CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id sigradi2015_9.347
id sigradi2015_9.347
authors Andrade, Eduardo; Orellana, Nicolas; Mesa, Javiera; Felmer, Patricio
year 2015
title Spatial Configuration and Sociaty. Comparison between the street market Tristan Matta and Tirso de Molina Market
source SIGRADI 2015 [Proceedings of the 19th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - vol. 2 - ISBN: 978-85-8039-133-6] Florianópolis, SC, Brasil 23-27 November 2015, pp. 481-485.
summary This research aims to clarify how certain visual and accessibility patterns, in buildings and urban environments, are related to social activities that take place in them. The study, based on the theory of space syntax (Hillier & Hanson 1984; Hillier, 1996), seeks to recognize patterns of behavior, both individual and aggregate. The case studies are Tirso de Molina Market and the free street market Tristan Matta, both in Santiago de Chile.
keywords pace Syntax, Visibilidad, Accesibilidad, Conectividad, Comportamiento
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id d5c8
authors Angelo, C.V., Bueno, A.P., Ludvig, C., Reis, A.F. and Trezub, D.
year 1999
title Image and Shape: Two Distinct Approaches
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 410-415
summary This paper is the result of two researches done at the district of Campeche, Florianópolis, by the Grupo PET/ARQ/UFSC/CAPES. Different aspects and conceptual approaches were used to study the spatial attributes of this district located in the Southern part of Santa Catarina Island. The readings and analysis of two researches were based on graphic pistures builded with the use of Corel 7.0 e AutoCadR14. The first research – "Urban Development in the Island of Santa Catarina: Public Space Study"- examined the urban structures of Campeche based on the Spatial Syntax Theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) that relates form and social appropriation of public spaces. The second research – "Topoceptive Characterisation of Campeche: The Image of a Locality in Expansion in the Island of Santa Catarina" -, based on the methodology developed by Kohlsdorf (1996) and also on the visual analysis proposed by Lynch (1960), identified characteristics of this locality with the specific goal of selecting attributes that contributed to the ideas of the place its population held. The paper consists of an initial exercise of linking these two methods in order to test the complementarity of their analytical tools. Exemplifying the analytical procedures undertaken in the two approaches, the readings done - global (of the locality as a whole) and partial (from parts of the settlement) - are presented and compared.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 62c0
authors Barrallo, Javier and Iglesias, Alberto
year 1996
title Cybersculpture
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 35-43
summary From the first artistic expressions of mankind, the Mathematics has influence the shapes and proportions presents in the different artistic disciplines. The coming of Abstract art and modern Mathematics at the beginning of the century supposed a complete renovation of the way of understand the relationship between Mathematics and Art, reinforced by the huge expansion of computers nowadays. Chaos Theory or Fractal Geometry constitute examples of this tendencies, that normally are expressed in the two dimensional plane. The idea of this work consists on the utilisation of a series of elements from the contemporaneous Mathematics to express them in an artistic way in the three dimensional space. The result is a family of objects that we have called CYBERSCULPTURES, due to their sculptural character and the fact that they have Internet as their virtual museum.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id ddssar9638
id ddssar9638
authors Bax, M.F.Th. and Trum, H.M.G.J.
year 1996
title A Conceptual Model for Concurrent Engineering in Building Design according to Domain Theory
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Concurrent engineering is a design strategy in which various designers participate in a co-ordinated parallel process. In this process series of functions are simultaneously integrated into a common form. Processes of this type ask for the identification, definition and specification of relatively independent design fields. They also ask for specific design knowledge designers should master in order to participate in these processes. The paper presents a conceptual model of co-ordinated parallel design processes in which architectural space is simultaneously defined in the intersection of three systems: a morphological or level-bound system, a functional or domain-bound system and a procedural or phase-bound system. Design strategies for concurrent engineering are concerned with process design, a design task which is comparable to the design of objects. For successfully accomplishing this task, knowledge is needed of the structural properties of objects and systems; more specifically of the morphological, functional and procedural levels which condition the design fields from which these objects emerge, of the series of generic forms which condition their appearance and of the typological knowledge which conditions their coherence in the overall process.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id eb87
authors Bhavnani, S.K.
year 1996
title How Architects Draw with Computers: A Cognitive Analysis of Real-World CAD Interactions
source Carnegie Mellon University, School of Architecture and School of Computer Science
summary New media throughout history have passed through a period of transition during which users and technologists took many years to understand and exploit the medium's potential. CAD appears to be passing through a similar period of transition; despite huge investments by vendors and users, CAD productivity remains difficult to achieve. To investigate if history can provide any insights into this problem, this thesis begins with an examination of well-known examples from history. The analysis revealed that, over time, users had developed efficient strategies which were based on powers and limitations of tools; delegation strategies exploited powers provided by tools, and circumvention strategies attempted to overcome their limitations. These insights on efficient strategies were used to investigate the CAD productivity problem based on four research questions:

