CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 519

_id 2d60
authors Schwenck, M. and Sariyildiz, S.
year 1997
title An Integrated Software Environment for the Architectural Design Process
source Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Computer Science and Mathematics in Architecture and Building Science (IKM 1997), Weimar, Germany
summary Many software systems are in common use in the field of architectural design. On the other hand, we consider a complete automation of architectural design as an unlikely proposition and undesirable for the architect. Therefore, the general objective is to support the designer during the whole process of architectural design in order to increase the efficiency and to improve the quality of the results. So far there are different tools providing such functionality. Nevertheless, there are no appropriate tools for many of the sub-processes. Furthermore, the current state of available design software is characterised by a lack of integration of different tools. In this paper we will provide a survey on a project dealing with the solution of both problems. First we will give a general description of the support that software can provide to architects during the design process. We conclude that many different tools are needed which have to be integrated in an open, modular, distributed, user friendly and efficient environment. We will explain the necessity of integration and cover integration technologies. Besides the aspect of integration we also deal with the development of tools which can operate in the integrated design environment. We suggest a strategy where the tool functions are specified on the basis of a transformation from hierarchical process descriptions of architectural design into a hierarchy of tool descriptions.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 9
authors Stipech, Alfredo
year 1998
title Un Nuevo Horizonte Arquitectonico, Productivo e Intelectual (A New Architectural, Productive and Intelectual Horizon)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 76-83
summary This work presents the pedagogical experience of a Design Workshop that investigated the impact of the digital and analogic means on the architectonic design process This work was based on the research of Dr. Arch. Julio BermÝdez who also directed this workshop in 1997. This class was part of the Training Program organized by the "Centro de Informatica y Diseho" (CID) at the "Universidad Nacional del Litoral" FADU (Facultad de Arquitectura Diseho y Urbanismo) Santa Fe, Argentina and made possible by the ongoing International Program of Academic Exchange between the FADU and the (University of Utah Graduate School of Architecture (IPAE Project NO 4). The experimental studio utilized an architectural problem to study the procedural, technical, interpretative and theoretical issues associated with the relationship of contemporary media and design process. The pedagogical vehicle was a program that expresses in itself the meeting or collision between two cultures competing for dominance at the end of the millennium: the immemorial material culture (corporeal, tectonic) and the new and everyday more influent virtual culture (information, nets, media, simulation). The premise for the design process, communication and criticism was the constant migration between the digital and analog representation systems. Within this theoretical-practical context semantic aspects containing different representation modalities were used such as physical and electronic models along with systematic and sensitive drawings (manuals, pixels and with CAD). Hybrid interfaces took a leading role in the process since they allowed the communication between analog and digital media through the creative and technical interaction between scanner, video and computer. This architectural and media context generated an intense pedagogic environment fostering the development of creativity and a critical attitude while allowing concrete breakthroughs in the teaching process and format design. Our work reflects on these results showing examples of stud-go works and providing a final evaluation of this unique experience in Argentina.
series SIGRADI
email arqasoc@satlink.com
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 75a8
authors Achten, Henri H.
year 1997
title Generic representations : an approach for modelling procedural and declarative knowledge of building types in architectural design
