CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 61 to 80 of 488

_id c7d4
authors Davidson, James N. and Campbell, Dace A.
year 1996
title Collaborative Design in Virtual Space - GreenSpace II: A Shared Environment for Architectural Design Review
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 165-179
summary Design reviews and discussions are fundamental to the process of design. The ability to digitally represent three dimensional space in real-time is a new and potentially persuasive method for reviewing and analyzing a design proposal. The development of real-time rendering engines and network protocols supporting distributed interaction makes possible the idea of a shared virtual environment for architectural collaboration. This paper presents a system which facilitates the review of an architectural design between multiple participants who are remotely distributed.
series ACADIA
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 6941
authors Dawidowski, Robert
year 1996
title CAD - The Step Towards the Aim as a Lot of Others or Something Else
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 53-58
summary Right and left for years we have been swamped by information on equipment and software which is supposed change the quality and a designers' work style completely. In this computer and commercial deluge of words it is more and more difficult to get an understanding and clear attitude towards the dynamicly changing reality. Apart from the details of the CAD software and its influence on the effects of the architectural creative process, I would like to consider some problems connected with the influence of the CAD system on the architect's creative capabilities. Does it develope or limit these capabilities? Is a computer equipped with a CAD system a special tool (meaning the new values which it might give) or is it not?
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/09 13:30

_id 6abd
authors Dawson, Anthony and Burry, Mark
year 1996
title The Continuing Dichotomy: Practice vs. Education
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 131-142
summary While it is apparent from the architectural literature that some practices are innovative in their use of computers for architectural design, clear evidence indicates that most architectural practices have applied computing to traditional practice paradigms. Information technology is therefore being applied to practice systems which were in place prior to computers being available. This has significant implications for architectural education in which there is tension developing between the requirements of the commercially oriented architectural practice and the innovation driven computer-aided architectural design educator. The first wishes to equip graduates for immediate and productive employment in computerised architectural practices and may be loosely interpreted as a graduate’s ability to work as a CAD operator within an architectural practice environment. The second has the desire for students to be innovative in their use of information technology as an aid in informing and evaluating parts of both the design process and its outcomes. However, it is only when both architects and educators identify the architectural process as an integrated information system that these tensions can be resolved. This requires reconsideration of the function and use of information technology in both educational institutions and in architectural practices. The paper discusses how fruitful this can be in the current environment and outlines current developments at Deakin University which aim at providing a middle ground
series eCAADe
email tonyd@deakin.edu.au, mburry@deakin.edu.au
last changed 1998/08/17 13:38

_id 9613
authors Day, A., Bourdakis, V. and Robson, J.
year 1996
title Living with a Virtual City
source Architectural Research Quarterly, Vol 2. pp. 84-91
summary Computer models of entire cities are becoming increasingly common. The uses to which these models are put are varied and include the visualisation of proposed changes, the marketing of the facilities a city has to offer and the mapping of socio-economic data. Developments in the Internet mean that city models can be widely accessed and computer hardware and software have developed to the point where it is possible to both construct and view these models on personal computers. This paper discusses some issues relating to the construction and use of large urban models and draws upon the authors' experience of constructing the Bath computer model which remains one of the most detailed in the world.
series journal paper
email V.Bourdakis@prd.uth.gr
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 5b63
authors De Vries, Bauke
year 1996
title Communication in the building industry: a strategy for implementing electronic information
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary Information Technology in general and electronic communication in particular influence organizational structures. New communication media will change communication processes and business processes. To be able to analyze the influences of the new communication media, a clear view is required of the information flow and the information contents during a building project. Given this view, the question can be answered whether the business process and business organization fit the actual information needs. From the information flow frequency and the information contents, the most appropriate storage structure and transfer medium can be determined. The goal of this thesis is to create a formal description of the information exchange process during a building project, to provide the clear view as stated above.
series thesis:PhD
email b.d.vries@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 5e49
authors Deering, Michael F.
