CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 485

_id 3151
authors Sanders, K.
year 1996
title The Digital Architect
source New York, NY, John Wiley &Sons
summary Written by an architect for design professionals, The Digital Architect is a gold mine of commonsense advice and guidance on the realities of using computer technology in design practice. Ken Sanders, AIA, takes you beyond the hyperbole to discover the practical reality of using computers today. He explains their strengths and weaknesses; what these tools do and what they don't do; and how they can be used strategically and tactically to improve quality, productivity, and profits in design firms of all sizes. Drawing on his own experiences and those of colleagues from across the nation whose comments appear throughout, he provides a wealth of valuable insights and advice on: * Choosing technology that leverages your professional value * Integrating technology seamlessly into your firm * Implementing cost-effective technology training and education * Managing the digital office, including liability, privacy, and security issues * Organizing the knowledge base of your firm * Using the Internet's World Wide Web as a global information resource * Hardware platforms, operating systems, and networks * Software tools and applications, including CAD, word processing, spreadsheets, multimedia, visualization, animation, virtual reality, on-line services, and more * The latest releases of major software products, including Windows 95TM and AutoCAD(r) Release 13(r) The only guide of its kind, The Digital Architect is a valuable tool for architects, engineers, designers, and all those who participate in creating the built environment.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id b42c
authors Piccolotto, M. and Rio, O.
year 1996
title A computer-based teaching tool for structural design
source Automation in Construction 5 (3) (1996) pp. 233-242
summary In this paper we will discuss the importance of computer-based simulation tools for the education of architects and civil engineers. We present our efforts to develop a program for the simulation of structures (CASDET). CASDET forms a microworld for planar structures. The program enables students to compose structures and to experiment interactively the effects of different geometry and load configurations. It tries to identify the proposed structure and controls its stability. Upon request of the student, it also processes displacements, internal forces (moments, shear forces, etc.) and reaction forces on supports. The students can then visualise the desired information by interacting directly with the structure or its members of interest. We present different methods with which students can visualise the results of their actions and discuss their implications in the educational context.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id aff6
authors Ferrar, Steve
year 1996
title Back to the Drawing Board?
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 155-162
summary I am starting my presentation with some slides of architecture as a reminder that above all else we are involved in the education of future architects. Such is the enthusiasm of many of us for our specialist subject that computers dominate any discussion of architecture. We must not lose sight of the fact that we are using computers to assist in the manipulation of space, form, light, texture and colour, and in communicating our ideas. They should also be helping us and our students to understand and deal with the relationship of built form to its environment, its users and other buildings. The use of computers should not get in the way of this. In the final analysis the image on a computer screen is only that - an image, a representation of a building. It is not the building itself. It is a means to an end and not an end in itself. The image must not be a substitute for the physical building. We must remember that we use most of our other senses when experiencing a building and it is just as important to be able to touch, hear and smell a piece of architecture as well as being able to see it. Who knows, perhaps even taste is important. How much does the use of computers affect the design process and the final appearance of the building? Would these buildings have been substantially different if a system of working in three dimensions, similar to computer aided design, had been available to these architects. To what degree has the design process and method of working shaped the architecture of designers like Frank Lloyd Wright, Carlo Scarpa, Louis Sullivan, Charles Rennie Mackintosh or Alvar Aalto.

