CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 519

_id 85db
authors Li, Siu Pan Thomas and Will, Barry F.
year 1997
title A Computer Based Evaluation Tool for the Visual Aspects in Window Design
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 247-256
summary Windows in buildings must respond to five major issues – daylight, sunshine, view, ventilation and sound. Each of these processes in its own way can be critical to the synthesis of a successful architectural design. All factors except view are engineering criteria that can be evaluated by some mathematical formulae provided there is sufficient information for the calculations. In contrast view” being a qualitative entity has difficulty in being measured by using conventional mathematical tools but it is probably the major factor that leads to the satisfaction and comfort of the users inside the building enclosure. This paper introduces a new approach in analyzing views by the use of computers. One of the advantages of this analysis process is that the psychological aspects are less biased in the end product. This paper explains the methodologies, theories and principles underlying these modeling and analyzing tools.
series CAADRIA
email tspli@hkuspace.hku.hk
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id ab84
authors Li, Thomas S.P. and Will, Barry F.
year 1997
title A Computer-Aided Evaluation Tool for the Visual Aspects in Architectural Design for High-Density and High- Rise Buildings
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 345-356
summary The field of view, the nature of the objects being seen, the distances between the objects and the viewer, daylighting and sunshine are some major factors affecting perceived reactions when viewing through a window. View is one major factor that leads to the satisfaction and comfort of the users inside the building enclosure. While computer technologies are being widely used in the field of architecture, designers still have to use their own intelligence, experience and preferences in judging their designs with respect to the quality of view. This paper introduces an alternative approach to the analysis of views by the use of computers. The prototype of this system and its underlying principles were first introduced in the C A A D R I A 1997 conference. This paper describes the further development of this system where emphasis has been placed on the high- rise and high-density environments. Architects may find themselves facing considerable limitations for improving their designs regarding views out of the building under these environmental conditions. This research permits an interactive real-time response to altering views as the forms and planes of the building are manipulated.
series CAAD Futures
email spli@hku.hk
last changed 2001/05/27 16:39

_id 7b96
authors Schley, M., Buday, R., Sanders, K. and Smith, D. (eds.)
year 1997
title AIA CAD layer guidelines
source Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects Press
summary The power and potential of computer-aided design (CAD) is based on the ability to reuse and share information. This is particularly true in building design and construction, a field that involves extensive information and teamwork between a variety of consultants. CAD provides both a common medium of exchange and a tool for producing the documentation required for construction and management. The key to realizing the potential of CAD is using common organizing principles. In particular, standard organization of files and layers is essential for efficient work and communication. Virtually all CAD systems support the concept of layers. This function allows graphic information to be grouped for display or plotting purposes. Intelligent use of layers can reduce drawing time and improve drawing coordination. By turning selected layers on or off, a variety of different plotted sheets can be produced. The layer is the basic CAD tool for managing visual information. By making it possible to reuse information, layers reduce drawing time and improve coordination. Layers and the new class libraries and object data complement, rather than compete with each other. Using layers to manage the visual aspects of graphic entities, with class libraries and object data to store the non-graphic data, gives architects an efficient way to work in CAD.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 460e
authors Dannettel, Mark E
year 1997
title Interactive Multimedia Design: Operational Structures and Intuitive Environments for CD-ROM
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 415-427
summary This paper presents practical design concepts for the production of CD-ROMs or on-line media projects which are intended for scholastic and professional use. It is based on the experience and knowledge which has been gained while developing a multimedia package here at the Department of Architecture at CUHK. The package deals exclusively with the technical issue of vertical transportation in buildings, and is intended to be used as a design tool in professional offices, as well as in classroom settings. The required research and production for the development of the structures, formats, and interfaces of this project, along with the consequential evaluation and revision of this work, has led to a greater understanding of appropriate applications for interactive interactive multimedia designs. Specially, the paper addresses the fundamental issues of ‘user-format’, and a distinction is made between applications which operate as ‘tools’ and those which operate as ‘resources’. Descriptions are provided for both types of operational formats, and suggestions are made as to how one might decided which format would be appropriate for a specific project. Briefly, resource produces imply that a user actively pursues information in a relatively static environment, while tool procedures imply that a user works jointly with the software to process information and arrive at a unique output. This distinction between the two formats is mostly grounded in the design of the structure and user-interface, and thus the point is made that the material content of the application does not necessarily imply a mandatory use of either format. In light of this observation that an application’s format relies on the appropriateness of operational procedures, rather than on its material content, further discussions of the implications of such procedures (using a ‘resource’ vs. using a ‘tool’) are provided.
series CAADRIA
email dannettel@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 1999/02/01 14:16