year 1996
title HoloSketch: A Virtual Reality Sketching/Animation Tool Special Issue on Virtual Reality Software and Technology
source Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 1995 v.2 n.3 pp. 220-238
summary This article describes HoloSketch, a virtual reality-based 3D geometry creation and manipulation tool. HoloSketch is aimed at providing nonprogrammers with an easy-to-use 3D "What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get" environment. Using head-tracked stereo shutter glasses and a desktop CRT display configuration, virtual objects can be created with a 3D wand manipulator directly in front of the user, at very high accuracy and much more rapidly than with traditional 3D drawing systems. HoloSketch also supports simple animation and audio control for virtual objects. This article describes the functions of the HoloSketch system, as well as our experience so far with more-general issues of head-tracked stereo 3D user interface design.
keywords Computer Graphics; Picture/Image Generation; Display Algorithms; Computer Graphics; Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism; Human Factors; 3D Animation; 3D Graphics; Graphics Drawing Systems; Graphics Painting Systems; Man-Machine Interface; Virtual Reality
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id ddssup9605
id ddssup9605
authors Demir, Yuksel
year 1996
title A Design & Decision Support System Proposal for Housing
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The subject of this study is to develop an information management system integrating all the related specialists and sources of information virtually from all related fields in building sector (housing) of Turkey; including design, production, construction, marketing, research. The application field has been chosen as housing for having a contribution to the existing housing problem. Although the subject of architecture is one : "the building", the specialists taking place during the lifetime of a building (from design, to destruction) are numerous. Moreover the links between practitioners, academicians, industry are missing Conventional methods, technology are expensive, time consuming. and insufficient to establish and maintain a healthy coordination between these contributors (mainly the design team and all the other related persons, institutions etc.). This has a strong negative effect on the concepts of "wholeness " and "integrity". The result is a built environment which is lacking significant qualities, while the money has been spent is even much more than required for a proper result. This means the loss of a considerable amount of resources. Especially in a country, which has to build thousands of houses each year, for low income groups, the efficient use of the limited sources becomes more essential. Though the potential user range of the system may include constructors, contractors, building element / material producers and retailers, surveyors, institutions, universities, the main user is aimed to be the architect. The system is aimed to support designers to deal with "complexity" without neglecting the concept of "wholeness". Within the study, the problems which became a stimulus for the development of this system will be investigated. The philosophical base, structure and the possible advantages of the proposal will be discussed.
keywords Design & Decision Support Systems, Information Technology, Information Management, Holistic View of Approach, Specialization
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar9605
id ddssar9605
authors Dijkstra, J., Roelen, W.A.H. and Timmermans, H.J.P.
year 1996
title Conjoint measurement in virtual environment: a framework
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Conjoint analysis (also called stated preference analysis) involves the use of designed hypothetical choice situations to measure individuals' preferences and predict their choice in new situations. Conjoint experiments involve the design and analysis of hypothetical decision tasks. Alternatives are described by their main features, called attributes. Multiple hypothetical alternatives (product profiles) are generated and presented to respondents, who are requested to express their degree of preference for these profiles. Conjoint experiments have become a popular tool to model individual preferences and decision-making in a variety of research areas. Most studies of conjoint analysis have involved a verbal description of product profiles, although some studies have used a pictorial presentation of product profiles. This paper describes a framework for a conjoint analysis system in a virtual environment. Product profiles are generated in a virtual environment and respondents are requested to choose in that virtual environment the product profile they prefer. Advantages of a virtual environment in this area of research include 3D presentation, improved experience and the possibility to include measurable attributes such as time and sound. This framework is a first attempt to explore the possibilities of virtual reality systems in conjoint analysis.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id acb9
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 1996
title The Right Tool at the Right Time - Drawing as an Interface to Knowledge Based Design Aids
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 191-199
summary Designers use different symbols and diagrams in their drawings to explore alternatives and to communicate with each other. Therefore, a useful design environment should attempt to infer the designer's intentions from the drawing and, based on this inference, suggest appropriate computational tools for the task at hand. For example, a layout bubble diagram might activate design cases with similar configurations. Scribbles of view lines on a floor plan might bring up a spatial analysis tool. This research aims to develop an integrated digital sketching environment to support early design activities. The paper proposes RT, an intelligent sketch environment that provides the designers with the right tools at the right time.