1. How do architects currently use CAD systems to produce drawings?

2. What are the effects of current CAD usage on product and performance?

3. What are the possible causes of current CAD usage?

4. What are the capabilities of the CAD medium and how can they be used efficiently?

The above four questions were addressed through the qualitative, quantitative, and cognitive analysis of data collected during an ethnographic study of architects working in their natural environment. The qualitative and quantitative analysis revealed that users missed many opportunities to use strategies that delegated iteration to the computer. The cognitive analysis revealed that missed opportunities to use such delegation strategies caused an increase in execution time, and an increase in errors many of which went undetected leading to the production of inaccurate drawings. These analyses pointed to plausible cognitive and contextual explanations for the inefficient use of CAD systems, and to a framework to identify and teach efficient CAD strategies. The above results were found to be neither unique to the CAD domain, nor to the office where the data were collected. The generality of these results motivated the identification of seven claims towards a general theory to explain and identify efficient strategies for a wide range of devices. This thesis contributes to the field of architecture by providing a detailed analysis of real-world CAD usage, and an approach to improve the performance of CAD users. The thesis also contributes to the field of human-computer interaction by demonstrating the generality of these results and by laying the framework for a general theory of efficient strategies which could be used to improve the performance of users of current and future computer applications.

series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/04/15 11:36

_id ddssup9604
id ddssup9604
authors Boelen, A.J.
year 1996
title Impact-Analysis of Urban Design Realtime impact-analysis models for urban designers
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The past five years Prof Dr Jr T.M. de Jong, professor in environmental planning and sustainability at the Technical University of Delft, has developed a theoretical foundation for the analysis of urban design on the ecological, technical, economical, cultural and political impacts of morphologic interventions on different levels of scale. From september 1994 Jr AJ. Boelen (Urban Design Scientist and Knowledge Engineer) started a research project at the same university to further explore the possibilities of these theories and to develop impact evaluation models for urban design and development with the theoretical work of De Jong as a starting point. The paper discusses the development of a design and decision support system based on these theories. For the development of this system, techniques like object-orientation, genetic algorithms and knowledge engineering are used. The user interface, the relation between the real world, paper maps and virtual maps and the presentation of design-interventions and impacts caused by the interventions are important issues. The development-process is an interactive step by step process. It consists of the making of a prototype of the system, testing the theory and hypothe-sisses the system is based on, by applying tests end adjusting the theory and hypothesisses where needed. Eventually the system must be able to act as an integrator of many different models already developed or still to be developed. The structure of the system will allow easy future expansion and adjustment to changing insights. The logic used to develop the basic theory on which this system is founded makes it possible to even introduce and maintain rather subjective aspects like quality or appraisal as impacts that can be evaluated. In a previously developed system "Momentum" this was proved to work effectively for the national level. In this project we will - amongst other things - try to prove the effectiveness of impact-evaluation for other levels of scale.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id af53
authors Boyer, E. and Mitgang, L.
year 1996
title Building community: a new future for architecture education and practice
source Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
summary Internships, before and after graduation, are the most essential link connecting students to the world of practice. Yet, by all accounts, internship is perhaps the most troubled phase of the continuing education of architects. During this century, as architectural knowledge grew more complex, the apprenticeship system withered away and schools assumed much of the responsibility for preparing architects for practice. However, schools cannot do the whole job. It is widely acknowledged that certain kinds of technical and practical knowledge are best learned in the workplace itself, under the guidance of experienced professionals. All state accrediting boards require a minimum period of internship-usually about three years-before a person is eligible to take the licensing exam. The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) allows students to earn up to two years of work credit prior to acquisition of an accredited degree. The Intern Development Program (IDP), launched by NCARB and the American Institute of Architects in 1979, provides the framework for internship in some forty states. The program was designed to assure that interns