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary The building type is a knowledge structure that is recognised as an important element in the architectural design process. For an architect, the type provides information about norms, layout, appearance, etc. of the kind of building that is being designed. Questions that seem unresolved about (computational) approaches to building types are the relationship between the many kinds of instances that are generally recognised as belonging to a particular building type, the way a type can deal with varying briefs (or with mixed use), and how a type can accommodate different sites. Approaches that aim to model building types as data structures of interrelated variables (so-called ‘prototypes’) face problems clarifying these questions. The research work at hand proposes to investigate the role of knowledge associated with building types in the design process. Knowledge of the building type must be represented during the design process. Therefore, it is necessary to find a representation which supports design decisions, supports the changes and transformations of the design during the design process, encompasses knowledge of the design task, and which relates to the way architects design. It is proposed in the research work that graphic representations can be used as a medium to encode knowledge of the building type. This is possible if they consistently encode the things they represent; if their knowledge content can be derived, and if they are versatile enough to support a design process of a building belonging to a type. A graphic representation consists of graphic entities such as vertices, lines, planes, shapes, symbols, etc. Establishing a graphic representation implies making design decisions with respect to these entities. Therefore it is necessary to identify the elements of the graphic representation that play a role in decision making. An approach based on the concept of ‘graphic units’ is developed. A graphic unit is a particular set of graphic entities that has some constant meaning. Examples are: zone, circulation scheme, axial system, and contour. Each graphic unit implies a particular kind of design decision (e.g. functional areas, system of circulation, spatial organisation, and layout of the building). By differentiating between appearance and meaning, it is possible to define the graphic unit relatively shape-independent. If a number of graphic representations have the same graphic units, they deal with the same kind of design decisions. Graphic representations that have such a specifically defined knowledge content are called ‘generic representations.’ An analysis of over 220 graphic representations in the literature on architecture results in 24 graphic units and 50 generic representations. For each generic representation the design decisions are identified. These decisions are informed by the nature of the design task at hand. If the design task is a building belonging to a building type, then knowledge of the building type is required. In a single generic representation knowledge of norms, rules, and principles associated with the building type are used. Therefore, a single generic representation encodes declarative knowledge of the building type. A sequence of generic representations encodes a series of design decisions which are informed by the design task. If the design task is a building type, then procedural knowledge of the building type is used. By means of the graphic unit and generic representation, it is possible to identify a number of relations that determine sequences of generic representations. These relations are: additional graphic units, themes of generic representations, and successive graphic units. Additional graphic units defines subsequent generic representations by adding a new graphic unit. Themes of generic representations defines groups of generic representations that deal with the same kind of design decisions. Successive graphic units defines preconditions for subsequent or previous generic representations. On the basis of themes it is possible to define six general sequences of generic representations. On the basis of additional and successive graphic units it is possible to define sequences of generic representations in themes. On the basis of these sequences, one particular sequence of 23 generic representations is defined. The particular sequence of generic representations structures the decision process of a building type. In order to test this assertion, the particular sequence is applied to the office building type. For each generic representation, it is possible to establish a graphic representation that follows the definition of the graphic units and to apply the required statements from the office building knowledge base. The application results in a sequence of graphic representations that particularises an office building design. Implementation of seven generic representations in a computer aided design system demonstrates the use of generic representations for design support. The set is large enough to provide additional weight to the conclusion that generic representations map declarative and procedural knowledge of the building type.
series thesis:PhD
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
more http://alexandria.tue.nl/extra2/9703788.pdf
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 060b
authors Af Klercker, J.
year 1997
title A National Strategy for CAAD and IT-Implementation in the Construction Industry the Construction Industry
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The objective of this paper is to present a strategy for implementation of CAD and IT in the construction and building management#1 industry in Sweden. The interest is in how to make the best use of the limited resources in a small country or region, cooperating internationally and at the same time avoiding to be totally dominated by the great international actors in the market of information technology.