series eCAADe
email steve.ferrar@uce.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id fb63
id fb63
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 1996
title An Outline of the Requirements for a Computer-Supported Collaborative Design System
source Open House International, vol 21, no 1, March 1996
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) systems have adequately satisfied several needs so far. They have dramatically improved the accuracy and consistency of working drawings, enabled designers to visualize their design ideas in three-dimensions, allowed the analysis of designs through data exchange and integrated databases, and even allowed the designers to evaluate (and in some cases generate) designs based on comparisons to previous cases and/or the formalization of grammars. Yet, there is a consensus that CAAD systems have not yet achieved their full potential. First, most systems employ a single-user approach to solving architectural problems which fails to grapple with the fact that most design work is done through teamwork. Second, current systems still can not support early design stages which involve client briefing, data collection, building program formulation, and schematic design generation. This paper seeks to study remedies to both of the afore-mentioned limitations through focusing on the fundamental dialectic and collaborative nature of what is called designing: a concerned social activity that proceeds by creating architectural elements to address a set of requirements and their re-thinking as a result of architectural conjecture. To investigate this relationship, it is proposed to build a computer-supported collaborative design environment using the tools of conceptual modeling, object-oriented algorithms, and distributed agents. Based on findings regarding the role of artifacts in collaborative design and a literature survey, this paper concludes with an outline of the requirements for the above system.
series journal paper
type normal paper
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2008/06/12 14:34

_id 2f3c
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 1996
title An Outline of the Requirements for a Computer-Supported Collaborative Design System
source Open House International, vol. 21 no 1, March 1996, pp. 22-30
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) systems have adequately satisfied several needs so far. They have dramatically improved the accuracy and consistency of working drawings, enabled designers to visualize their design ideas in three-dimensions, allowed the analysis of designs through data exchange and integrated databases, and even allowed the designers to evaluate (and in some cases generate) designs based on comparisons to previous cases and/or the formalization of grammars. Yet, there is a consensus that CAAD systems have not yet achieved their full potential. First, most systems employ a single-user approach to solving architectural problems which fails to grapple with the fact that most design work is done through teamwork. Second, current systems still can not support early design stages which involve client briefing, data collection, building program formulation, and schematic design generation. This paper seeks to study remedies to both of the afore-mentioned limitations through focusing on the fundamental dialectic and collaborative nature of what is called designing: a concerned social activity that proceeds by creating architectural elements to address a set of requirements and their re-thinking as a result of architectural conjecture. To investigate this relationship, it is proposed to build a computer-supported collaborative design environment using the tools of conceptual modeling, object-oriented algorithms, and distributed agents. Based on findings regarding the role of artifacts in collaborative design and a literature survey, this paper concludes with an outline of the requirements for the above system.
keywords Computer Supported Collaborative Design
series other
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2002/03/05 18:54

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 8f53
authors Ng, Edward
year 1996
title Say what You Do and Do what You Say
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 293-300
summary In the forthcoming globalisation and virtual almost everything, we are indeed reliving a moment of history when, at the turn of the century, machines replace craftsman in mass-producing goods quicker, cheaper, 'better' and faster for the mass market regardless of the appropriateness in using the machine. So much so that the recent proliferation of computer graphics has reached a stage where many are questioning their validity and usefulness in the advancement of architectural discourse. This paper argues that the pedagogy of the use of the new tools should be effective communication in vision and in representation. In short, saying what you do and doing what you say, no more and no less, or to be 'true' and 'honest'. The paper tries to provide a hypothetical framework whereby the rationale of drawing could be more systematically understood and criticised, and it reports ways the framework is introduced in the teaching of design studio. The focus of the experimental studio (Active Studio 1.6 beta) is to enable the substantiation of ideas and feelings through a critical manipulation of medium and techniques. The results are narratives whereby the expression of intention as well as the drawings are both on trial.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/17 13:53

_id 4710
authors Senyapili, Burcu
year 1996
title THE TRUE MODEL CONCEPT IN COMPUTER GENERATED SIMULATIONS
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Each design product depends on a design model originated in the designer's mind. From initial design decisions even to the final product, each design step is a representation of this design model. Designers create and communicate using the design models in their minds. They solve design problems by recreating and transforming the design model and utilize various means to display the final form of the model. One of these means, the traditional paper-based media of design representation (drawings, mockup models) alienate the representation from the design model, largely due to the lack of the display of the 4th dimension. Architecture is essentially a four-dimensional issue, incorporating the life of the edifice and the dynamic perception of the space by people. However, computer generated simulations (walkthrough, flythrough, virtual reality applications) of architectural design give us the chance to represent the design model in 4D, which is not possible in the traditional media. Thus, they introduce a potential field of use and study in architectural design.