receive adequate mentoring, that experiences are well-documented, and that employers and interns allocate enough time to a range of educational and vocational experiences to prepare students for eventual licensure. As the IDP Guidelines state, "The shift from school to office is not a transition from theory to pragmatism. It is a period when theory merges with pragmatism.... It's a time when you: apply your formal education to the daily realities of architectural practice; acquire comprehensive experience in basic practice areas; explore specialized areas of practice; develop professional judgment; continue your formal education in architecture; and refine your career goals." Whatever its accomplishments, however, we found broad consensus that the Intern Development Program has not, by itself, solved the problems of internship. Though we found mutually satisfying internship programs at several of the firms we visited or heard about around the country, at many others interns told us they were not receiving the continuing education and experience they needed. The truth is that architecture has serious, unsolved problems compared with other fields when it comes to supplying on-the-job learning experiences to induct students into the profession on a massive scale. Medicine has teaching hospitals. Beginning teachers work in actual classrooms, supported by school taxes. Law offices are, for the most part, in a better financial position to support young lawyers and pay them living wages. The architecture profession, by contrast, must support a required system of internship prior to licensure in an industry that has neither the financial resources of law or medicine, the stability and public support of teaching, nor a network of locations like hospitals or schools where education and practice can be seamlessly connected. And many employers acknowledged those problems. "The profession has all but undermined the traditional relationship between the profession and the academy," said Neil Frankel, FAIA, executive vice president of Perkins & Will, a multinational firm with offices in New York, Chicago, Washington, and London. "Historically, until the advent of the computer, the profession said, 'Okay, go to school, then we in the profession will teach you what the real world is like.' With the coming of the computer, the profession needed a skill that students had, and has left behind the other responsibilities." One intern told us she had been stuck for months doing relatively menial tasks such as toilet elevations. Another intern at a medium-sized firm told us he had been working sixty to seventy hours per week for a year and a half. "Then my wife had a baby and I 'slacked off' to fifty hours. The partner called me in and I got called on the carpet for not working hard enough." "The whole process of internship is being outmoded by economics," one frustrated intern told us. "There's not the time or the money. There's no conception of people being groomed for careers. The younger staff are chosen for their value as productive workers." "We just don't have the best structure here to use an intern's abilities to their best," said a Mississippi architect. "The people who come out of school are really problems. I lost patience with one intern who was demanding that I switch him to another section so that he could learn what he needed for his IDP. I told him, 'It's not my job to teach you. You are here to produce.'" What steps might help students gain more satisfying work opportunities, both during and after graduation?
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 4fee
authors Chen, Hou I and Liou, Shuenn Ren
year 1996
title A Configuration-Generating Method Based on a Lattice System
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 199-215
summary In this paper, I would propose a configuration-generating method: "L grammars”. Relating to Turing machine, cellular automata, tiling problem and Wang tile theory. It is named Lgrammars”. L grammars base on an infinite lattice space (usually a chess-board-like lattice plane) is a bottom-up approach, in which each cell of a lattice system corresponds to a bounded configuration unit. Thus, a lattice plane would corresponds to a configuration union. The power of L grammars is demonstrated by generating various configurations such as fractal images (two dimensional examples) and crystal models (three dimensional examples). Finally, it would be discussed briefly about some interesting issues concerning about L grammars such as the limitations of L grammars.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:11

_id c2ab
authors Chiu, Mao Lin
year 1996
title Prototypes, Variation and Composition: A Formal Design Approach in Urban Housing Design with Computer Assistance
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 287-298
summary This paper outlines a formal design approach for teaching 3D modeling in computer-aided architecture design studios, and various design principles are used in the process, particularly the generalization, variation and composition. The teaching agenda includes: (1) a formal design approach of housing design, (2) design collaboration, and (3) computer-aided architectural design. // The research agenda includes: (1) incorporation of the formal design approach with the urban infill theory, and (2) development of a computation design method. // The studio project is demonstrated to highlight the implementation of the approach.

