CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 765f
authors Adam, Holger
year 2002
title Reinterpretation or replacement? The effects of the information and communication technologies on urban space
source CORP 2002, Vienna, pp. 345-349
summary The timid question “Virtual spaces or real places?” forms the core of many debates within the spatial sciences addressing theconsequences of the rapid development of information and communication technologies1 on existing spatial structures. So far several opinions rival each other for the interpretation of current and the prediction of future spatial developments. The spacelessness ofcomputer networks and the possibility to transmit data in real-time have lead visionaries to predict a far-reaching devaluation of timeand space, so questioning the future importance of traditional spatial structures: The “annihilation of distance and time constraints [incomputer networks] could undermine the very rationale for the existence of the city by dissolving the need for physical proximity”(Graham and Marvin 1996: 318). The disappearance of the city into the net, therefore, seems to become a distinct possibility.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id e29d
authors Arvesen, Liv
year 1996
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary With the unlimited supply of electric light our surroundings very easily may be illuminated too strongly. Too much light is unpleasant for our eyes, and a high level of light in many cases disturbs the conception of form. Just as in a forest, we need shadows, contrasts and variation when we compose with light. If we focus on the term compose, it is natural to conceive our environment as a wholeness. In fact, this is not only aesthetically important, it is true in a physical context. Inspired by old windows several similar examples have been built in the Trondheim Full-scale Laboratory where depth is obtained by constructing shelves on each side of the opening. When daylight is fading, indirect artificial light from above gradually lightens the window. The opening is perceived as a space of light both during the day and when it is dark outside.

Another of the built examples at Trondheim University which will be presented, is a doctor's waitingroom. It is a case study of special interest because it often appears to be a neglected area. Let us start asking: What do we have in common when we are waiting to come in to a doctor? We are nervous and we feel sometimes miserable. Analysing the situation we understand the need for an interior that cares for our state of mind. The level of light is important in this situation. Light has to speak softly. Instead of the ordinary strong light in the middle of the ceiling, several spots are selected to lighten the small tables separating the seats. The separation is supposed to give a feeling of privacy. By the low row of reflected planes we experience an intimate and warming atmosphere in the room. A special place for children contributes to the total impression of calm. In this corner the inside of some shelves are lit by indirect light, an effect which puts emphasis on the small scale suitable for a child. And it also demonstrates the good results of variation. The light setting in this room shows how light is “caught” two different ways.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 12:34

_id 9530
authors Broadhurst, S.J., Cockerham, G., Taylor, N. and Pridmore, T.
year 1996
title Automatic task modelling for sewer studies
source Automation in Construction 5 (1) (1996) pp. 61-71
summary Research into the development of robotic modules is discussed in the context of cost-effective, small bore, non-man entry (NME) sewer renovation. Following an introduction to the engineering problem or task and the respective task-associated sensing system, interest is centred upon suitably robust task kinematics and control, where predictive modelling is implemented employing the GRASP robotic simulation software package. The physical prototype and its accompanying environment are discussed and general conclusions drawn.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id b27f
authors Campbell, Dace A.
year 1996
title Design in virtual environments using architectural metaphor : a HIT lab gallery
source University of Washington
summary This thesis explores the application and limitations of architectural metaphor in the design of virtual environments. Architecture, whether physical or virtual, is the expression of a society realized as meaningful space. Physical and virtual architecture have their own constraints and context, yet both use architectural organization as a way to order forms and spaces in the environment. Both strive to create meaningful place by defining space, and both must allow the participant to develop a cognitive map to orient and navigate in the space. The lack of physics of time and space in the virtual realm requires special attention and expression of its architecture in order for the participant to cope with transitions. These issues are exemplified by the development of an on-line gallery of virtual environments. Conclusions reached by the development of this design are discussed in the context of orientation, navigation, transition, enclosure, and scale.
keywords Virtual Reality; Human-Computer Interaction
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id e2c4
authors Comair, C., Kaga, A. and Sasada, T.