Most of the studies done for the effective use of this potential of computer aid in architectural design assert that the way architects design without the computer is not "familiar" to the way architects are led to design with the computer. In other words, they complain that the architectural design software does not work in the same way as the architects think and design the models in their brains. Within the above framework, this study initially discusses architectural design as a modeling process and defines computer generated simulations (walkthrough, flythrough, virtual reality) as models. Based on this discussion, the "familiarity" of architectural design and computer aided design is displayed. And then, it is asserted that the issue of familiarity should be discussed not from the point of the modeling procedure, but from the "trueness" of the model displayed.

Therefore, it is relevant to ask to what extent should the simulation simulate the design model. The simulation, actually, simulates not what is real, but what is unreal. In other words, the simulation tells lies in order to display the truth. Consequently, the study proposes measures as to how true a simulation model should be in order to represent the design model best.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:45

_id ddssar9628
id ddssar9628
authors Shabha, G. and Orr, K.
year 1996
title The Impacts of Facilities Management Techniques on the Operational Efficiency of School Buildings- An Assessment of Grant Maintained Schools
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary This paper attempts to examine the main benefits and pitfalls of FM as applied to Grant Maintained Schools (UMS) by assessing its implications on selected school buildings. It seeks to address a number of questions regarding the desirability of this method as applied to GMS. On what assumption has GMS model been based? To what extent has this model affected their operational efficiency? What are the financial implications? What are the future prospects? The main findings are that FM has provided new opportunities in the educational sector. Despite the economical uncertainty, it is highly likely that local control will remain. Giving the state of disrepair of many system-built schools of the 50's and the 60's, there are many opportunities for the FM to be exploited including condition survey, refurbishment of external envelope of the building, preventative maintenance, space utilisation and consultancy on meeting the EU health and safety legislation.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar9629
id ddssar9629
authors Shabha, G. and Rudge, D.
year 1996
title Is Uniformity the Key to Flexibility? A Post-Occupancy Evaluation of School Buildings
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Flexibility and efficiency are two fundamental concepts in the planning of school buildings. This paper is being set to investigate the theoretical and practical links between the two. It seeks to address a number of questions: What constitutes an efficient and flexible school building? What is the optimal range and size of teaching areas to maximise flexibility? In what way can teaching areas be optimised to enhance their efficiency in use? Attempting to address these questions, an in-depth review of the relevant literature will be undertaken to analyse and refine the size of different teaching areas. Later, some operational measures of uniformity of areas and flexibility will be refined and established. These will be applied on selected school buildings to assess the their adequacy to accommodate change over use. The main outcome of this study is to provide an insight about the general rules of design for flexibility and efficiency. It also provides a framework for architects, surveyors and facilities managers to improve space efficiency in school buildings. This might enhance the process of space planning and management and improve the operational efficiency of other building types.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0ef8
authors Völker, H., Sariyildiz, S., Schwenck, M. and Durmisevic, S.
year 1996
title THE NEXT GENERATION OF ARCHITECTURE WITHIN COMPUTER SCIENCES
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Considering architecture as a mixture of exact sciences and the art, we can state that as in all other sciences, every technical invention and development has resulted in advantages and disadvantages for the well-being and prosperity of mankind. Think about the developments in the fields of nuclear energy or space travel. Besides bringing a lot of improvements in many fields, it also has danger for the well-being of a mankind. The development of the advanced computer techniques has also influence on architecture, which is inevitable. How did the computer science influence architecture till now, and what is going to be the future of the architecture with this ongoing of computer science developments? The future developments will be both in the field of conceptual design (form aspect) and also in the area of materialization of the design process.