keywords Computer-aided Design, Prototypes, Housing Design, Formal Design Method
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id ab1e
authors Coyne, R., McLaughlin, S., Newton, S., Sudweeks, F., Haynes, D. and Jumani, A.
year 1996
title Report on Computers in Practice: A survey of computers in architectural practice
source UK: University of Edinburgh
summary This is a report on the dynamic relationship between information technology (IT) and architectural practice. The report summarises the attitudes and opinions of practitioners gathered through extensive recorded interviews, and compares these attitudes and opinions with the findings of other studies. The report is compiled from the point of view of an understanding of appropriating as preceding as the model for understanding. We thereby connect what is going on in IT with concepts currently under discussion in postmodern thought and in the tradition of philosophical pragmatism. We identify several of the major options identified by practitioners in their use of IT, including practicing without computers, substituting computers for traditional tasks, delivering traditional services in an innovative way through IT, and developing new services with IT. We also demonstrate how firms are changing and are being shaped by the market for architectural services. One of the major areas of change is in how IT and related resources are managed. We also consider how the role of the practitioner as an individual in a firm is changing along with changes in IT, and how different prognoses about the future of IT in practice are influenced by certain dominant metaphors. Our conclusion is that IT is best understood and appropriated when it is seen as fitting into a dynamic field or constellation of technologies and practices. Such an orientation enables the reflective practitioner to confront what is really going on as IT interacts with practice. praxis- practice theory
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id eb51
authors Coyne, Richard
year 1996
title CAAD, Curriculum and Controversy
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 121-130
summary This paper brings some of the debate within educational theory to bear on CAAD teaching, outlining the contributions of conservatism, critical theory, radical hermeneutics and pragmatism. The paper concludes by recommending that CAAD teaching move away from conservative concepts of teaching, design and technology to integrate it into the studio. In a highly illuminating book on education theory, Shaun Gallagher (1991) outlines four current views on education that correspond to four major positions in contemporary social theory and philosophy. I will extend these categories to a consideration of attitudes to information technology, and the teaching of computing in architecture. These four positions are conservatism, critical theory, radical hermeneutics, and pragmatism. I will show how certain issues cluster around them, how each position provides the focus of various discursive practices, or intellectual conversations in contemporary thinking, and how information technology is caught up in those conversations. These four positions are not "cognitive styles," but vigorously argued domains of debate involving writers such as Gadamer, Habermas and Derrida about the theory of interpretation. The field of interpretation is known as hermeneutics, which is concerned less with epistemology and knowledge than with understanding. Interpretation theory applies to reading texts, interpreting the law, and appreciating art, but also to the application of any practical task, such as making art, drawing, defining and solving problems, and design (Coyne and Snodgrass, 1995). Hermeneutics provides a coherent focus for considering many contemporary issues and many domains of practice. I outline what these positions in education mean in terms of CAAD (computer-aided architectural design) in the curriculum.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/17 13:35

_id 8ff1
authors Cáceres Jara, Hugo
year 2001
title EL COLOR DIGITAL EN EL DISEÑO DE TESELACIONES PERIODICAS (The Digital Color in the Design of Periodical Teselations)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 64-66
summary The present study of fundamentally exploratory type tries to examine the distribution of the color in the structures of repetition designed according to the Mathematical Theory of the Tessellations and inspired in the grafphic work of the artist holandes M.C.Escher. The results reached are product of the exercises pedagogicos carried out in the catedra of design of the color of the Design Workshop I, Universidad del Bío-Bío, among the years 1996 and 2000 to pursue a design graphic degree.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id ddssar9611
id ddssar9611
authors de Gelder, Johan and Lucardie, Larry
year 1996
title Criteria for the Selection of Conceptual Modelling Languages for Knowledge Based Systems
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary In recent years knowledge is increasingly recognised as a critical production factor for organisations. Performance of activities such as designing, diagnosing, advising and decision making, depend on the availability and accessibility of knowledge. However, the increasing volume and complexity of knowledge endangers its availability and accessibility. By their knowledge processing competence, knowledge based systems containing a structured and explicit representation of knowledge, are expected to solve this problem. In the realisation of a knowledge based system, the phase in which a knowledge model is reconstructed through a conceptual language, is essential. Because the knowledge model has to be an adequate reflection of real-world knowledge, the conceptual language should not only offer sufficient expressiveness for unambiguous knowledge representation, but also provide facilities to validate knowledge on correctness, completeness and consistency. Furthermore, the language should supply facilities to be processed by a computer. This paper discusses fundamental criteria to select a conceptual language for modelling the knowledge of a knowledge based system. It substantiates the claim that the selection depends on the nature of the knowledge in the application domain. By analysing the nature of knowledge using the theory of functional object-types, a framework to compare, evaluate and select a conceptual language is presented. To illustrate the selection process, the paper describes the choice of a conceptual language of a knowledge based system for checking office buildings on fire-safety demands. In this application domain, the language formed by decision tables has been selected to develop the conceptual model. The paper provides an in-depth motivation why decision tables form the best language to model the knowledge in this case.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 20ff
id 20ff
authors Derix, Christian
year 2004
title Building a Synthetic Cognizer
source Design Computation Cognition conference 2004, MIT
summary Understanding ‘space’ as a structured and dynamic system can provide us with insight into the central concept in the architectural discourse that so far has proven to withstand theoretical framing (McLuhan 1964). The basis for this theoretical assumption is that space is not a void left by solid matter but instead an emergent quality of action and interaction between individuals and groups with a physical environment (Hillier 1996). In this way it can be described as a parallel distributed system, a self-organising entity. Extrapolating from Luhmann’s theory of social systems (Luhmann 1984), a spatial system is autonomous from its progenitors, people, but remains intangible to a human observer due to its abstract nature and therefore has to be analysed by computed entities, synthetic cognisers, with the capacity to perceive. This poster shows an attempt to use another complex system, a distributed connected algorithm based on Kohonen’s self-organising feature maps – SOM (Kohonen 1997), as a “perceptual aid” for creating geometric mappings of these spatial systems that will shed light on our understanding of space by not representing space through our usual mechanics but by constructing artificial spatial cognisers with abilities to make spatial representations of their own. This allows us to be shown novel representations that can help us to see new differences and similarities in spatial configurations.
keywords architectural design, neural networks, cognition, representation
series other
type poster
last changed 2012/09/17 19:13