series ACADIA
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id ebd6
authors Dobson, Adrian
year 1996
title Teaching Architectural Composition Through the Medium of Virtual Reality Modelling
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 91-102
summary This paper describes an experimental teaching programme to enable architectural students in the early years of their undergraduate study to explore their understanding of the principles of architectural composition, by the creation and experience of architectural form and space in simple virtual reality environments. Principles of architectural composition, based upon the ordering and organisation of typological architectural elements according to established rules of composition, are introduced to the students, through the study of recognised works of architectural design theory. Virtual reality modelling is then used as a tool by the students for the testing and exploration of these theoretical concepts. Compositional exercises involving the creation and manipulation of a family of architectural elements to create form and space within a three dimensional virtual reality environment are carried out using Superscape VRT, a PC based virtual reality modelling system. The project seeks to bring intuitive and immersive computer based design techniques directly into the context of design theory teaching and studio practice, at an early stage in the architectural education process.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 3905
authors Duffy, T.M. and Cunningham, D.J.
year 1996
title Constructivism: Implications for the design and delivery of instruction
source D.H. Jonassen, (Ed) Handbook of research for educational communications and technology, N.Y; Macmillan Library reference USA
summary This will be a seminar that examines Constructivist theory as it applies to our thinking about instruction. Many folks think of constructivism as a method of instruction -- it is not. It is a framework for thinking about learning or what it means to come to know. As such, it is a framework for understanding (interpreting) any learning environment as well as a framework for designing instruction. The seminar will be organized around weekly readings. We will examine the alternative constructivist theories, e.g., socio-cultural constructivism and cognitive constructivism, and the pragmatism of Richard Rorty. However, rather than focusing on the differences between these frameworks, our emphasis will be on the implications of the broader, common framework for the design of instruction. Hence we will spend most of the semester discussing strategies for designing and delivering instruction, e.g., the work of Bransford, Collins, Pea, Jonassen, Spiro, Fosnot, Senge, and Schank. We will consider both business and schooling environments for learning -- there is significant work in both domains. There will be particular emphasis of the use of technology in instruction. We will look at the communication, information, and context providing roles of technology as contrasted to the traditional approach of using technology to deliver instruction (to teach). We will also pay particular attention to problem based learning as one instructional model. In PBL there is particular emphasis on the role of the facilitator as a learning coach (process orientation) as opposed to a content provider. There is also a particular emphasis on supporting the development of abductive reasoning skills so that the learner develops the ability to be an effective problem solver in the content domain. The major paper/project for the course will be the design of instruction to train individuals to be learning coaches in a problem based learning or goal based scenario learning environment. That is, how do you support teachers in adapting the role of learning coach (which, of course, requires us to understand what it means to be a learning coach). Design teams will be formed with the teams all working on this same design problem. A comprehensive prototype of the learning environment is required as well as a paper provide the theoretical framework and rationale for the design strategy. While not required, I would expect that computer technology will play a significant role in the design of your learning environment. With that in mind, let me note that it is not required that the prototype be delivered on the computer, i.e., I am not requiring programming skills but rather design skills and so "storyboards" is all that is required.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 90a7
authors Eastman, C.M.
year 1996
title Managing Integrity in Design Information Flows
source Computer Aided Design (May, 1996). 28:6n, pp. 551-565
summary The purpose of this work is to develop automatic methods of semantic integrity maintenance, in support of concurrent engineering. Semantic integrity relations in any final engineering design are built up incrementally, through the use of different computer applications. Here, the structure of these integrity relations are formalized for representation within a database. When changes to a design have to be made, they can invalidate integrity relations in other parts of the design. Formal methods are defined for identifying what data and integrity relations are invalidated by any change. Methods for making changes that minimize re-design are described and formalized. Opportunities for using semantic integrity to assess progress on a design are reviewed.
series journal paper
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 011e
authors Engeli, M. and Kurmann, D.
year 1996
title Spatial objects and intelligent agents in a virtual environment
source Automation in Construction 5 (3) (1996) pp. 141-150
summary Many CAD software tools are available today for architectural design. They are useful for drafting, but tools that support design development in an early stage are still missing. In a conceptual phase of the design aspects other than precision and measurements become important. With today's knowledge and technological possibilities new ways of interaction, different data structures and intelligent support tools can be implemented. This article describes our research on new ways to support the design development in an early stage. The concept of modelling spaces, the virtual modelling tool and the integration of intelligent agents are described.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id ec0e
authors Engeli, M. and Kurmann, D.