_id 0627
authors Dijkstra, J. and Timmermans, H.J.P.
year 1997
title Exploring the Possibilities of Conjoint Measurement as a Decision-Making Tool for Virtual Wayfinding Environments
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 61-71
summary Virtual reality systems may have a lot to offer in architecture and urban planning when visual and active environments may have a dramatic impact on individual preferences and choice behaviour. Conjoint analysis involves the use of designed hypothetical choice situations to measure individuals’ preferences and predict their choice in new situations. Conjoint experiments involve the design and analysis of hypothetical decision tasks. Alternatives are described by their main features, called attributes. Multiple hypothetical alternatives, called product profiles, are generated and presented to respondents, who are requested to express their degree of preference for these profiles or choose between these profiles. Conjoint experiments have become a popular tool to model individual preferences and decision-making in a variety of research areas. Most studies of conjoint analysis have involved a verbal description of product profiles, although some studies have used a pictorial presentation of production profiles. Virtual reality systems offer the potential of moving the response format beyond these traditional response modes. This paper describes a particular aspect of an ongoing research project which aims to develop a virtual reality based system for conjoint analysis. The principles underlying the system will be illustrated by a simple example of wayfinding in a virtual environment.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 11:48

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0ec6
authors Shih, Naai Jung
year 1997
title Image Morphing for Architectural Visual Studies
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 397-406
summary The purpose of this paper is to suggest and demonstrate how image interpolation, as a tool, can facilitate architectural illustration of design content and process. This study emphasizes a design-oriented image transition process that is distinguished by two types of morphing: process and source. A morp model is presented with components of input, function, output and constraints. Based on a model’s definition, a matrix is used to illustrate the relationship between the two source images by referring to origin, reference plan, configuration, time, etc. Morphing contents emphasizes changes of pixel, outline (2D or 3D), and order. Possible applications in architectural visual studies include morphology study, comparison building renovation before and after, dynamic adjustment, quantitative measurement, dynamic image simulation, and model and image combination.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 14:14

