CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddssar9602
id ddssar9602
authors Coomans, M.K.D. and Oxman, R.M.
year 1996
title Prototyping of Designs in Virtual Reality
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Conventional CAD systems have not yet proven their ability to provide support for activities which characterise the early conceptual phase of design. We propose to refer to this set of capabilities of the human designer in conventional design as, design prototyping. We define the theoretical limitations of current CAD systems for supporting design prototyping, and postulate the potential of functionally dedicated, task related, CAD modules in Virtual Reality as a means to provide a unique form of a knowledge-based, visual design support environment for design prototyping support. We are currently engaged in a research program in which we explore CAD as a medium to support early conceptual design through rapid prototyping of architectural form. Furthermore we are exploring Virtual Reality as a potential design prototyping environment in which prototypes of designs can be constructed, communicated and visually evaluated at a high level of verisimilitude. In the first phase we have built the prototype system VIDE. This system has been used for extensive internal evaluation. In the ongoing second phase we are constructing an empirical research to observe designers at work on design prototyping in the Virtual Reality environment.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 8bd9
authors Coomans, M.K.D. and Oxman, R.M.
year 1996
title Prototyping of Designs in Virtual Reality
source H.J.P. Timmermans (ed.), 3rd Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Conference, Vol I: Architecture Proceedings, pp. 13-25
summary Conventional CAD systems have not yet proven their ability to provide support for activities which characterise the early conceptual phase of design. We propose to refer to this set of capabilities of the human designer in conventional design as, design prototyping. We define the theoretical limitations of current CAD systems for supporting design prototyping, and postulate the potential of functionally dedicated, task related, CAD modules in Virtual Reality as a means to provide a unique form of a knowledgebased, visual design support environment for design prototyping support. We are currently engaged in a research program in which we explore CAD as a medium to support early conceptual design through rapid prototyping of architectural form. Furthermore we are exploring Virtual Reality as a potential design prototyping environment in which prototypes of designs can be constructed, communicated and visually evaluated at a high level of verisimilitude. In the first phase we have built the prototype system VIDE. This system has been used for extensive internal evaluation. In the ongoing second phase we are constructing an empirical research to observe designers at work on design prototyping in the Virtual Reality environment.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddssar9605
id ddssar9605
authors Dijkstra, J., Roelen, W.A.H. and Timmermans, H.J.P.
year 1996
title Conjoint measurement in virtual environment: a framework
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Conjoint analysis (also called stated preference analysis) involves the use of designed hypothetical choice situations to measure individuals' preferences and predict their choice in new situations. Conjoint experiments involve the design and analysis of hypothetical decision tasks. Alternatives are described by their main features, called attributes. Multiple hypothetical alternatives (product profiles) are generated and presented to respondents, who are requested to express their degree of preference for these profiles. Conjoint experiments have become a popular tool to model individual preferences and decision-making in a variety of research areas. Most studies of conjoint analysis have involved a verbal description of product profiles, although some studies have used a pictorial presentation of product profiles. This paper describes a framework for a conjoint analysis system in a virtual environment. Product profiles are generated in a virtual environment and respondents are requested to choose in that virtual environment the product profile they prefer. Advantages of a virtual environment in this area of research include 3D presentation, improved experience and the possibility to include measurable attributes such as time and sound. This framework is a first attempt to explore the possibilities of virtual reality systems in conjoint analysis.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ec0e
authors Engeli, M. and Kurmann, D.
year 1996
title A Virtual Reality Design Environment with Intelligent Objects and Autonomous Agents
source H.J.P. Timmermans (ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Conference, Vol. 1: Architecture Proceedings, pp. 132-142
summary New technological achievements and research results allow for the creation of innovative design tools for architects, that do not originate from paper-based paradigms but instead make optimised use of the present technology and programming concepts. The core of our system is comprised of an intuitive interactive modelling tool. It runs in a virtual reality set-up, where the user can use 3D glasses to experience rooms and 3D input devices to model in three dimensions. The interface is free from widget-like buttons or menus, so that the user is undisturbed when moving into the virtual world of the design. The system can also run in a distributed fashion, so that a number of users can look at and modify the same design. The 3D model can be generated in a sketch-like fashion using solids and voids, void modelling turns out to be very valuable for architectural design. The objects in this system can contain forms of intelligence to produce such behaviour as: falling because of gravity, collision avoidance, and autonomous motion. Interactive behaviour can also be assigned to the objects. Autonomous Agents are added to the system to enhance the designer support. These are agents that enhance the virtual environment, agents that take over tasks, and agents that help to test the design. The system shows new interface and interaction approaches that support the architectural design process intelligently.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddssar9609
id ddssar9609
authors Engeli, Maia and Kurmann, David
year 1996
title A Virtual Reality Design Environment with Intelligent Objects and Autonomous Agents
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary New technological achievements and research results allow for the creation of innovative design tools for architects, that do not originate from paper-based paradigms but instead make optimised use of the present technology and programming concepts. The core of our system is comprised of an intuitive interactive modelling tool. It runs in a virtual reality set-up, where the user can use 3D glasses to expe-rience rooms and 31) input devices to model in three dimensions. The interface is free from widget-like buttons or menus, so that the user is undisturbed when moving into the virtual world of the design. The system can also run in a distributed fashion, so that a number of users can look at and modify the same design. The 31) model can be generated in a sketch-like fashion using solids and voids, void modelling turns out to be very valuable for architectural design. The objects in this system can contain forms of intelligence to produce such behaviour as: falling because of gravity, collision avoidance, and autonomous motion. Interactive behaviour can also be assigned to the objects. Autonomous Agents are added to the system to enhance the designer support. These are agents that enhance the virtual environment, agents that take over tasks, and agents that help to test the design. The system shows new interface and interaction approaches that support the architectural design process intelligently.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar9614
id ddssar9614
authors Halman, J.I.M.and Prins, M.
year 1996
title Virtual Reality in Architectural Design Management
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary In this paper new forms of network-based organizations are discussed in general and within the building industry in particular. Special attention is given to cross functional network teams. New emerging building design and construction functions within these network teams are explained. Network-based organizations in the building industry are considered to be virtual organizations "avant la lettre". The shift to these types of organizations in the building industry can strongly be supported by developments in information technology. A new IT-concept, the extranet is introduced and explained in the paper.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 06e1
authors Keul, Alexander
year 1996
title LOST IN SPACE? ARCHITECTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary A methodological review by Kaminski (1995) summed up five perspectives in environmental psychology - patterns of spatial distribution, everyday “jigsaw puzzles”, functional everyday action systems, sociocultural change and evolution of competence. Architectural psychology (named so at the Strathclyde conference 1969; Canter, 1973) as psychology of built environments is one leg of environmental psychology, the second one being psychology of environmental protection. Architectural psychology has come of age and passed its 25th birthday. Thus, a triangulation of its position, especially in Central Europe, seems interesting and necessary. A recent survey mainly on university projects in German-speaking countries (Kruse & Trimpin, 1995) found a marked decrease of studies in psychology of built environments. 1994, 25% of all projects were reported in this category, which in 1975 had made up 40% (Kruse, 1975). Guenther, in an unpublished survey of BDP (association of professional German psychologists) members, encountered only a handful active in architectural psychology - mostly part-time, not full-time. 1996, Austria has two full-time university specialists. The discrepancy between the general interest displayed by planners and a still low institutionalization is noticeable.