year 1996
title Collaborative Design System with Network Technologies in Design Projects
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 269-286
summary This paper depicts the work of the team of researchers at the Sasada Laboratory in the area of collaborative design and the integration of global area network such as the Internet in order to extend the architectural studio into cyber-space. The Sasada Laboratory is located at the University of Osaka, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental engineering, Japan. The portfolio of the Laboratory is extensive and impressive. The projects which were produced by the men and women of the Laboratory range from the production of databases and computer simulation of several segments of different cities throughout the world to specific studies of architectural monuments. The work performed on the databases was varied and included simulation of past, present, and future events. These databases were often huge and very complex to build. They presented challenges that sometimes seemed impossible to overcome. Often, specialised software, and in some cases hardware, had to be designed on the "fly” for the task. In this paper, we describe the advances of our research and how our work led us to the development of hardware and software. Most importantly, it depicts the methodology of work which our lab undertook. This research led to the birth of what we call the "Open Development Environment” (ODE) and later to the networked version of ODE (NODE). The main purpose of NODE is to allow various people, usually separated by great distances, to work together on a given project and to introduce computer simulation into the working environment. Today, our laboratory is no longer limited to the physical location of our lab. Thanks to global area networks, such as the Internet, our office has been extended into the virtual space of the web. Today, we exchange ideas and collaborate on projects using the network with people that are spread over the five continents.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id ab1e
authors Coyne, R., McLaughlin, S., Newton, S., Sudweeks, F., Haynes, D. and Jumani, A.
year 1996
title Report on Computers in Practice: A survey of computers in architectural practice
source UK: University of Edinburgh
summary This is a report on the dynamic relationship between information technology (IT) and architectural practice. The report summarises the attitudes and opinions of practitioners gathered through extensive recorded interviews, and compares these attitudes and opinions with the findings of other studies. The report is compiled from the point of view of an understanding of appropriating as preceding as the model for understanding. We thereby connect what is going on in IT with concepts currently under discussion in postmodern thought and in the tradition of philosophical pragmatism. We identify several of the major options identified by practitioners in their use of IT, including practicing without computers, substituting computers for traditional tasks, delivering traditional services in an innovative way through IT, and developing new services with IT. We also demonstrate how firms are changing and are being shaped by the market for architectural services. One of the major areas of change is in how IT and related resources are managed. We also consider how the role of the practitioner as an individual in a firm is changing along with changes in IT, and how different prognoses about the future of IT in practice are influenced by certain dominant metaphors. Our conclusion is that IT is best understood and appropriated when it is seen as fitting into a dynamic field or constellation of technologies and practices. Such an orientation enables the reflective practitioner to confront what is really going on as IT interacts with practice. praxis- practice theory
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id b81d
authors Davies, C. and Harrison, J.
year 1996
title Osmose: Towards Broadening the Aesthetics of Virtual Reality
source ACM Computer Graphics: Virtual Reality Volume 30, Number 4
summary Osmose is an immersive virtual environment, produced by Softimage in 1994/95. One of the primary goals of Osmose was to push the expressive capabilities of existing 3D tools, to demonstrate that an alternative aesthetic and interactive sensibility is possible for real-time, interactive, 3D computer graphics. Osmose was created under the direction of Char Davies, the Director of Visual Research at Softimage. A former painter, as well as a creator of 3D computer graphic stills, Davies has a particular artistic vision which has driven the project. Davies has been striving for years to represent space as a luminous enveloping medium. This has led her from painting to 3D computer graphics, and finally into creating immersive virtual spaces. One of Davies' intentions for Osmose was to create a space that is "psychically innovating," one in which, to quote Bachelard, participants do not change "place," but change their own nature. Osmose was therefore designed to explore the potential of immersive virtual space to allow participants to shed their habitual ways of looking at (and behaving in) the world. By doing this, we hoped they would then emerge from the virtual world to experience the real world in a fresh way, reawakening a fundamental sense of their own "being-in-the-world." We hoped that this could be accomplished through the visual, aural and interactive aesthetic of the work.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddssar9613
id ddssar9613
authors de Groot, E.H. and Louwers, F.H.
