of the complete decision-making path of projects by means of the dynamic representation of the relationship between goals, constraints and the decisions/actions adopted at specific nodes and through the creation of a case-base aimed at the storage, retrieval and adaptation of relevant design moves in similar project contexts. This conceptual model is applied to educational activity at the faculty of Architecture of Milan, with the aim of teaching how to govern a project from the outset considering it as an evolving but coherent map of design moves, which allow the adoption of the correct decisions involving the most disparate types of information, experience and memory, and which altogether conduct to the desired goal. The resolution paths of the students, all applied to the same architecture problem, result in a design move case-base, the further utilisation and interest of which is open to collegial discussion.
keywords knowledge-based design; case-based reasoning; design process control, design moves
series eCAADe
email arlati@cdc8g5.cdc.polimi.it
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c19c
authors Beliveau, Y.J.
year 1996
title What can real-time positioning do for construction?
source Automation in Construction 5 (2) (1996) pp. 79-89
summary New technologies are now available that can rapidly measure three-dimensional coordinates of objects. The integration of these fast 3-D Real-time Position Measurement (D-RtPM) devices and CAD (3D-RtPM/CAD) technologies can be viewed as a better tool for surveyors or as a means to change the most fundamental concepts of the construction industry. 3D-RtPM/CAD is a better surveying tool; however, 3D-RtPM/CAD as the basis for fundamental change within the construction industry is the issue. There are several potential technologies that can provide real-time position measurement. This paper will limit presentation to two of these. The first is based on recent developments in Global Positioning Systems. The second is a new laser-based product, OdysseyTM (Odyssey is a trademark of Spatial Positioning Systems, Inc.). Odyssey received the NOVA award in March, 1995 because of its recognized performance enhancement to the construction industry. These positioning systems provide the capability for equipment and crafts people to view the project from a graphical representation in which they see their position interactively updated. Potential benefits to the construction industry are presented. The research needed achieving maximum benefits of these systems is also presented.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 88f9
authors Carrara, G., Novembri, G., Zorgno, A.M., Brusasco, P.L.
year 1997
title Virtual Studio of Design and Technology on Internet (I) - Educator's approach
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper presents a teaching experience involving students and professors from various universities, in Italy and abroad, which began in 1996 and is still on going. The Virtual Studios on the Internet (VSI) have some features in common with the Teaching Studios planned for the new programme of the faculties of Architecture in Italian universities. These are the definition of a common design theme, and the participation of disciplinary teachers. The greatest difference is in the modes of collaboration, which is achieved through information and communication technologies. The chief result of this is that the various work groups in different places can work and collaborate at the same time: the computer networks provide the means to express, communicate and share the design project.
keywords CAAD, Teaching of architectural design, Shared virtual reality, Virtualdesign studio, Collective intelligence.
series eCAADe
email guyver@arch.hku.hk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/lvi_i&ii/zorgno.html
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

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