How is the research situation? Using several standard research data banks, the author collected articles and book(chapter)s on architectural psychology in German- and English-language countries from 1990 to 1996. Studies on main architecture-psychology interface problems such as user needs, housing quality evaluations, participatory planning and spatial simulation / virtual reality did not outline an “old, settled” discipline, but rather the sketchy, random surface of a field “always starting anew”. E.g., discussions at the 1995 EAEA-Conference showed that several architectural simulation studies since 1973 caused no major impact on planner's opinions (Keul&Martens, 1996). “Re-inventions of the wheel” are caused by a lack of meetings (except this one!) and of interdisciplinary infrastructure in German-language countries (contrary to Sweden or the United States). Social pressures building up on architecture nowadays by inter-European competition, budget cuts and citizen activities for informed consent in most urban projects are a new challenge for planners to cooperate efficiently with social scientists. At Salzburg, the author currently manages the Corporate Design-process for the Chamber of Architecture, Division for Upper Austria and Salzburg. A “working group for architectural psychology” (Keul-Martens-Maderthaner) has been active since 1994.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ddss9837
id ddss9837
authors Liu, Yu-Tung and Bai, Rui-Yuan
year 1998
title The roles of virtual reality, image processing, and multimedia in thedesign of public spaces: 1997 Hsinchu Project
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary This paper examines the procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment proposed by Rahman and reviews the use of CAD applications in urban projects in the real world. A preliminary computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is proposed. An experiments wasconducted in our laboratory to verify the preliminary procedure. In order to further study the revised procedure in real urban projects, it was also applied into the renew project of The Eastern Gate Plaza located in the center of city Hsinchu, Taiwan from 1996 to 1998. According to several face-to-face discussions with Hsinchu habitants, government officials, and professional designers, a final computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is concluded.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup9617
id ddssup9617
authors Sidjanin, Predrag
year 1996
title A computer simulation model of the TU district of Delft with use of the GIS and VR
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary One of the big problems for GIS users is a luck of such an visual presentation of data which will easily transform them into a spatial image. Existing systems based on Human-Computer-Interfaces (Ha) have limitations and for this reason it is necessary to discover new explicit way of spatial data presentation and manipulation. Virtual Reality technology with its specificity and characteristics based on spatial displaying and multisensory interactivity, give to VR users a new promising possibility to solve GIS limitations. This research is an exploration of integration of GIS and yR. VR is a kind of production of a simulation of a real world, and GIS-databases contain data that describe this world, therefore a success of combination of both technologies is very probable. This research shows possibilities for creating a virtual GIS world in which is possible to handle, explore, analyse and present spatial data by free navigation through a virtual model. The virtual model of Delft University of Technology's Campus presents Virtual Reality as a new type of 3D interface for GIS and demonstrates some basic GIS functions in virtual environment. It has been created by importing of GIS databases into VR system. Virtual model is based on geometric and attributive data. GIS functionality is enabled by 3D interface objects, that symbolically and semantically represents GIS functions. Their use should initiate intuitive users action. This application combines spatial data, user interface, text, sound, thematic data and virtual hypertext. Virtual model enables the use of quantitative and qualitative information. The results of the research can be implemented to support design strategies ax! decision making in the field of physical and urban planning.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 215e
authors Bai, Rui-Yuan and Liu, Yu-Tung
year 1998
title Towards a Computerized Procedure for Visual Impact Analysis and Assessment - The Hsinchu Example
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 67-76
summary This paper examines the procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment proposed by Rahman and reviews the use of CAD applications in urban projects in the real world. A preliminary computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is proposed. An experiments was conducted in our laboratory to verify the preliminary procedure. In order to further study the revised procedure in real urban projects, it was also applied into the renew project of The Eastern Gate Plaza located in the center of city Hsinchu, Taiwan from 1996 to 1998. According to several face-to-face discussions with Hsinchu habitants, government officials, and professional designers, a final computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is concluded.
keywords Environmental Simulation, Visual Impact Analysis and Assessment, Virtual Reality
series CAADRIA
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddssup9604
id ddssup9604
authors Boelen, A.J.
year 1996
title Impact-Analysis of Urban Design Realtime impact-analysis models for urban designers
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The past five years Prof Dr Jr T.M. de Jong, professor in environmental planning and sustainability at the Technical University of Delft, has developed a theoretical foundation for the analysis of urban design on the ecological, technical, economical, cultural and political impacts of morphologic interventions on different levels of scale. From september 1994 Jr AJ. Boelen (Urban Design Scientist and Knowledge Engineer) started a research project at the same university to further explore the possibilities of these theories and to develop impact evaluation models for urban design and development with the theoretical work of De Jong as a starting point. The paper discusses the development of a design and decision support system based on these theories. For the development of this system, techniques like object-orientation, genetic algorithms and knowledge engineering are used. The user interface, the relation between the real world, paper maps and virtual maps and the presentation of design-interventions and impacts caused by the interventions are important issues. The development-process is an interactive step by step process. It consists of the making of a prototype of the system, testing the theory and hypothe-sisses the system is based on, by applying tests end adjusting the theory and hypothesisses where needed. Eventually the system must be able to act as an integrator of many different models already developed or still to be developed. The structure of the system will allow easy future expansion and adjustment to changing insights. The logic used to develop the basic theory on which this system is founded makes it possible to even introduce and maintain rather subjective aspects like quality or appraisal as impacts that can be evaluated. In a previously developed system "Momentum" this was proved to work effectively for the national level. In this project we will - amongst other things - try to prove the effectiveness of impact-evaluation for other levels of scale.
series DDSS
email Aj.Boelen@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 68e3
authors Fuchs, Wladek and Martinico, Anthony
year 1996
title THE V.C.NET - A DIGITAL STUDY IN ARCHITECTURE
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 23-29
summary The "V.C.net" project is an Internet-based educational and communication tool for the architectural community. Its goal is to encourage students from architecture programs across the country and around the world to examine problems and collaborate in the exploration of ideas through the World Wide Web. The central concept of the project involves the creation of a simulated, vital urban environment constructed from various forms of digital data. This "virtual city" will be comprised of projects executed by students of architecture and urban design in the U.S. and abroad. Projects will be proposed for specific sites and will reflect real-world questions as they are minored in the virtual world. The city exists as a heuristic tool and is not intended as a copy of any existing human habitat. The ultimate goal of the project is to create a dynamic platform to study the interrelationship of various forces effecting urban development: architecture, planning, civil engineering, economics, social sciences etc. The project originates at the School of Architecture of the University of Detroit Mercy and is intended to be truly interdisciplinary.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2006/03/15 17:40