year 1996
title The TIE-system, a KBS for the Evaluation of Thermal Indoor office Environments
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary A Knowledge-Based System [KBS] for the evaluation of Thermal Indoor office Environments [TIE] (in the Netherlands) was the product of a one-year project, undertaken by researchers of the Physical Aspects of the Built Environment group [FAGO] in cooperation with the Knowledge-Based System Section of the TNO-Building & Construction research Institute in Delft. The objective of the project was to develop a KBS capable of evaluating thermal indoor environments of existing or proposed office buildings designs. The approach used in this study was based on a traditional method of predicting thermal sensation by calculating Fanger's 'Predicted Mean Vote' [PMV]. PMV is influenced by four environmental parameters of a room: air temperature, radiant temperature, air velocity and relative humidity, and by two personal parameters of the employees: metabolic rate and clothing insulation. The knowledge required to determine these six parameters was placed in KBS-databases and tables using a KBS-building tool called Advanced Knowledge Transfer System [AKTS]. By questioning the user, the TIE-system is capable of determining the PMV for a particular office room. The system also provides conclusions and advice on improving the thermal comfort. The TIE-system was a pilot-study for the long-term Building Evaluation research project, being undertaken at FAGO, that examines in all aspects of office building performance, and in which KBS may play a major pole.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 20ff
id 20ff
authors Derix, Christian
year 2004
title Building a Synthetic Cognizer
source Design Computation Cognition conference 2004, MIT
summary Understanding ‘space’ as a structured and dynamic system can provide us with insight into the central concept in the architectural discourse that so far has proven to withstand theoretical framing (McLuhan 1964). The basis for this theoretical assumption is that space is not a void left by solid matter but instead an emergent quality of action and interaction between individuals and groups with a physical environment (Hillier 1996). In this way it can be described as a parallel distributed system, a self-organising entity. Extrapolating from Luhmann’s theory of social systems (Luhmann 1984), a spatial system is autonomous from its progenitors, people, but remains intangible to a human observer due to its abstract nature and therefore has to be analysed by computed entities, synthetic cognisers, with the capacity to perceive. This poster shows an attempt to use another complex system, a distributed connected algorithm based on Kohonen’s self-organising feature maps – SOM (Kohonen 1997), as a “perceptual aid” for creating geometric mappings of these spatial systems that will shed light on our understanding of space by not representing space through our usual mechanics but by constructing artificial spatial cognisers with abilities to make spatial representations of their own. This allows us to be shown novel representations that can help us to see new differences and similarities in spatial configurations.
keywords architectural design, neural networks, cognition, representation
series other
type poster
last changed 2012/09/17 19:13

_id 656d
authors Donath , Dirk and Regenbrecht, Holger
year 1996
title Using Virtual Reality Aided Design Techniques for Three-dimensional Architectural Sketching
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 199-212
summary With this paper we would like to introduce a system which supports the early phases of the architectural design process. The system consists of two main components: the software solution "voxDesign" and the physical environment "platform". Our aims are: to formulate, develop, and evaluate an architectural design system through the use of VR (virtual reality) space. The exploration and development of design intentions is supplemented by a new method of three dimensional sketching. In the second part of this paper we will show how these components were used to train students in architecture and design at our university. Parts of this paper were published to the academic public at "Designing Digital Space". (Regenbrecht 1996)
keywords Virtual Reality, Architectural Design, Human-computer interfaces, Design Techniques
series ACADIA
last changed 2001/06/22 15:14

_id ddssar9607
id ddssar9607
authors Doxtater, Dennis and Mittleman, Daniel
year 1996
title Facilitating and structuring environmental knowledge: prototypical pre-design for a new campus setting
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary This applied research combines state-of-the-art computer-supported facilitation process with a conceptually new way of structuring behavioral knowledge of the physical environment. The object is to develop a prototypical evaluation/pre-design/design process which can be used in practice. The paper reports on the first phase of an actual building project for a university campus where representatives from all client user groups have participated in GSS facilitated sessions. Large amounts of user information have been organized into a graphically enhanced data base including decisions on key programmatic issues. Proposed GSS sessions for the second phase envision a continuous flow of pre-design information through design and design evaluation processes.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 70b1
authors Emdanat, S.S., Vakalo, E.0. and Malkawi, A.M.