In Sweden representatives from the construction and building management industry have put forward a research and development program called: "IT-Bygg#2 2002 - Implementation". It aims at making IT the vehicle for decreasing the building costs and at the same time getting better quality and efficiency out of the industry.

The presented strategy is based on a seminar with some of the most experienced researchers, developers and practitioners of CAD in Sweden. The activities were recorded and annotated, analyzed and put together afterwards.

The proposal in brief is that object oriented distributed CAD is to be used in the long perspective. It will need to be based on international standards such as STEP and it will take at least another 5 years to get established.

Meanwhile something temporary has to be used. Pragmatically a "de facto standard" on formats has to be accepted and implemented. To support new users of IT all software in use in the country will be analyzed, described and published for a national platform for IT-communication within the construction industry.

Finally the question is discussed "How can architect schools then contribute to IT being implemented within the housing sector at a regional or national level?" Some ideas are presented: Creating the good example, better support for the customer, sharing the holistic concept of the project with all actors, taking part in an integrated education process and international collaboration like AVOCAAD and ECAADE.

 

keywords CAAD, IT, Implementation, Education, Collaboration
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/afklerck/afklerck.htm
last changed 2007/01/21 13:05

_id acadia03_022
id acadia03_022
authors Anders, Peter
year 2003
title Towards Comprehensive Space: A context for the programming/design of cybrids
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 161-171
summary Cybrids have been presented as mixed realities: spatial, architectural compositions comprised of physical and cyberspaces (Anders 1997). In order to create a rigorous approach to the design of architectural cybrids, this paper offers a model for programming their spaces. Other than accepting cyberspaces as part of architecture’s domain, this approach is not radical. Indeed, many parts of program development resemble those of conventional practice. However, the proposition that cyberspaces should be integrated with material structures requires that their relationship be developed from the outset of a project. Hence, this paper provides a method for their integration from the project’s earliest stages, the establishment of its program. This study for an actual project, the Planetary Collegium, describes a distributed campus comprising buildings and cyberspaces in various locales across the globe. The programming for these cybrids merges them within a comprehensive space consisting not only of the physical and cyberspaces, but also in the cognitive spaces of its designers and users.
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/11/27 14:21

_id 34b8
authors Batie, D.L.
year 1997
title The incorporation of construction history in architectural history: the HISTCON interactive computer program
source Automation in Construction 6 (4) (1997) pp. 275-285
summary Current teaching methods for architectural history seldom embrace building technology as an essential component of study. Accepting the premise that architectural history is a fundamental component to the overall architectural learning environment, it is argued that the study of construction history will further enhance student knowledge. This hypothesis created an opportunity to investigate how the study of construction history could be incorporated to strengthen present teaching methods. Strategies for teaching architectural history were analyzed with the determination that an incorporation of educational instructional design applications using object-oriented programming and hypermedia provided the optimal solution. This evaluation led to the development of the HISTCON interactive, multimedia educational computer program. Used initially to teach 19th Century iron and steel construction history, the composition of the program provides the mechanism to test the significance of construction history in the study of architectural history. Future development of the program will provide a method to illustrate construction history throughout the history of architecture. The study of architectural history, using a construction oriented methodology, is shown to be positively correlated to increased understanding of architectural components relevant to architectural history and building construction.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id debf
authors Bertol, D.
year 1997
title Designing Digital Space - An Architect's Guide to Virtual Reality
source John Wiley & Sons, New York
summary The first in-depth book on virtual reality (VR) aimed specifically at architecture and design professionals, Designing Digital Space steers you skillfully through the learning curve of this exciting new technology. Beginning with a historical overview of the evolution of architectural representations, this unique resource explains what VR is, how it is being applied today, and how it promises to revolutionize not only the design process, but the form and function of the built environment itself. Vividly illustrating how VR fits alongside traditional methods of architectural representation, this comprehensive guide prepares you to make optimum practical use of this powerful interactive tool, and embrace the new role of the architect in a virtually designed world. Offers in-depth coverage of the virtual universe-data representation and information management, static and dynamic worlds, tracking and visual display systems, control devices, and more. Examines a wide range of current VR architectural applications, from walkthroughs, simulations, and evaluations to reconstructions and networked environments Includes insightful essays by leading VR developers covering some of today's most innovative projects Integrates VR into the historical framework of architectural development, with detailed sections on the past, present, and future Features a dazzling array of virtual world images and sequential displays Explores the potential impact of digital architecture on the built environment of the future
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id acadia07_174
id acadia07_174
authors Bontemps, Arnaud; Potvin, André; Demers, Claude
year 2007
title The Dynamics of Physical Ambiences
source Expanding Bodies: Art • Cities• Environment [Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 978-0-9780978-6-8] Halifax (Nova Scotia) 1-7 October 2007, 174-181
summary This research proposes to support the reading of physical ambiences by the development of a representational technique which compiles, in a numerical interface, two types of data: sensory and filmic. These data are recorded through the use of a portable array equipped with sensors (Potvin 1997, 2002, 2004) as well as the acquisition of Video information of the moving environment. The compilation of information is carried out through a multi-media approach, by means of a program converting the environmental data into dynamic diagrams, as well as the creation of an interactive interface allowing a possible diffusion on the Web. This technique, named APMAP/Video, makes it possible to read out simultaneously spatial and environmental diversity. It is demonstrated through surveys taken at various seasons and time of the day at the new Caisse de dépôt et de placement headquarters in Montreal which is also the corpus for a SSHRC (Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council) research grant on Environmental Adaptability in Architecture (Potvin et al. 2003-2007). This case study shows that the technique can prove of great relevance for POEs (Post Occupancy Evaluation) as well as for assistance in a new design project.
series ACADIA
email arnaudbontemps@hotmail.com
last changed 2007/10/02 06:11

