CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 483

_id 911c
authors Darken, Rudolph P.
year 1996
title Wayfinding in Large-Scale Virtual Worlds
source George Washington University
summary As important as navigation is to human performance in virtual worlds, it is an often overlooked problem in the design process. This dissertation reports an experiment intended to show that real-world wayfinding and environmental design principles are effective in designing virtual worlds which support skilled wayfinding behavior. The design principles are adapted from both the cognitive psychology literature and urban and architectural design methodologies. There are two categories of design principles; those that guide the organizational structure of the environment, and those that guide the use and presentation of maps. The study measures subject performance on a complex searching task in a number of virtual worlds with differing environmental cues. The environments are extremely large and consist of open sea, land, and ships which are used as targets for search tasks. The worlds are augmented with either a radial grid, a map, both, or neither. For each trial, the subject's viewpoint position and orientation was sampled approximately once per second. A verbal protocol with accompanying video was used to elicit information about the search strategies employed. A map drawing exercise followed each trial in order to gain insight to the subject's spatial knowledge (i.e. cognitive map) of the environment. The results show that subjects in the treatment without any additional cues were often disoriented and had extreme difficulty completing the task. The grid was shown to provide superior directional information but both treatments using the map were superior overall due to the geocentric perspective provided. Behaviors associated with each treatment indicate that the cues had a strong effect on both search performance and search strategy. The results suggest that users of large-scale virtual worlds require structure in order to effectively navigate. Augmentations such as direction indicators, maps, and path restriction can all greatly improve both wayfinding performance and overall user satisfaction.
series thesis:PhD
email darken@enews.nrl.navy.mil
more http://www.seas.gwu.edu/~sibert/darken/publications/Dissertation_95/thesis.html
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id c872
authors Beliveau, Y.J., Fithian, J.E. and Deisenroth, M.P.
year 1996
title Autonomous vehicle navigation with real-time 3D laser based positioning for construction
source Automation in Construction 5 (4) (1996) pp. 261-272
summary Autonomous Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are a way of life in manufacturing where navigation can be done in a structured environment. Construction is an unstructured environment and requires a different type of navigation system to deal with three dimensional control and rough terrain. This paper provides a review of navigation systems that utilize dead-reckoning in conjunction with absolute referencing systems such as beacon-based systems, and vision and mapping based system. The use of a real-time laser based technology is demonstrated as a new form of navigation. This, technology does not rely on dead reckoning. The paper outlines the issues and strategies in guiding an autonomous vehicle utilizing only the laser-based positioning system. Algorithms were developed to provide real-time control of the AGV. The laser based positioning system is unique in that it provides three dimensional position data with five updates per second. No other system can provide this level of performance. This allows for control of end effectors and autonomous vehicles in complex and unstructured three dimensional environments. The use of this new type of navigation makes possible the automation of large complex assemblies in rough terrain such as construction.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id ddssup9617
id ddssup9617
authors Sidjanin, Predrag
year 1996
title A computer simulation model of the TU district of Delft with use of the GIS and VR
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary One of the big problems for GIS users is a luck of such an visual presentation of data which will easily transform them into a spatial image. Existing systems based on Human-Computer-Interfaces (Ha) have limitations and for this reason it is necessary to discover new explicit way of spatial data presentation and manipulation. Virtual Reality technology with its specificity and characteristics based on spatial displaying and multisensory interactivity, give to VR users a new promising possibility to solve GIS limitations. This research is an exploration of integration of GIS and yR. VR is a kind of production of a simulation of a real world, and GIS-databases contain data that describe this world, therefore a success of combination of both technologies is very probable. This research shows possibilities for creating a virtual GIS world in which is possible to handle, explore, analyse and present spatial data by free navigation through a virtual model. The virtual model of Delft University of Technology's Campus presents Virtual Reality as a new type of 3D interface for GIS and demonstrates some basic GIS functions in virtual environment. It has been created by importing of GIS databases into VR system. Virtual model is based on geometric and attributive data. GIS functionality is enabled by 3D interface objects, that symbolically and semantically represents GIS functions. Their use should initiate intuitive users action. This application combines spatial data, user interface, text, sound, thematic data and virtual hypertext. Virtual model enables the use of quantitative and qualitative information. The results of the research can be implemented to support design strategies ax! decision making in the field of physical and urban planning.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c204
authors Aleksander Asanowicz
year 1996
title Teaching and Learning - Full Brainwash
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 51-54