_id 9
authors Stipech, Alfredo
year 1998
title Un Nuevo Horizonte Arquitectonico, Productivo e Intelectual (A New Architectural, Productive and Intelectual Horizon)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 76-83
summary This work presents the pedagogical experience of a Design Workshop that investigated the impact of the digital and analogic means on the architectonic design process This work was based on the research of Dr. Arch. Julio BermÝdez who also directed this workshop in 1997. This class was part of the Training Program organized by the "Centro de Informatica y Diseho" (CID) at the "Universidad Nacional del Litoral" FADU (Facultad de Arquitectura Diseho y Urbanismo) Santa Fe, Argentina and made possible by the ongoing International Program of Academic Exchange between the FADU and the (University of Utah Graduate School of Architecture (IPAE Project NO 4). The experimental studio utilized an architectural problem to study the procedural, technical, interpretative and theoretical issues associated with the relationship of contemporary media and design process. The pedagogical vehicle was a program that expresses in itself the meeting or collision between two cultures competing for dominance at the end of the millennium: the immemorial material culture (corporeal, tectonic) and the new and everyday more influent virtual culture (information, nets, media, simulation). The premise for the design process, communication and criticism was the constant migration between the digital and analog representation systems. Within this theoretical-practical context semantic aspects containing different representation modalities were used such as physical and electronic models along with systematic and sensitive drawings (manuals, pixels and with CAD). Hybrid interfaces took a leading role in the process since they allowed the communication between analog and digital media through the creative and technical interaction between scanner, video and computer. This architectural and media context generated an intense pedagogic environment fostering the development of creativity and a critical attitude while allowing concrete breakthroughs in the teaching process and format design. Our work reflects on these results showing examples of stud-go works and providing a final evaluation of this unique experience in Argentina.
series SIGRADI
email arqasoc@satlink.com
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id 0286
authors Will, Barry F. and Siu-Pan Li , Thomas
year 1997
title Computers for Windows: Interactive Optimization Tools for Architects designing openings in walls (IOTA)
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary Size, shape and disposition of windows in walls has long been an integral expression of style in architecture. As buildings have grown taller the relationships of the windows to the ground plane and to the surrounding environments have become more complex and difficult to predict. Traditionally architects have had to use their own knowledge, experience and feelings in the design of windows. There may be few, if any, scientific bases for their decisions. The difficulty in making good design decisions is compounded because many criteria for window design, such as daylight, sunlight, ventilation, sound, view and privacy have to be considered simultaneously. It is here that computers can help, on the one hand, by providing ‘expert knowledge’ so that architects can consult the cumulative knowledge database before making a decision, whilst on the other hand, evaluations of the decisions taken can be compared with a given standard or with alternative solutions.

‘Expert knowledge’ provision has been made possible by the introduction of hypertext, the advancement of the world wide web and the development of large scale data-storage media. Much of the computer’s value to the architects lies in its ability to assist in the evaluation of a range of performance criteria. Without the help of a computer, architects are faced with impossibly complex arrays of solutions. This paper illustrates an evaluation tool for two factors which are important to the window design. The two factors to be investigated in this paper are sunlighting and views out of windows.

Sunlight is a quantitative factor that can theoretically be assessed by some mathematical formulae provided there is sufficient information for calculation but when total cumulative effects of insolation through the different seasons is required, in addition to yearly figures, a design in real-time evolution requires substantial computing power. Views out of windows are qualitative and subjective. They present difficulties in measurement by the use of conventional mathematical tools. These two fields of impact in window design are explored to demonstrate how computers can be used in assessing various options to produce optimal design solutions. This paper explains the methodologies, theories and principles underlying these evaluation tools. It also illustrates how an evaluation tool can be used as a design tool during the design process.

keywords Sunlight, View, Window Design, Performance Evaluation, Expert Systems, Simulation, Fuzzy LogicExpert Systems, Simulation, Fuzzy Logic
series eCAADe
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/li/li.htm
last changed 2003/03/05 12:14