_id ebd6
authors Dobson, Adrian
year 1996
title Teaching Architectural Composition Through the Medium of Virtual Reality Modelling
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 91-102
summary This paper describes an experimental teaching programme to enable architectural students in the early years of their undergraduate study to explore their understanding of the principles of architectural composition, by the creation and experience of architectural form and space in simple virtual reality environments. Principles of architectural composition, based upon the ordering and organisation of typological architectural elements according to established rules of composition, are introduced to the students, through the study of recognised works of architectural design theory. Virtual reality modelling is then used as a tool by the students for the testing and exploration of these theoretical concepts. Compositional exercises involving the creation and manipulation of a family of architectural elements to create form and space within a three dimensional virtual reality environment are carried out using Superscape VRT, a PC based virtual reality modelling system. The project seeks to bring intuitive and immersive computer based design techniques directly into the context of design theory teaching and studio practice, at an early stage in the architectural education process.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 3905
authors Duffy, T.M. and Cunningham, D.J.
year 1996
title Constructivism: Implications for the design and delivery of instruction
source D.H. Jonassen, (Ed) Handbook of research for educational communications and technology, N.Y; Macmillan Library reference USA
summary This will be a seminar that examines Constructivist theory as it applies to our thinking about instruction. Many folks think of constructivism as a method of instruction -- it is not. It is a framework for thinking about learning or what it means to come to know. As such, it is a framework for understanding (interpreting) any learning environment as well as a framework for designing instruction. The seminar will be organized around weekly readings. We will examine the alternative constructivist theories, e.g., socio-cultural constructivism and cognitive constructivism, and the pragmatism of Richard Rorty. However, rather than focusing on the differences between these frameworks, our emphasis will be on the implications of the broader, common framework for the design of instruction. Hence we will spend most of the semester discussing strategies for designing and delivering instruction, e.g., the work of Bransford, Collins, Pea, Jonassen, Spiro, Fosnot, Senge, and Schank. We will consider both business and schooling environments for learning -- there is significant work in both domains. There will be particular emphasis of the use of technology in instruction. We will look at the communication, information, and context providing roles of technology as contrasted to the traditional approach of using technology to deliver instruction (to teach). We will also pay particular attention to problem based learning as one instructional model. In PBL there is particular emphasis on the role of the facilitator as a learning coach (process orientation) as opposed to a content provider. There is also a particular emphasis on supporting the development of abductive reasoning skills so that the learner develops the ability to be an effective problem solver in the content domain. The major paper/project for the course will be the design of instruction to train individuals to be learning coaches in a problem based learning or goal based scenario learning environment. That is, how do you support teachers in adapting the role of learning coach (which, of course, requires us to understand what it means to be a learning coach). Design teams will be formed with the teams all working on this same design problem. A comprehensive prototype of the learning environment is required as well as a paper provide the theoretical framework and rationale for the design strategy. While not required, I would expect that computer technology will play a significant role in the design of your learning environment. With that in mind, let me note that it is not required that the prototype be delivered on the computer, i.e., I am not requiring programming skills but rather design skills and so "storyboards" is all that is required.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0c78
authors Flood, I. and Christophilos, P.
year 1996
title Modeling construction processes using artificial neural networks
source Automation in Construction 4 (4) (1996) pp. 307-320
summary The paper evaluates a neural network approach to modeling the dynamics of construction processes that exhibit both discrete and stochastic behavior, providing an alternative to the more conventional method of discrete-event simulation. The incentive for developing the technique is its potential for (i) facilitating model development in situations where there is limited theory describing the dependence between component processes; and (ii) rapid execution of a simulation through parallel processing. The alternative ways in which neural networks can be used to model construction processes are reviewed and their relative merits are identified. The most promising approach, a recursive method of dynamic modeling, is examined in a series of experiments. These involve the application of the technique to two classes of earthmoving system, the first comprising a push-dozer and a fleet of scrapers, and the second a loader and fleet of haul trucks. The viability of the neural network approach is demonstrated in terms of its ability to model the discrete and stochastic behavior of these classes of construction processes. The paper concludes with an indication of some areas for further development of the technique.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id diss_fox
id diss_fox
authors Fox, M.A.
year 1996
title Novel Affordances of Computation to the Design Process of Kinetic Structures
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA
summary This paper is a discourse into the relationship between the process, computational tools and the role which symbolic structure can play in both. I argue the relationship of the process and tools is dialectic, whereby the tools we utilize in design develop new heuristics, the methodologies in turn, if reflectively understood, can be more aptly facilitated through the development of novel tools. The tools and the process then evolve together. A theory is laid out exploring the human visual information processing systems pertinence to the limitations in mental three-dimensional imaging and transformation operations as relevant to the operations of drawing and mental visualization within the architectural design processes, substantiating the designers necessity to draw (by traditional means, but more importantly here, through the inclusive integration of CAD within the process). The necessity to draw is explored as a representational process to the visual system as predicated upon the existence of a structured internal library of diagram-like representations in our heads. I argue that the ways we utilize such idiosyncratic libraries is predicated upon the ways in which we go about structuring the perceived experienced world around us into symbol systems. And finally, the ways we utilize our reflective understanding of the heuristic transformations of these symbols within the design process in the context of a CAD environment are explored as a means to an enhanced understanding of that which is being designed and consequently as a vehicle for the development of future CAD systems to better facilitate such methodologies of designing. A personal design process of several kinetic structures is carried out in order to arrive at a localized process analysis within computer-aided design environment. Through an interactive, reflective process analysis, conclusions are drawn as to the affordances and limitations of such tools as suggestive of the operations a CAD environment might perform so as to better foster future methodologies of designing. The design experiments are utilized as a vehicle to understand the process. Specifically three kinetic projects are exploited for the prototypical operations they display. When difficulties or mental limitations are encountered with the operations, specific tools are developed to facilitate the limitation or to overcome the problem.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/11/28 06:35