_id c5a0
authors Bradford, J., Wong, W.S., Tang, A.H.F. and Yeung, C.S.K.
year 1997
title A Virtual Reality Building Block Composer for Architecture
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 51-59
summary Design is a complex and time consuming process. One way to simplify the design process is to use pre-build blocks for commonly known parts instead of creating them again with CAD. To give the designer an immediate 3D view of the design, designing in virtual reality is a good choice. This paper presents a virtual reality interface tool which allows a user to assemble an architecture structure from a library of pre-built blocks. The library is a distributed client-server database.
series CAADRIA
email bradford@hkuxa.hku.hk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a1cc
authors Bridges, Alan H.
year 1997
title Building Systems Integration and the Implications for CAD Education
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The author has been a member of two important U.K. reviews of construction computing (references [1] and [2]). The paper draws on these reports, other U.K. Government Reports and theoretical work on collaborative design undertaken at the University of Strathclyde to present an evaluation of Information Technology use in practice and its implications for education.
keywords Use of computers in British architectural practice, The implications of information technology on the structure and working methods of the UK building industry, Implications for CAD education
series eCAADe
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/bridges/bridges.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 80f7
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2001
title Knowledge-based System to Support Architectural Design - Intelligent objects, project net-constraints, collaborative work
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 80-85
summary The architectural design business is marked by a progressive increase in operators all cooperating towards the realization of building structures and complex infrastructures (Jenckes, 1997). This type of design implies the simultaneous activity of specialists in different fields, often working a considerable distance apart, on increasingly distributed design studies. Collaborative Architectural Design comprises a vast field of studies that embraces also these sectors and problems. To mention but a few: communication among operators in the building and design sector; design process system logic architecture; conceptual structure of the building organism; building component representation; conflict identification and management; sharing of knowledge; and also, user interface; global evaluation of solutions adopted; IT definition of objects; inter-object communication (in the IT sense). The point of view of the research is that of the designers of the architectural artefact (Simon, 1996); its focus consists of the relations among the various design operators and among the latter and the information exchanged: the Building Objects. Its primary research goal is thus the conceptual structure of the building organism for the purpose of managing conflicts and developing possible methods of resolving them.
keywords Keywords. Collaborative Design, Architectural And Building Knowledge, Distributed Knowledge Bases, Information Management, Multidisciplinarity
series eCAADe
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id c1ad
authors Cheng, Nancy Yen-wen
year 1997
title Teaching CAD with Language Learning Methods
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 173-188
summary By looking at computer aided design as design communication we can use pedagogical methods from the well-developed discipline of language learning. Language learning breaks down a complex field into attainable steps, showing how learning strategies and attitudes can enhance mastery. Balancing the linguistic emphases of organizational analysis, communicative intent and contextual application can address different learning styles. Guiding students in learning approaches from language study will equip them to deal with constantly changing technology.