_id b4c4
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2000
title A framework for an Architectural Collaborative Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 57-60
summary The building industry involves a larger number of disciplines, operators and professionals than other industrial processes. Its peculiarity is that the products (building objects) have a number of parts (building elements) that does not differ much from the number of classes into which building objects can be conceptually subdivided. Another important characteristic is that the building industry produces unique products (de Vries and van Zutphen, 1992). This is not an isolated situation but indeed one that is spreading also in other industrial fields. For example, production niches have proved successful in the automotive and computer industries (Carrara, Fioravanti, & Novembri, 1989). Building design is a complex multi-disciplinary process, which demands a high degree of co-ordination and co-operation among separate teams, each having its own specific knowledge and its own set of specific design tools. Establishing an environment for design tool integration is a prerequisite for network-based distributed work. It was attempted to solve the problem of efficient, user-friendly, and fast information exchange among operators by treating it simply as an exchange of data. But the failure of IGES, CGM, PHIGS confirms that data have different meanings and importance in different contexts. The STandard for Exchange of Product data, ISO 10303 Part 106 BCCM, relating to AEC field (Wix, 1997), seems to be too complex to be applied to professional studios. Moreover its structure is too deep and the conceptual classifications based on it do not allow multi-inheritance (Ekholm, 1996). From now on we shall adopt the BCCM semantic that defines the actor as "a functional participant in building construction"; and we shall define designer as "every member of the class formed by designers" (architects, engineers, town-planners, construction managers, etc.).
keywords Architectural Design Process, Collaborative Design, Knowledge Engineering, Dynamic Object Oriented Programming
series eCAADe
email fioravanti@uniroma1.it
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id d869
authors Chu, C.-C., Dani, T.H. and Gadh, R.
year 1997
title Multi-sensory user interface for a virtual-reality-based computer-aided design system
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29 (10) (1997) pp. 709-725
summary The generation of geometric shapes called `geometric concept designs' via the multi-sensory user interface of a virtual reality (VR) based system motivates the currentresearch. In this new VR-based system, geometric designs can be more effectively inputted into the computer in a physically intuitive way. The interaction mechanism issimilar to the way in which industrial designers sit and discuss concept design shapes across a table from each other, prior to making a final decision about the productdetails. By using different sensory modalities, such as voice, hand motions and gestures, product designers can convey design ideas through the VR-basedcomputer-aided design (CAD) system. In this scenario, the multi-sensory interface between human and computer plays a central role with respect to usability, usefulnessand accuracy. The current paper focuses on determining the requirements for the multi-sensory user interface and assessing the applications of different input and outputmechanisms in the virtual environment (VE). In order to evaluate this multi-sensory user interface, this paper formulates the typical activities in product shape design intoa set of requirements for the VR-CAD system. On the basis of these requirements, we interviewed typical CAD users about the effectiveness of using different sensoryinput and output interaction mechanisms such as visual, auditory and tactile. According to the results of these investigations, a nodal network of design activity thatdefines the multi-sensory user interface of the VR-CAD system is determined in the current research. The VR-CAD system is still being developed. However, voicecommand input, hand motion input, three-dimensional visual output and auditory output have been successfully integrated into the current system. Moreover, severalmechanical parts have been successfully created through the VR interface. Once designers use the VR-CAD system that we are currently developing, the interfacerequirements determined in the current paper may be verified or refined. The objectives of the current research are to expand the frontiers of product design and establisha new paradigm for the VR-based conceptual shape design system.
keywords Virtual Reality, Multi-Sensory User Interface, Conceptual Shape Design, Sensory Interaction Mechanism
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id ddss9829
id ddss9829
authors De Hoog, J., Hendriks, N.A. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 1998