_id ddss2008-02
id ddss2008-02
authors Gonçalves Barros, Ana Paula Borba; Valério Augusto Soares de Medeiros, Paulo Cesar Marques da Silva and Frederico de Holanda
year 2008
title Road hierarchy and speed limits in Brasília/Brazil
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper aims at exploring the theory of the Social Logic of Space or Space Syntax as a strategy to define parameters of road hierarchy and, if this use is found possible, to establish maximum speeds allowed in the transportation system of Brasília, the capital city of Brazil. Space Syntax – a theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) – incorporates the space topological relationships, considering the city shape and its influence in the distribution of movements within the space. The theory’s axiality method – used in this study – analyses the accessibility to the street network relationships, by means of the system’s integration, one of its explicative variables in terms of copresence, or potential co-existence between the through-passing movements of people and vehicles (Hillier, 1996). One of the most used concepts of Space Syntax in the integration, which represents the potential flow generation in the road axes and is the focus of this paper. It is believed there is a strong correlation between urban space-form configuration and the way flows and movements are distributed in the city, considering nodes articulations and the topological location of segments and streets in the grid (Holanda, 2002; Medeiros, 2006). For urban transportation studies, traffic-related problems are often investigated and simulated by assignment models – well-established in traffic studies. Space Syntax, on the other hand, is a tool with few applications in transport (Barros, 2006; Barros et al, 2007), an area where configurational models are considered to present inconsistencies when used in transportation (cf. Cybis et al, 1996). Although this is true in some cases, it should not be generalized. Therefore, in order to simulate and evaluate Space Syntax for the traffic approach, the city of Brasília was used as a case study. The reason for the choice was the fact the capital of Brazil is a masterpiece of modern urban design and presents a unique urban layout based on an axial grid system considering several express and arterial long roads, each one with 3 to 6 lanes,
keywords Space syntax, road hierarchy
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

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