summary We often speak of changes in design process due to an application of computers. But in my opinion we more often rather speak of lack of changes. Lets hope that some day we will be able to witness full integrity and compatibility of design process and tools applied in it. Quite possible such an integrity may occur in the cyberspace. Nevertheless before that could happen some changes within the teaching methods at faculties of architecture, where despite great numbers of computer equipment used, the students are still being taught as in the XIX century. In terms of achieved results it proves ineffective because application of chalk and blackboard only will always loose to new media, which allow visual perception of dinosaurs in Jurassic Park. Our civilisation is the iconographic one. And that is why teaching methods are about to change. An application of computer as simply a slide projector seems to be way too expensive. New media demands new process and new process demands new media. Lets hope that could be achieved in cyberspace as being a combination of: classic ways of teaching, hypertext, multimedia, virtual reality and a new teaching methodology (as used in Berlitz English School - full brainwash). At our faculty several years ago we experimentally undertook and applied an Integrated Design Teaching Method. A student during design process of an object simultaneously learnt all aspects and functions of the object being designing i.e.: its structure, piping and wiring, material cost and even historic evolution of its form and function. Unfortunately that concept was too extravagant as for the seventies in our reality. At present due to wide implementation of new media and tools in design process we come to consider reimplementation of IDTM again.
series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 62c0
authors Barrallo, Javier and Iglesias, Alberto
year 1996
title Cybersculpture
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 35-43
summary From the first artistic expressions of mankind, the Mathematics has influence the shapes and proportions presents in the different artistic disciplines. The coming of Abstract art and modern Mathematics at the beginning of the century supposed a complete renovation of the way of understand the relationship between Mathematics and Art, reinforced by the huge expansion of computers nowadays. Chaos Theory or Fractal Geometry constitute examples of this tendencies, that normally are expressed in the two dimensional plane. The idea of this work consists on the utilisation of a series of elements from the contemporaneous Mathematics to express them in an artistic way in the three dimensional space. The result is a family of objects that we have called CYBERSCULPTURES, due to their sculptural character and the fact that they have Internet as their virtual museum.
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 029b
authors Bryson, Steve
year 1996
title Virtual Reality in Scientific Visualization
source Communications of the ACM. Vol.39, No.5. pp. 62-71
summary Immersing the user in the solution, virtual reality reveals the spatially complex structures in computational science in a way that makes them easy to understand and study. But beyond adding a 3D interface, virtual reality also means greater computational complexity.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id d610
authors Burdea, G.C.
year 1996
title Force and Touch Feedback for Virtual Reality
source New York: John Wiley & Sons
summary Could weight, temperature, and texture combine to bring simulated objects to life? Describing cutting-edge technology that will influence the way we interact with computers for years to come, this pioneering book answers yes: not only is it possible, but devices capable of providing force and tactile sensory feedback already exist. Force and Touch Feedback for Virtual Reality is the first comprehensive source of information on the design, modeling, and applications of force and tactile interfaces for VR. It is a must have for scientists, engineers, psychologists, and developers involved in VR, and for anyone who would like to gain a deeper understanding of this exciting and fast-growing field. Complete with hundreds of tables, figures, and color illustrations, Force and Touch Feedback for Virtual Reality offers * Basic information on human tactile sensing and control and feedback actuator technology * A worldwide survey of force and tactile interface devices, from the simple joystick to full-body instrumented suits based on human factor tests * Step-by-step instructions for realistic physical modeling of virtual object characteristics such as weight, surface smoothness, compliance, and temperature * A unified treatment of the benefits of the new haptic interface technology for simulation and training based on human factor tests * A detailed analysis of optimum control requirements for force and tactile feedback devices * A review of emerging applications in areas ranging from surgical training and entertainment to telerobotics and the military
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id b27f
authors Campbell, Dace A.
year 1996
title Design in virtual environments using architectural metaphor : a HIT lab gallery
source University of Washington
summary This thesis explores the application and limitations of architectural metaphor in the design of virtual environments. Architecture, whether physical or virtual, is the expression of a society realized as meaningful space. Physical and virtual architecture have their own constraints and context, yet both use architectural organization as a way to order forms and spaces in the environment. Both strive to create meaningful place by defining space, and both must allow the participant to develop a cognitive map to orient and navigate in the space. The lack of physics of time and space in the virtual realm requires special attention and expression of its architecture in order for the participant to cope with transitions. These issues are exemplified by the development of an on-line gallery of virtual environments. Conclusions reached by the development of this design are discussed in the context of orientation, navigation, transition, enclosure, and scale.
keywords Virtual Reality; Human-Computer Interaction