_id bd19
authors Harrison, Steve and Dourish, Paul
year 1996
title Re-Place-ing Space: The Roles of Place and Space in Collaborative Systems Learning from Space and Place
source Proceedings of ACM CSCW'96 Conferenc on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 1996 p.10
summary Many collaborative and communicative environments use notions of "space" and spatial organisation to facilitate and structure interaction. We argue that a focus on spatial models is misplaced. Drawing on understandings from architecture and urban design, as well as from our own research findings, we highlight the critical distinction between "space" and "place". While designers use spatial models to support interaction, we show how it is actually a notion of "place" which frames interactive behaviour. This leads us to re-evaluate spatial systems, and discuss how "place", rather than "space", can support CSCW design.
keywords Space; Place; Media Space; Virtual Reality; MUDs; Metaphor
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 905d
authors Maltret, J.-L. and Zoller, J.
year 1996
title Simulation of architectural and urban morphology
source OEEPE Workshop on 3D-city models, Bonn, October 1996.
summary The Remus project aims at conceiving a simulation tool for both architectural and urban morphology, building a computer system using artificial intelligence tools, and computer graphics. Remus is made of a base of architectural knowledge, an expert system, and an interactive graphical environment for generating and displaying architectural objects. In this paper are presented new developments concerning evolution toward virtual reality models.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ac1d
authors Martens, B., Dokonal, W., Schmidinger, E. and Voigt, A.
year 1996
title Collaborative Teamwork - Challenges of the Future
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 263-272
summary Collaborative Teamwork is regarded to be one of the most outstanding fields of teaching and research within the context of Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning. This focal field is closely related to the research field of "Remote Teamwork", i.e. the substance-related cooperation of people over spatial distances in decision-situations aiming at the elaboration of suited remote-working structures for research, project transactions and teaching. The generation and manipulation of digital spatial models and their virtual transportation within large spatial distances represent the main research objectives. The Faculty of Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning therefore is stressing information technologies within academic context. The following contribution is dedicated to the description of two teaching projects, namely „BraGraLuWi" (collaborative teamwork between the universities of Technology Bratislava, Graz, Luton and Vienna) and carrying-out a VRML-workshop, furthermore to the development of Remote Teamwork-structures preferably on the basis of „ATM" (a technology of broad band telecommunications) at Vienna University of Technology.
series eCAADe
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at, dokonal@stdb.tu-graz.ac.at, voigt@www.ifoer.tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2001/02/11 18:04