These all are dealing with the material world, for which the tools of computer science are highly appropriate. But what will happen to the immaterial world? How can we put these immaterial values into a computers model? Or can the computer be creative as a human being? Early developments of computer science in the field of architecture involved two-dimensional applications, and subsequently the significance of the third dimension became manifest. Nowadays, however, people are already speaking of a fourth dimension, interpreting it as time or as dynamics. And what, for instance, would a fifth, sixth or X-dimension represent?

In the future we will perhaps speak of the fifth dimension, comprising the tangible qualities of the building materials around us. And one day a sixth dimension might be created, when it will be possible to establish direct communication with computers, because direct exchange between the computer and the human brain has been realised. The ideas of designers can then be processed by the computer directly, and we will no longer be hampered by obstacles such as screen and keyboard. There are scientist who are working to realize bio-chips. If it will work, perhaps we can realise all these speculations. It is nearly sure that the emergence of new technologies will also affect our subject area, architecture and this will create fresh challenges, fresh concepts, and new buildings in the 21st century. The responsibility of the architects must be, to bear in mind that we are dealing with the well-being and the prosperity of mankind.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email i.s.sariyildiz@dutkitm.bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:43

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id a573
authors Cicognani, Anna
year 1996
title Thinking Beyond
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 87-98
summary If the new generation of architects is in need of tools, then we can consider ourselves lucky. On the market there are as many CAD systems as we would be able to learn and use in more than a Curriculum of a School of Architecture. On the other hand, being able to use the tools doesn't mean being able to produce good designs. It is often pointed out how much buildings designed by CAD systems look strangely similar. In the challenge of education, in Schools of Architecture, we need to help students to think beyond the tools themselves. This can be done with, for example, Virtual Design Studios and MUDs/MOOs, in which students can practise their architectural skills and adapt the tools to their design, instead of vice versa. This paper is a description of some attempts in educating how to think beyond tools in design tasks.

series eCAADe
email anna@arch.su.edu.au
more http://www.arch.su.edu.au/~anna
last changed 1998/08/17 14:16

_id 6abd
authors Dawson, Anthony and Burry, Mark
year 1996
title The Continuing Dichotomy: Practice vs. Education
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 131-142
summary While it is apparent from the architectural literature that some practices are innovative in their use of computers for architectural design, clear evidence indicates that most architectural practices have applied computing to traditional practice paradigms. Information technology is therefore being applied to practice systems which were in place prior to computers being available. This has significant implications for architectural education in which there is tension developing between the requirements of the commercially oriented architectural practice and the innovation driven computer-aided architectural design educator. The first wishes to equip graduates for immediate and productive employment in computerised architectural practices and may be loosely interpreted as a graduate’s ability to work as a CAD operator within an architectural practice environment. The second has the desire for students to be innovative in their use of information technology as an aid in informing and evaluating parts of both the design process and its outcomes. However, it is only when both architects and educators identify the architectural process as an integrated information system that these tensions can be resolved. This requires reconsideration of the function and use of information technology in both educational institutions and in architectural practices. The paper discusses how fruitful this can be in the current environment and outlines current developments at Deakin University which aim at providing a middle ground
series eCAADe
email tonyd@deakin.edu.au, mburry@deakin.edu.au
last changed 1998/08/17 13:38