title Evaluating Office Buildings with MOLCA(Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment)
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary MOLCA (Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment) is a project that aims to develop a tool that enables designers and builders to evaluate the environmental impact of their designs (of office buildings) from a environmental point of view. The model used is based on guidelinesgiven by ISO 14000, using the so-called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The MOLCA project started in 1997 and will be finished in 2001 resulting in the aforementioned tool. MOLCA is a module within broader research conducted at the Eindhoven University of Technology aiming to reduce design risks to a minimum in the early design stages.Since the MOLCA project started two major case-studies have been carried out. One into the difference in environmental load caused by using concrete and steel roof systems respectively and the role of recycling. The second study focused on biases in LCA data and how to handle them. For the simulations a computer-model named SimaPro was used, using the world-wide accepted method developed by CML (Centre for the Environment, Leiden, the Netherlands). With this model different life-cycle scenarios were studied and evaluated. Based on those two case studies and a third one into an office area, a first model has been developed.Bottle-neck in this field of study is estimating average recycling and re-use percentages of the total flow of material waste in the building sector and collecting reliable process data. Another problem within LCA studies is estimating the reliability of the input data and modelling uncertainties. All these topics will be subject of further analysis.
keywords Life-Cycle Assessment, Office Buildings, Uncertainties in LCA
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 389b
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 2000
title Sketch that Scene for Me: Creating Virtual Worlds by Freehand Drawing
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 265-268
summary With the Web people can now view virtual threedimensional worlds and explore virtual space. Increasingly, novice users are interested in creating 3D Web sites. Virtual Reality Modeling Language gained ISO status in 1997, although it is being supplanted by the compatible Java3D API and alternative 3D Web technologies compete. Viewing VRML scenes is relatively straightforward on most hardware platforms and browsers, but currently there are only two ways to create 3D virtual scenes: One is to code the scene directly using VRML. The other is to use existing CAD and modeling software, and save the world in VRML format or convert to VRML from some other format. Both methods are time consuming, cumbersome, and have steep learning curves. Pen-based user interfaces, on the other hand, are for many an easy and intuitive method for graphics input. Not only are people familiar with the look and feel of paper and pencil, novice users also find it less intimidating to draw what they want, where they want it instead of using a complicated tool palette and pull-down menus. Architects and designers use sketches as a primary tool to generate design ideas and to explore alternatives, and numerous computer-based interfaces have played on the concept of "sketch". However, we restrict the notion of sketch to freehand drawing, which we believe helps people to think, to envision, and to recognize properties of the objects with which they are working. SKETCH employs a pen interface to create three-dimensional models, but it uses a simple language of gestures to control a three-dimensional modeler; it does not attempt to interpret freehand drawings. In contrast, our support of 3D world creation using freehand drawing depend on users’ traditional understanding of a floor plan representation. Igarashi et al. used a pen interface to drive browsing in a 3D world, by projecting the user’s marks on the ground plane in the virtual world. Our Sketch-3D project extends this approach, investigating an interface that allows direct interpretation of the drawing marks (what you draw is what you get) and serves as a rapid prototyping tool for creating 3D virtual scenes.
keywords Freehand Sketching, Pen-Based User Interface, Interaction, VRML, Navigation
series eCAADe
email ellendo@cmu.edu
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 4df8
authors Hanna, R., Barber T. and Qaqish, R.
year 1997
title Computers as the Sole Design Tool: The Mackintosh Experiment
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper reports on the findings of an empirical investigation into the use of the computer as the only design media in solving a design problem. Several 1st and 2nd year students took part in a two week experiment on the use of a CAD programme, AutoCAD 13 and AEC 5.0, to design a studio for a graphic designer.