year 1996
title A Conceptual Framework for Integrating Morphological and Thermal Analysis in the Generation of Orthogonal Architectural Designs
source Proceedings of the 84th ACSA Meeting; Boston, pp. 117-131
summary Digital networks are gaining importance as environments for learning and creative collaboration. Technical achievements, software enhancements, and a growing number of applicable principles make it possible to compile complex environments that satisfy many aspects necessary for creative collaboration. This paper focuses on three issues: the architecture of collaborative environments, communication in these environments and the processes inherent to creative collaboration. The information architecture of digital environments looks different from physical architecture, mainly because the material that it is made out of is information and not stone, wood or metal and the goal is to provide appropriate paths and views to information. Nonetheless, many analogies can be drawn between information architecture and physical architecture, including the need for useability, aesthetics, and consistency. To communicate is important for creative collaboration. Digital networks request and enable new strategies for communicating. Regarding the collaborative creative process we have been able to detect principles and features that enhance this process, but there are still many unanswered questions. For example, the environment can enable and improve the frequency of surprise and coincidence, two factors that often play decisive roles in the creative processes but cannot be planned for in advance. Freedom and transparency within the environment are other important factors that foster creative collaboration. The following findings are based on numerous courses, which we have taught using networked environments and some associated, research projects that helped to verify their applicability for architectural practice.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id aff6
authors Ferrar, Steve
year 1996
title Back to the Drawing Board?
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 155-162
summary I am starting my presentation with some slides of architecture as a reminder that above all else we are involved in the education of future architects. Such is the enthusiasm of many of us for our specialist subject that computers dominate any discussion of architecture. We must not lose sight of the fact that we are using computers to assist in the manipulation of space, form, light, texture and colour, and in communicating our ideas. They should also be helping us and our students to understand and deal with the relationship of built form to its environment, its users and other buildings. The use of computers should not get in the way of this. In the final analysis the image on a computer screen is only that - an image, a representation of a building. It is not the building itself. It is a means to an end and not an end in itself. The image must not be a substitute for the physical building. We must remember that we use most of our other senses when experiencing a building and it is just as important to be able to touch, hear and smell a piece of architecture as well as being able to see it. Who knows, perhaps even taste is important. How much does the use of computers affect the design process and the final appearance of the building? Would these buildings have been substantially different if a system of working in three dimensions, similar to computer aided design, had been available to these architects. To what degree has the design process and method of working shaped the architecture of designers like Frank Lloyd Wright, Carlo Scarpa, Louis Sullivan, Charles Rennie Mackintosh or Alvar Aalto.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 5fc4
authors Fruchter, R.
year 1996
title Conceptual Collaborative Building Design Through Shared Graphics
source IEEE Expert special issue on Al in Civil Engineering, June vol. 33-41
summary The Interdisciplinary Communication Medium computer environment integrates a shared graphic modeling environment with network-based services to accommodate many perspectives in an architecture/engineering/construction team. Communication is critical for achieving better cooperation and coordination among professionals in a multidisciplinary building team. The complexity of large construction projects, the specialization of the project participants, and the different forms of synchronous and asynchronous collaborative work increase the need for intensive information sharing and exchange. Architecture/engineering/construction (A/E/C) professionals use computers to perform a specific discipline's tasks, but they still exchange design decisions and data using paper drawings and documents. Each project participant investigates and communicates alternative solutions through representational idioms that are private to that member's profession. Other project participants must then interpret, extract, and reenter the relevant information using the conventional idioms of their disciplines and in the format required by their tools. The resulting communication difficulties often affect the quality of the final building and the time required to achieve design consensus. This article describes a computer environment, the Interdisciplinary Communication Medium (ICM), that supports conceptual, collaborative building design. The objective is to help improve communication among professionals in a multidisciplinary team. Collaborative teamwork is an iterative process of reaching a shared understanding of the design and construction domains, the requirements, the building to be built, and the necessary commitments. The understanding emerges over time, as team members begin to grasp their own part of the project, and as they provide information that lets others progress. The fundamental concepts incorporated in ICM include A communication cycle for collaborative teamwork that comprises propose-interpret-critique-explain-change notifications. An open system-integration architecture. A shared graphic modeling environment for design exploration and communication. A Semantic Modeling Extension (SME), which introduces a structured way to capture design intent. A change-notification mechanism that documents notes on design changes linked to the graphic models, and routes change notifications. Thus, the process involves communication, negotiation, and team learning.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 88f4
authors Fu, S., Bao, H. and Peng, Q.