series thesis:MSc
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
more http://www.hitl.washington.edu/publications/campbell/
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id b81d
authors Davies, C. and Harrison, J.
year 1996
title Osmose: Towards Broadening the Aesthetics of Virtual Reality
source ACM Computer Graphics: Virtual Reality Volume 30, Number 4
summary Osmose is an immersive virtual environment, produced by Softimage in 1994/95. One of the primary goals of Osmose was to push the expressive capabilities of existing 3D tools, to demonstrate that an alternative aesthetic and interactive sensibility is possible for real-time, interactive, 3D computer graphics. Osmose was created under the direction of Char Davies, the Director of Visual Research at Softimage. A former painter, as well as a creator of 3D computer graphic stills, Davies has a particular artistic vision which has driven the project. Davies has been striving for years to represent space as a luminous enveloping medium. This has led her from painting to 3D computer graphics, and finally into creating immersive virtual spaces. One of Davies' intentions for Osmose was to create a space that is "psychically innovating," one in which, to quote Bachelard, participants do not change "place," but change their own nature. Osmose was therefore designed to explore the potential of immersive virtual space to allow participants to shed their habitual ways of looking at (and behaving in) the world. By doing this, we hoped they would then emerge from the virtual world to experience the real world in a fresh way, reawakening a fundamental sense of their own "being-in-the-world." We hoped that this could be accomplished through the visual, aural and interactive aesthetic of the work.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddssar9607
id ddssar9607
authors Doxtater, Dennis and Mittleman, Daniel
year 1996
title Facilitating and structuring environmental knowledge: prototypical pre-design for a new campus setting
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary This applied research combines state-of-the-art computer-supported facilitation process with a conceptually new way of structuring behavioral knowledge of the physical environment. The object is to develop a prototypical evaluation/pre-design/design process which can be used in practice. The paper reports on the first phase of an actual building project for a university campus where representatives from all client user groups have participated in GSS facilitated sessions. Large amounts of user information have been organized into a graphically enhanced data base including decisions on key programmatic issues. Proposed GSS sessions for the second phase envision a continuous flow of pre-design information through design and design evaluation processes.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 5fc4
authors Fruchter, R.
year 1996
title Conceptual Collaborative Building Design Through Shared Graphics
source IEEE Expert special issue on Al in Civil Engineering, June vol. 33-41
summary The Interdisciplinary Communication Medium computer environment integrates a shared graphic modeling environment with network-based services to accommodate many perspectives in an architecture/engineering/construction team. Communication is critical for achieving better cooperation and coordination among professionals in a multidisciplinary building team. The complexity of large construction projects, the specialization of the project participants, and the different forms of synchronous and asynchronous collaborative work increase the need for intensive information sharing and exchange. Architecture/engineering/construction (A/E/C) professionals use computers to perform a specific discipline's tasks, but they still exchange design decisions and data using paper drawings and documents. Each project participant investigates and communicates alternative solutions through representational idioms that are private to that member's profession. Other project participants must then interpret, extract, and reenter the relevant information using the conventional idioms of their disciplines and in the format required by their tools. The resulting communication difficulties often affect the quality of the final building and the time required to achieve design consensus. This article describes a computer environment, the Interdisciplinary Communication Medium (ICM), that supports conceptual, collaborative building design. The objective is to help improve communication among professionals in a multidisciplinary team. Collaborative teamwork is an iterative process of reaching a shared understanding of the design and construction domains, the requirements, the building to be built, and the necessary commitments. The understanding emerges over time, as team members begin to grasp their own part of the project, and as they provide information that lets others progress. The fundamental concepts incorporated in ICM include A communication cycle for collaborative teamwork that comprises propose-interpret-critique-explain-change notifications. An open system-integration architecture. A shared graphic modeling environment for design exploration and communication. A Semantic Modeling Extension (SME), which introduces a structured way to capture design intent. A change-notification mechanism that documents notes on design changes linked to the graphic models, and routes change notifications. Thus, the process involves communication, negotiation, and team learning.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id b6a7
authors Jensen, K.
year 1996
title Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts
source 2nd ed., Springer Verlag, Berlin