Prior to the experiment an extensive literature search was carried out to explore the relationship between the design process, visual thinking, conventional sketching (interactive imagery) and Computer Aided Design. Out of this search a number of design variables were identified, developed and then tested through a series of observations and interviews with the students while they were engaged in the design of the Graphic Designer’s Studio. Questionnaires were also administered to students to explore their views on issues including, using CAD instead of conventional tools, design areas where CAD is most effective, and how CAD can improve design skills.

series eCAADe
email gtca09@udcf.gla.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/hanna/hanna.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 454c
authors Jun, H. and Gero, J.S.
year 1997
title Representation, re-representation and emergence in collaborative computer-aided design
source Maher, M.L., Gero, J.S. and Sudweeks, F. (eds), Preprints Formal Aspects of Collaborative Computer-Aided Design, Key Centre of Design Computing, University of Sydney, Sydney, pp. 303-320
summary Representation of drawings in CAD systems can cause problems during design collaboration. The notion of re-representation is proposed as one way of addressing these problems. Furthermore, re-representation is one way of allowing emergence to occur; emergence is an important aspect of collaborative computer-mediated design. Based on the concept of re-representation a model for collaborative CAD supporting emergence is presented and an example is demonstrated.
keywords Representation, Emergence, Collaborative CAD
series journal paper
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id e835
authors Kaga, A. and Sasada, T. (et al).
year 1997
title City information Visualizer Using 3-D model and Computer Graphics
source Proceedings of the 20th Symposium on Computer Technology of Information, Systems and Applications (AIJ), pp. 205-210
summary 3-D models and computer graphics with its visual characteristics enables easier understanding of various information. Up until now 3-D models and computer graphics has not been used for the analysis of city information due to its high cost and the need for special techniques. Currently, we have discovered new technology in hyper medium based on network technology and lower costs. This paper focuses on the construction of an interactive and visual 3-D city information system, aiming at the 'idea processor' for research and analysis of city planning and market research. We have discovered the requirements necessary for the City Information Visualizer system. Using this technology we will construct the prototype system of the 3-D City Information Visualizer. This system is based on the personal computer and the Client/Server system. The system is then applied to practical city analysis. This paper presents the prototype system and its evaluation in a real project.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id aa79
authors Kardos, K.
year 1997
title Laboratorial verification of ideas for urban space compositional design completion
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary The subject-matter of the contribution is presentation of the non-conventional didactical methods application in architectural education and research at the Faculty of Architecture of the Slovak Technical University in Bratislava. It is an application of a laboratorial method of architectural endoscopy based on a model urban space simulation principle and on the acquirement of an electrooptical visual display image information from a recording periscope unit interaction in the real time and the real model space, with the option of spontaneous semantic evaluation of the output on a video-monitor and of a synchronic timing process recording on a magnetoscope. Application of a consequential powerful PC-configuration with creative software enables further digital sequential processing both on the graphical output and for multimedial presentation.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email matumoto@archi.ace.nitech.ac.jp
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 0bc0
authors Kellett, R., Brown, G.Z., Dietrich, K., Girling, C., Duncan, J., Larsen, K. and Hendrickson, E.
year 1997
title THE ELEMENTS OF DESIGN INFORMATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN NEIGHBORHOOD-SCALE PLANNING
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 295-304
summary Neighborhood scale planning and design in many communities has been evolving from a rule-based process of prescriptive codes and regulation toward a principle- and performance-based process of negotiated priorities and agreements. Much of this negotiation takes place in highly focused and interactive workshop or 'charrette' settings, the best of which are characterized by a fluid and lively exchange of ideas, images and agendas among a diverse mix of citizens, land owners, developers, consultants and public officials. Crucial to the quality and effectiveness of the exchange are techniques and tools that facilitate a greater degree of understanding, communication and collaboration among these participants.

Digital media have a significant and strategic role to play toward this end. Of particular value are representational strategies that help disentangle issues, clarify alternatives and evaluate consequences of very complex and often emotional issues of land use, planning and design. This paper reports on the ELEMENTS OF NEIGHBORHOOD, a prototype 'electronic notebook' (relational database) tool developed to bring design information and example 'to the table' of a public workshop. Elements are examples of the building blocks of neighborhood (open spaces, housing, commercial, industrial, civic and network land uses) derived from built examples, and illustrated with graphic, narrative and numeric representations relevant to planning, design, energy, environmental and economic performance. Quantitative data associated with the elements can be linked to Geographic Information based maps and spreadsheet based-evaluation models.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
email kellett@interchange.ubc.ca
last changed 2006/03/15 21:35

_id diss_kim
id diss_kim
authors Kim, S.
year 1997
title Version Management in Computer-Aided Architectural Design
source Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
summary This thesis introduces the requirements for version support in a computer-aided architectural design system which seeks to support the work of designers in the early stages of design. It addresses the problems of current computer-aided design systems when they are used for conceptual design. Perceiving the implications of mature technology, this thesis provides a model of version management. The model makes use of object-oriented technology to link the design process and the design artifacts in a dynamic manner, providing a powerful tool for conceptual design. By capturing design versions, and keeping track of multiple design sessions, designers will be able to reuse design ideas, and check on the progress of current design while the interruption of design thinking is minimized. The creation of the design history is considered to be the creation of the version history. By being able to navigate and modify the design history, the issues of design reuse, alternative designs, and the preservation of design information can be facilitated. This thesis presents a working prototype based on the version management model.
series thesis:PhD
more http://archmedia.yonsei.ac.kr/pdf/
last changed 2003/11/28 06:38

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