_id 46a7
authors Schumann, J., Strothotte, T., Raab, A. and Laser, S.
year 1996
title Assessing the Effect of Non-Photorealistic Rendered Images in CAD PAPERS: Empirical Studies of Graphics and Visual Design
source Proceedings of ACM CHI 96 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 1996 v.1 pp. 35-41
summary Recent work in computer graphics has resulted in new techniques for rendering so-called non-photorealistic images. While such features are now already appearing in commercially available software, little is known about the effect of non-photorealistic images on users and their usefulness in specific contexts. In this paper we report on an empirical study with 54 architects who compared the output of a sketch-renderer for producing pencil-like drawings with standard output of CAD systems for architectural designs. The results show that the different kinds of renditions actually have a very different effect on viewers and that non-photorealistic images actually do deserve their place in the repertoire of CAD systems.
keywords Non-Photorealistic Rendering; Architectural Presentation; Preliminary Drafts; Sketches
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 05c4
authors Sliwinski, Jacek
year 1996
title CAAD - To Teach, or not to Teach?
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 403-406
summary Usefulness of CAAD in architectural practice is not a matter to discuss. Probably it is very hard nowadays to find an architect practitioner who really believes, that CAAD isn't a useful tool in architectural office. Finding a job after finishing the studies at faculty of architecture isn't easy without knowledge of computer. For us as teachers it is a great challenge. We want our students to be as well as possible prepared for their work. So problem, how to put CAAD into amount of their knowledge is a very important point. However, computers are nowadays probably the fastest changing element of our reality. Differences between software and hardware used a few years ago and now are sometimes colossal. In spite of the fact, that in the field of using computers in design we are usually ahead of most architects practitioners, I think we are sentenced to be backward contemporary demands. Program of teaching CAAD prepared even with great care and accuracy is obsolete even when it starts. It is impossible to catch up with future. Which is a right place for CAAD in architectural education? Is it not true, that sometimes we try to teach CAAD by architecture instead of teaching architecture by CAAD? For many students CAAD is the most natural tool for design, a tool which has replaced pencil and a sheet of paper. Is it our success? I am not so sure. Limitations of CAAD systems are much bigger than pencil's one. Like every sophisticated tool it limits amount of possible solutions. CAAD should not be a fetish! I think maybe it is not such a stupid idea not to teach CAAD, but let our students find a right place for it like for any other useful tools?
series eCAADe
email jsliw@pg.gda.pl
last changed 1998/08/17 13:44

_id 3451
authors Harrison, Beverly L.
year 1996
title The Design and Evaluation of Transparent User Interfaces. From Theory to Practice
source University of Toronto, Toronto
summary The central research issue addressed by this dissertation is how we can design systems where information on user interface tools is overlaid on the work product being developed with these tools. The interface tools typically appear in the display foreground while the data or work space being manipulated typically appear in the perceptual background. This represents a trade-off in focused foreground attention versus focused background attention. By better supporting human attention we hope to improve the fluency of work, where fluency is reflected in a more seamless integration between task goals, user interface tool manipulations to achieve these goals, and feedback from the data or work space being manipulated. This research specifically focuses on the design and evaluation of transparent user interface 'layers' applied to graphical user interfaces. By allowing users to see through windows, menus, and tool palettes appearing in the perceptual foreground, an improved awareness of the underlying workspace and preservation of context are possible. However, transparent overlapping objects introduce visual interference which may degrade task performance, through reduced legibility. This dissertation explores a new interface technique (i.e., transparent layering) and, more importantly, undertakes a deeper investigation into the underlying issues that have implications for the design and use of this new technique. We have conducted a series of experiments, progressively more representative of the complex stimuli from real task domains. This enables us to systematically evaluate a variety of transparent user interfaces, while remaining confident of the applicability of the results to actual task contexts. We also describe prototypes and a case study evaluation of a working system using transparency based on our design parameters and experimental findings. Our findings indicate that similarity in both image color and in image content affect the levels of visual interference. Solid imagery in either the user interface tools (e.g., icons) or in the work space content (e.g., video, rendered models) are highly interference resistant and work well up to 75% transparent (i.e., 25% of foreground image and 75% of background content). Text and wire frame images (or line drawings) perform equally poorly but are highly usable up to 50% transparent, with no apparent performance penalty. Introducing contrasting outlining techniques improves the usability of transparent text menu interfaces up to 90% transparency. These results suggest that transparency is a usable and promising interface alternative. We suggest several methods of overcoming today's technical challenges in order to integrate transparency into existing applications.  
series thesis:PhD
email beverly@dgp.utoronto.ca
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

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