From overall curriculum planning to specific exercises, language study provides a model for building a learner-centered education. Educating students about the learning process, such as the variety of metacognitive, cognitive and social/affective strategies can improve learning. At an introductory level, providing a conceptual framework and enhancing resource-finding, brainstorming and coping abilities can lead to threshold competence. Using kit-of-parts problems helps students to focus on technique and content in successive steps, with mimetic and generative work appealing to different learning styles.

Practicing learning strategies on realistic projects hones the ability to connect concepts to actual situations, drawing on resource-usage, task management, and problem management skills. Including collaborative aspects in these projects provides the motivation of a real audience and while linking academic study to practical concerns. Examples from architectural education illustrate how the approach can be implemented.

series ACADIA
email nywc@darkwing.uoregon.edu
last changed 1998/12/31 12:41

_id 751d
authors Cubero, R., Caldera, N., Indriago, J.A., Camacaro, L., Nixon, M. and Cestary, J.
year 2001
title Georeferenciando revicios y recursos turisticos para la plaificacion territorial: El Sigtur-Zulia [Georeferential Services and Touristic Resources for Territorial Planning: The Sigtur-Zulia]
source 2da Conferencia Venezolana sobre Aplicación de Computadores en Arquitectura, Maracaibo (Venezuela) december 2001, pp. 146-155
summary In 1997, the Research Institute of Faculty of Architecture and Design, University of Zulia, started the R&D project of a decision making support system for tourism planning. For this, GIS technologies have been used for geocodification and spatial analysis of all the tourism facilities and resources existing in Zulia State, studying this kind of socioeconomic development according to critical poverty problems that are typical of their population. This paper describes this geographic information system, with the application of accessibility analysis, areas of influence, and threedimensional studies through network analysisó three-dimensional analysis with ArcView GIS clients, ArcExplorer clients, and MapObjects clients, on an MS Windows NT client/server environment.
keywords GIS; Tourism Planning; Internet; Desktop Mapping
series other
email rcuberos@luz.ve, ncaldera@luz.ve, indriago@luz.ve, leriz@luz.ve, nmolina@luz.ve, jcestary@luz.ve
last changed 2003/02/14 07:29

_id b8a4
authors Dani, Tushar H and Gadh, Rajit
year 1997
title Creation of concept shape designs via a virtual reality interface
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29 (8) (1997) pp. 555-563
summary This paper describes an approach for creating concept shape designs in a virtual reality environment--COVIRDS (COnceptual VIRtual Design System. Conceptdesign refers to the ab initio design of a product or part. In concept design, the product details such as shape features and exact dimensions are not rigidly definedand the designer has some freedom in determining the shape and dimensions of the product. Current CAD require the designer to specify shape and dimensions tocreate CAD models of products even though these are probably not necessary at the concept development stage. COVIRDS overcomes these drawbacks by providing abi-modal voice and hand-tracking based user interface to the VR-based CAD modeling environment. This interface allows rapid concept design creation withoutrequiring time consuming shape description and the tedious specifications of exact dimensions.
keywords Concept Shape Design, Virtual Reality Interfaces, Geometric Modeling
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 460e
authors Dannettel, Mark E
year 1997
title Interactive Multimedia Design: Operational Structures and Intuitive Environments for CD-ROM
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 415-427
summary This paper presents practical design concepts for the production of CD-ROMs or on-line media projects which are intended for scholastic and professional use. It is based on the experience and knowledge which has been gained while developing a multimedia package here at the Department of Architecture at CUHK. The package deals exclusively with the technical issue of vertical transportation in buildings, and is intended to be used as a design tool in professional offices, as well as in classroom settings. The required research and production for the development of the structures, formats, and interfaces of this project, along with the consequential evaluation and revision of this work, has led to a greater understanding of appropriate applications for interactive interactive multimedia designs. Specially, the paper addresses the fundamental issues of ‘user-format’, and a distinction is made between applications which operate as ‘tools’ and those which operate as ‘resources’. Descriptions are provided for both types of operational formats, and suggestions are made as to how one might decided which format would be appropriate for a specific project. Briefly, resource produces imply that a user actively pursues information in a relatively static environment, while tool procedures imply that a user works jointly with the software to process information and arrive at a unique output. This distinction between the two formats is mostly grounded in the design of the structure and user-interface, and thus the point is made that the material content of the application does not necessarily imply a mandatory use of either format. In light of this observation that an application’s format relies on the appropriateness of operational procedures, rather than on its material content, further discussions of the implications of such procedures (using a ‘resource’ vs. using a ‘tool’) are provided.
series CAADRIA
email dannettel@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 1999/02/01 14:16