year 1996
title An Accelerated Rendering Algorithm for Stereoscopic Display
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 53-61
summary With the development of the scientific visualization and the virtual environment techniques, stereo viewing systems have not been used extensively. In this paper, we present an accelerated rendering algorithm for stereoscopic display. As the difference between the left view and the right view is slight, we generate the right view by a transformation of the left view conforming to the stereo disparity. The problem of visibility change of a few polygons during the transformation is discussed and an efficient algorithm is developed for filling the holes that may arise in the right view after the transformation. This method makes fully use of the coherence between the left view and the right view. Experiments prove its efficiency.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 13:56

_id 68e3
authors Fuchs, Wladek and Martinico, Anthony
year 1996
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 23-29
summary The "" project is an Internet-based educational and communication tool for the architectural community. Its goal is to encourage students from architecture programs across the country and around the world to examine problems and collaborate in the exploration of ideas through the World Wide Web. The central concept of the project involves the creation of a simulated, vital urban environment constructed from various forms of digital data. This "virtual city" will be comprised of projects executed by students of architecture and urban design in the U.S. and abroad. Projects will be proposed for specific sites and will reflect real-world questions as they are minored in the virtual world. The city exists as a heuristic tool and is not intended as a copy of any existing human habitat. The ultimate goal of the project is to create a dynamic platform to study the interrelationship of various forces effecting urban development: architecture, planning, civil engineering, economics, social sciences etc. The project originates at the School of Architecture of the University of Detroit Mercy and is intended to be truly interdisciplinary.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2006/03/15 17:40

_id ddssup9608
id ddssup9608
authors Gupta, M.K., Groves M. and Moran, J.D.
year 1996
title An EMIC approach to design: Methodology for creating supportive environments for young children
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The responsibility of the designer is to understand the unique perspective of the users, in order to create functional and efficient environments. The task of creating supportive environments often becomes more difficult when there is discrepancy between the perspective of the designer and that of the user, which is the case when designing spaces for children. The interaction of children with their environment has been identified as the basis of their development Most of the previous research has focused on the perspectives that adults have of spaces for children (etic), rather than an understanding of the child's view as the primary user of the playspace (emic). Children's perceptions are influenced by their physical and cognitive perspectives thus posing a unique challenge for designers. The objective of this study was to learn about the perception and perspective of four-and five-year-olds of their favorite playspaces. The children needed to identify their favorite spaces and also be able to verbalize the activities and meanings associated with these spaces. To avoid adult bias at the onset, the idea of utilizing a Polaroid Captiva camera was formulated, facilitating an extremely short latency period between the child taking the pictures and the opportunity to talk about their favorite playspace. The process was extremely successful, and provides first hand insight into children's perception of their built environment Photographs taken by the young children include many spaces not designed for play. The emerging themes are a source of invaluable information for designers and planners for making informed design decisions and for creating supportive environments.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 905d
authors Maltret, J.-L. and Zoller, J.
year 1996
title Simulation of architectural and urban morphology
source OEEPE Workshop on 3D-city models, Bonn, October 1996.
summary The Remus project aims at conceiving a simulation tool for both architectural and urban morphology, building a computer system using artificial intelligence tools, and computer graphics. Remus is made of a base of architectural knowledge, an expert system, and an interactive graphical environment for generating and displaying architectural objects. In this paper are presented new developments concerning evolution toward virtual reality models.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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