_id 8b8d
authors Martens, B., Voigt, A. and Linzer, H.
year 1996
title Information Technologies within Academic Context: Remote Teamwork – A Challenge for the Future
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 227-232
summary "Remote Teamwork”, i.e. the substance-related cooperation of people over spatial distances in decision-situations relies on "CIVIC” (Computer-Integrated Video-Conferencing-audio-visual communication at spatial distances integrating interactively digital, spatial computer models) and "CISP” (Computer-Integrated Spatial Planning) aiming at the elaboration of suited remote-working structures of research, project transactions and teaching preferably on the basis of "ATM” (a technology of broad band telecommunications). The generation and manipulation of digital spatial models and their virtual transportation within large spatial distances represent the main research objectives. The efficient use of teaching resources calls for the integration of new teaching possibilities within the framework of "Remote Teamwork”, e.g. Distributed and Shared Modelling, Distant Learning and Remote Teaching. The Faculty of Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning therefore is stressing information technologies within academic context. The following contribution is dedicated to the focal field of research and teaching "Remote Teamwork” of the Vienna University of Technology. This project is carried out in cooperation with the Institute of Spatial Interaction and Simulation (IRIS-ISIS), Vienna and the Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC Linz-Hagenberg). Teaching experience relevant for "Remote Teamwork” is derived from various experiments of cooperative teamwork.
series CAADRIA
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2002/09/04 13:43

_id 44cc
authors Martens, Bob (ed.)
year 1996
title Full-scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality
source Proceedings of the 6th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-132-2 / Vienna (Austria) 4-6 September 1996, 140 p.
summary In times characterized by the growing "architectural criticism"; to the same extent as by the helplessness of the anonymous user the communication process between contractors, planner and users gains in importance. If communication is successful will not only depend on the quality of the project but also on the means of conveyance, e.g. visualizing or model representation. Can planning evaluation be effectively supported by virtual reality (VR)?