year 1996
title A Virtual Reality Design Environment with Intelligent Objects and Autonomous Agents
source H.J.P. Timmermans (ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Conference, Vol. 1: Architecture Proceedings, pp. 132-142
summary New technological achievements and research results allow for the creation of innovative design tools for architects, that do not originate from paper-based paradigms but instead make optimised use of the present technology and programming concepts. The core of our system is comprised of an intuitive interactive modelling tool. It runs in a virtual reality set-up, where the user can use 3D glasses to experience rooms and 3D input devices to model in three dimensions. The interface is free from widget-like buttons or menus, so that the user is undisturbed when moving into the virtual world of the design. The system can also run in a distributed fashion, so that a number of users can look at and modify the same design. The 3D model can be generated in a sketch-like fashion using solids and voids, void modelling turns out to be very valuable for architectural design. The objects in this system can contain forms of intelligence to produce such behaviour as: falling because of gravity, collision avoidance, and autonomous motion. Interactive behaviour can also be assigned to the objects. Autonomous Agents are added to the system to enhance the designer support. These are agents that enhance the virtual environment, agents that take over tasks, and agents that help to test the design. The system shows new interface and interaction approaches that support the architectural design process intelligently.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddssar9609
id ddssar9609
authors Engeli, Maia and Kurmann, David
year 1996
title A Virtual Reality Design Environment with Intelligent Objects and Autonomous Agents
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary New technological achievements and research results allow for the creation of innovative design tools for architects, that do not originate from paper-based paradigms but instead make optimised use of the present technology and programming concepts. The core of our system is comprised of an intuitive interactive modelling tool. It runs in a virtual reality set-up, where the user can use 3D glasses to expe-rience rooms and 31) input devices to model in three dimensions. The interface is free from widget-like buttons or menus, so that the user is undisturbed when moving into the virtual world of the design. The system can also run in a distributed fashion, so that a number of users can look at and modify the same design. The 31) model can be generated in a sketch-like fashion using solids and voids, void modelling turns out to be very valuable for architectural design. The objects in this system can contain forms of intelligence to produce such behaviour as: falling because of gravity, collision avoidance, and autonomous motion. Interactive behaviour can also be assigned to the objects. Autonomous Agents are added to the system to enhance the designer support. These are agents that enhance the virtual environment, agents that take over tasks, and agents that help to test the design. The system shows new interface and interaction approaches that support the architectural design process intelligently.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id f5ee
authors Erhorn, H., De Boer, J. and Dirksmueller, M.
year 1997
title ADELINE, an Integrated Approach to Lighting Simulation
source Proceedings of Right Light 4, 4th European Conference on Energy-Efficient Lighting, pp.99-103
summary The use of daylighting and artificial lighting simulation programs to calculate complex systems and models in the design practice often is impeded by the fact that the operation of these programs, especially the model input, is extremely complicated and time-consuming. Programs that are easier to use generally do not show the calculation capabilities required in practice. A second obstacle arises as the lighting calculations often do not allow any statements regarding the interactions with the energetic and thermal building performance. Both problems are mainly due to a lacking integration of the design tools of other building design practitioners as well as due to insufficient user interfaces. The program package ADELINE (Advanced Daylight and Electric Lighting Integrated New Environment) being available since May 1996 as completely revised version 2.0 presents a promising approach to solve these problems. This contribution describes the approaches and methods used within the international project IEA Task 21 for a further development of the ADELINE system. Aim of this work is a further improvement of user interfaces based on the inclusion of new dialogs and on a portation of the program system from MS-DOS to the Windows NT platform. Additional focus is laid on the use of recent developments in the field of information technology and experiences gained in other projects on integrated building design systems, like for example EU-COMBINE, in a pragmatical way. An integrated building design system with open standardized interfaces is to be achieved inter alia by using ISOSTEP formats, database technologies and a consequent, object-oriented design.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id diss_fox
id diss_fox
authors Fox, M.A.