summary This book presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN). It shows how CP-nets have been developed - from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and/or computers communicate by means of some more or less formal rules). The book contains the formal definition of CP-nets and the mathematical theory behind their analysis methods. However, it has been the intention to write the book in such a way that it also becomes attractive to readers who are more interested in applications than the underlying mathematics. This means that a large part of the book is written in a style which is closer to an engineering textbook (or a users' manual) than it is to a typical textbook in theoretical computer science. The book consists of three separate volumes. The first volume defines the net model (i.e., hierarchical CP-nets) and the basic concepts (e.g., the different behavioural properties such as deadlocks, fairness and home markings). It gives a detailed presentation of many small examples and a brief overview of some industrial applications. It introduces the formal analysis methods. Finally, it contains a description of a set of CPN tools which support the practical use of CP-nets. Most of the material in this volume is application oriented. The purpose of the volume is to teach the reader how to construct CPN models and how to analyse these by means of simulation. The second volume contains a detailed presentation of the theory behind the formal analysis methods - in particular occurrence graphs with equivalence classes and place/transition invariants. It also describes how these analysis methods are supported by computer tools. Parts of this volume are rather theoretical while other parts are application oriented. The purpose of the volume is to teach the reader how to use the formal analysis methods. This will not necessarily require a deep understanding of the underlying mathematical theory (although such knowledge will of course be a help). The third volume contains a detailed description of a selection of industrial applications. The purpose is to document the most important ideas and experiences from the projects - in a way which is useful for readers who do not yet have personal experience with the construction and analysis of large CPN diagrams. Another purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of using CP-nets and the CPN tools for such projects. Together the three volumes present the theory behind CP-nets, the supporting CPN tools and some of the practical experiences with CP-nets and the tools. In our opinion it is extremely important that these three research areas have been developed simultaneously. The three areas influence each other and none of them could be adequately developed without the other two. As an example, we think it would have been totally impossible to develop the hierarchy concepts of CP-nets without simultaneously having a solid background in the theory of CP-nets, a good idea for a tool to support the hierarchy concepts, and a thorough knowledge of the typical application areas.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4b7e
authors Lemay
year 1996
title 3D Graphics and VRML 2
source Sams Publishing
summary This is the easiest way for readers to learn how to add three-dimensional virtual worlds to Web pages. It describes the new VRML 2.0 specification, explores the wide array of existing VRML sites on the Web, and steps the reader through the process of creating their own 3-D Web environments. - Contains complete coverage of VRML 2.0 - Teaches how to create 3D worlds on the Web
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 24
authors PayssÈ, M., Piperno, P., Grompone, J. and Somma, P.
year 1998
title ReconstrucciÛn Virtual de la Colonia del Sacramento de 1762 (Virtual Reconstruction of "Colonia del Sacramento" of 1762)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 192-197
summary Colonia del Sacramento (capital of Colonia department, in Uruguay) has been registered in the list of the Convention Heritage concerning the protection of worldwide cultural and natural heritage. The registration on this list (December 6th 1995) confirms the exceptional and universal value of a cultural or natural places which deserves protection for the whole humanity. The ancient Colonia del Sacramento founded in 1680 by Portugal, was a commercial and military site leading role of the historical controversy between Spain and Portugal. Main place of wars and treaties during a century, it keeps an urban design, unique in the area and valuable architectonical testimonies of different periods of this rich past, with a simple, popular profile. This work has been effected within the Clemente Estable Found 1996, which is promoted by National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICYT). Through virtual reality techniques, a three-dimensional model of Colonia del Sacramento city was built as it was in its period of prosperity (around 1762). For the achievement of this digital maquette, a great deal of written and graphic information was compiled and processed. This information was organized in an inventory way (with numerous readings and searches). The inventory and the digital maquette were joined in a multimedia application (CD-ROM) which allows potential users to move through virtual city and friendly and interactively consult images, graphics and texts.
series SIGRADI
email idise@montevideo.com.uy
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id 85d9
authors Plocke, Thomas
year 1996
title Post-Virtual mentality
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 189-196
summary The title comes from two different motives. At first it is a trial of excuse and introduces the subject of my exposure. The second reason is a way of improve dramatic accents from the beginning of my presentation. Computers are changing the world. Nobody can imagine a contemporary world without a useful help of them. We got used to the presence of computers in practically each area of existence. This presence is the first way in which computers are changing the world. The second way is less spectacular, but it completes the first one. It is an influence onto the human mentality and human way of thinking and working. This influence is often difficult to see and realize, but in my opinion is more interesting. Everybody knows that the computers are making the work of architects different. Is it a difference of quantity only or maybe also of quality? Which was the influence of computers onto an architectural space? Would it be different (better? worst?) if we were not used CAAD technology?
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/09 13:30