The principal item of a full-scale lab preferably features a court-like facility where the 1:1 simulations are performed. Such lab facilities can be found at various architecture education centers throughout Europe. In the early eighties the European Full-scale Modeling Association (abrev. EFA, full-scale standing for 1:1 or simulation in full-scale) was founded acting as the patron of a conference every two years. In line with the conference title "Full-scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality" the participants were particularly concerned with the relationship of physical 1:1 simulations and VR. The assumption that those creating architecture provide of a higher degree of affinity to physical than to virtual models and prototypes was subject of vivid discussions.

Furthermore, the participants devoted some time to issues such as the integration of model-like ideas and built reality thus uncovering any such synergy-effects. Thus some major considerations had to be given to the question of how the architectís model-like ideas and built reality would correspond, also dealing with user-suitability as such: what the building artist might be thrilled with might not turn out to be the residentsí and usersí everyday delight. Aspects of this nature were considered at the îArchitectural Psychology Meeting” together with specialists on environment and aesthetics. As individual space perception as well as its evaluation differ amongst various architects, and these being from various countries furnishing cultural differences, lively discussions were bound to arise.

keywords VR, Virtual Reality, Simulation in Full-scale, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/EFA-Proceedings.html
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

_id 0bbd
authors Martens, Bob
year 1996
title ON THE RELATION OF SIMULATION IN FULL SCALE AND VIRTUAL REALITY
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary In line with the conference title “Full-scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality” the participants will particularly concern themselves with the relationship of physical 1:1 simulations and VR. If the assumption holds true that those creating architecture provide of a higher degree of affinity to physical than to virtual models and prototypes will be subject of discussions. Furthermore, the participants will devote some time to issues such as the integration of model-like ideas and built reality thus uncovering any such synergy-effects.

In times characterized by the growing “architectural criticism” to the same extent as by the helplessness of the anonymous user the communication process between contractors, planer and users gains in importance. If communication is successful will not only depend on the quality of the project but also on the means of conveyance, e.g. visualizing or model representation. Can planning evaluation be effectively supported by virtual reality (VR)?

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 10:38

_id 0443
id 0443
authors Maver, Thomas W.
year 1996
title The Virtual City
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 181-184
summary Europe's architectural heritage is immensely rich and diverse; it contributes to the quality of life in our cities and attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors from all corners of the world. Yet it is under increasing threat from insensitive planning, atmospheric pollution and commercial exploitation. There is urgent need to understand the complex evolutionary development of our urban habitats, to reconstruct what once existed, to archive what currently exists and to test, in context, proposed future architectural and planning interventions. The emerging multimedia technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to make all this accessible to a wide range of interested agents - from citizens to tourists, from students to scholars, from conservationists to developers.
keywords 3D City modeling
series plCAD
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/09/24 11:45

_id ddssar9623
id ddssar9623
authors Mitossi, V. and Koutamanis, A.
year 1996
title Parametric design of stairs
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Stairs represent one of the oldest and most intricate design problems in architecture. Aesthetics, pedestrian circulation, construction and safety combine to create a complex network of factors. Despite the essentially parametric nature of stairs, designers have been eager to adopt and apply simplistic standardization schemes, often unrelated to safety issues. Moreover, while there are several computerized systems for the automated design of stairs, there has been little if any interest in the computer-based analysis of stair designs. The objective of our research has been to develop a transparent and flexible computer system for the design and analysis of stairs. The system employs constraint propagation networks for the calculation of stair dimensions in generation and for the correlation of floor levels to stairs and their dimensions in analysis. Computerization also allows us to re-examine and refine the norms underlying stair design. We propose that our understanding of stair design can be improved by the analysis of proprioceptive sizes in ascent and descent. Simulation of these sizes with virtual robots combines accurate measurement with visual evaluation. This combination facilitates the effortless and direct integration of advanced technologies and new methods in architectural design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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