year 1996
title Novel Affordances of Computation to the Design Process of Kinetic Structures
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA
summary This paper is a discourse into the relationship between the process, computational tools and the role which symbolic structure can play in both. I argue the relationship of the process and tools is dialectic, whereby the tools we utilize in design develop new heuristics, the methodologies in turn, if reflectively understood, can be more aptly facilitated through the development of novel tools. The tools and the process then evolve together. A theory is laid out exploring the human visual information processing systems pertinence to the limitations in mental three-dimensional imaging and transformation operations as relevant to the operations of drawing and mental visualization within the architectural design processes, substantiating the designers necessity to draw (by traditional means, but more importantly here, through the inclusive integration of CAD within the process). The necessity to draw is explored as a representational process to the visual system as predicated upon the existence of a structured internal library of diagram-like representations in our heads. I argue that the ways we utilize such idiosyncratic libraries is predicated upon the ways in which we go about structuring the perceived experienced world around us into symbol systems. And finally, the ways we utilize our reflective understanding of the heuristic transformations of these symbols within the design process in the context of a CAD environment are explored as a means to an enhanced understanding of that which is being designed and consequently as a vehicle for the development of future CAD systems to better facilitate such methodologies of designing. A personal design process of several kinetic structures is carried out in order to arrive at a localized process analysis within computer-aided design environment. Through an interactive, reflective process analysis, conclusions are drawn as to the affordances and limitations of such tools as suggestive of the operations a CAD environment might perform so as to better foster future methodologies of designing. The design experiments are utilized as a vehicle to understand the process. Specifically three kinetic projects are exploited for the prototypical operations they display. When difficulties or mental limitations are encountered with the operations, specific tools are developed to facilitate the limitation or to overcome the problem.
series thesis:MSc
more http://www.mafox.net/sm_thesis/Thesis11.pdf
last changed 2003/11/28 06:35

_id 4c06
authors Frazer, John H.
year 1996
title Second Order Computer Aided Design
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 79-93
summary Following introductory remarks differentiating between those who see Computer Aided Design as a tool for radical change and those who do not, the paper gives examples drawn from the author's own research, of three of different kinds of change in design practice which result from the introduction of computer based techniques.
series plCAD
email sdfrazer@polyu.edu.hk
last changed 2003/05/17 08:01

_id c6dd
authors Fruchter, Renate
year 1996
title COMPUTER INTEGRATED ARCHITECTURE/ENGINEERING/CONSTRUCTION PROJECT-CENTERED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 227-234
summary This paper describes an on-going effort, initiated at Stanford's Civil Engineering Department, to develop, implement, and test a new and innovative "Computer Integrated Architecture./Engineering/Construction" (A/E/C) course. The course takes a multi-site, cross- disciplinary, project-centered, team-oriented approach to teaching. The paper presents the motivation, methodology, computational infrastructure, and initial observations in the experimental A/E/C course. The course is sponsored by NSF Synthesis Coalition and is the result of the collaborative effort of faculty and researchers from Civil Engineering Department at Stanford University, and Architecture Department and Civil Engineering Department, at UC Berkeley. In this computer integrated A/EIC environment a new generation of architecture, engineering, construction students learns how to team up with other disciplines and the advantage of the emerging information technologies for collaborative work in order to design and build higher quality buildings faster.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
email fruchter@stanford.edu
last changed 2006/03/27 05:36

_id ee14
authors Fukai, Dennis
year 1996
title A World of Data: An Animated Construction Information System as a Virtual Hypergraphic Environment
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 267-274
summary This paper describes research on an animated construction information system organized as a hypergraphic virtual environment. The user enters this environment to interact with the information it contains. A matrix of cubes sits as the gateway to an array of data chambers that give this information its virtual form. A mouse click on one of these cubes leads to a three-dimensional interface that is a simulation of the object to be constructed. Reflective-transparent panels surround the simulation and display two-dimensional projections of its pieces. These panels capture projections of slices through the pieces of the object represented by the simulation. Below the zero plane are slices of floor framing, foundation, excavation, utilities, and soil conditions. Above are ceilings, framing, and roofing. To the sides are finishes, wall framing, fixtures, and elevations. This immersive virtual environment extends as an array of data chambers partitioned by the suspended reflective-transparent panels. Pathways around these partitions lead to secondary chambers that contain sub-simulations of the plumbing, electrical, and HVAC systems. Design-team members access these chambers to coordinate the document's development, review progress, and make changes to the information system. The result is a WORLD of data where graphic information defines both space and time. This breaks with the notion of a construction document as an object-of-exchange and suggests a new focus for the use of computers in the design and construction process.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 16:06

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