_id e1a1
authors Rodriguez, G.
year 1996
title REAL SCALE MODEL VS. COMPUTER GENERATED MODEL
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Advances in electronic design and communication are already reshaping the way architecture is done. The development of more sophisticated and user-friendly Computer Aided Design (CAD) software and of cheaper and more powerful hardware is making computers more and more accessible to architects, planners and designers. These professionals are not only using them as a drafting tool but also as a instrument for visualization. Designers are "building" digital models of their designs and producing photo-like renderings of spaces that do not exist in the dimensional world.

The problem resides in how realistic these Computer Generated Models (CGM) are. Moss & Banks (1958) considered realism “the capacity to reproduce as exactly as possible the object of study without actually using it”. He considers that realism depends on: 1)The number of elements that are reproduced; 2) The quality of those elements; 3) The similarity of replication and 4) Replication of the situation. CGM respond well to these considerations, they can be very realistic. But, are they capable of reproducing the same impressions on people as a real space?

Research has debated about the problems of the mode of representation and its influence on the judgement which is made. Wools (1970), Lau (1970) and Canter, Benyon & West (1973) have demonstrated that the perception of a space is influenced by the mode of presentation. CGM are two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional space. Canter (1973) considers the three-dimensionality of the stimuli as crucial for its perception. So, can a CGM afford as much as a three-dimensional model?

The “Laboratorio de Experimentacion Espacial” (LEE) has been concerned with the problem of reality of the models used by architects. We have studied the degree in which models can be used as reliable and representative of real situations analyzing the Ecological Validity of several of them, specially the Real-Scale Model (Abadi & Cavallin, 1994). This kind of model has been found to be ecologically valid to represent real space. This research has two objectives: 1) to study the Ecological Validity of a Computer Generated Model; and 2) compare it with the Ecological Validity of a Real Scale Model in representing a real space.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:42

_id 4710
authors Senyapili, Burcu
year 1996
title THE TRUE MODEL CONCEPT IN COMPUTER GENERATED SIMULATIONS
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Each design product depends on a design model originated in the designer's mind. From initial design decisions even to the final product, each design step is a representation of this design model. Designers create and communicate using the design models in their minds. They solve design problems by recreating and transforming the design model and utilize various means to display the final form of the model. One of these means, the traditional paper-based media of design representation (drawings, mockup models) alienate the representation from the design model, largely due to the lack of the display of the 4th dimension. Architecture is essentially a four-dimensional issue, incorporating the life of the edifice and the dynamic perception of the space by people. However, computer generated simulations (walkthrough, flythrough, virtual reality applications) of architectural design give us the chance to represent the design model in 4D, which is not possible in the traditional media. Thus, they introduce a potential field of use and study in architectural design.

Most of the studies done for the effective use of this potential of computer aid in architectural design assert that the way architects design without the computer is not "familiar" to the way architects are led to design with the computer. In other words, they complain that the architectural design software does not work in the same way as the architects think and design the models in their brains. Within the above framework, this study initially discusses architectural design as a modeling process and defines computer generated simulations (walkthrough, flythrough, virtual reality) as models. Based on this discussion, the "familiarity" of architectural design and computer aided design is displayed. And then, it is asserted that the issue of familiarity should be discussed not from the point of the modeling procedure, but from the "trueness" of the model displayed.

Therefore, it is relevant to ask to what extent should the simulation simulate the design model. The simulation, actually, simulates not what is real, but what is unreal. In other words, the simulation tells lies in order to display the truth. Consequently, the study proposes measures as to how true a simulation model should be in order to represent the design model best.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:45

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