_id 8b25
authors Do, Ellen Yi Luen and Gross, Mark D.
year 1997
title Inferring Design Intentions From Sketches: An Investigation of Freehand Drawing Conventions in Design
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 217-227
summary Designers draw to explore ideas and solutions. We look at empirical studies of the use of drawing in design, including our own work on the connection between graphic symbols and specific design concerns. We describe an empirical study on sketching for designing an architect’s office. We found that designers use different drawing conventions when thinking about different design concerns. We are implementing a freehand drawing program to recognize these drawing conventions and to deliver appropriate knowledge based support for the task at hand.
series CAADRIA
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 389b
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 2000
title Sketch that Scene for Me: Creating Virtual Worlds by Freehand Drawing
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 265-268
summary With the Web people can now view virtual threedimensional worlds and explore virtual space. Increasingly, novice users are interested in creating 3D Web sites. Virtual Reality Modeling Language gained ISO status in 1997, although it is being supplanted by the compatible Java3D API and alternative 3D Web technologies compete. Viewing VRML scenes is relatively straightforward on most hardware platforms and browsers, but currently there are only two ways to create 3D virtual scenes: One is to code the scene directly using VRML. The other is to use existing CAD and modeling software, and save the world in VRML format or convert to VRML from some other format. Both methods are time consuming, cumbersome, and have steep learning curves. Pen-based user interfaces, on the other hand, are for many an easy and intuitive method for graphics input. Not only are people familiar with the look and feel of paper and pencil, novice users also find it less intimidating to draw what they want, where they want it instead of using a complicated tool palette and pull-down menus. Architects and designers use sketches as a primary tool to generate design ideas and to explore alternatives, and numerous computer-based interfaces have played on the concept of "sketch". However, we restrict the notion of sketch to freehand drawing, which we believe helps people to think, to envision, and to recognize properties of the objects with which they are working. SKETCH employs a pen interface to create three-dimensional models, but it uses a simple language of gestures to control a three-dimensional modeler; it does not attempt to interpret freehand drawings. In contrast, our support of 3D world creation using freehand drawing depend on users’ traditional understanding of a floor plan representation. Igarashi et al. used a pen interface to drive browsing in a 3D world, by projecting the user’s marks on the ground plane in the virtual world. Our Sketch-3D project extends this approach, investigating an interface that allows direct interpretation of the drawing marks (what you draw is what you get) and serves as a rapid prototyping tool for creating 3D virtual scenes.
keywords Freehand Sketching, Pen-Based User Interface, Interaction, VRML, Navigation
series eCAADe
email ellendo@cmu.edu
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id d60d
authors Flemming, U., Bhavnani, S.K. and John, B.E.
year 1997
title Mismatched Metaphor: User vs. System Model in Computer-Aided Drafting
source Design Studies 18 (1997), 349-368
summary We report findings from an extensive study of the users of a Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) system. Our observations suggest that the CAD system is used inefficiently, because users approach computer_aided drafting from a T-square metaphor reflecting their past experience with traditional drawing media. This prevents them from discovering and using effectively powerful system commands that have no equivalent in manual techniques. These findings suggest that we should rethink the ways in which CAD users are trained and manuals are written, and that we introduce CAD users to a more strategic use of CAD, particularly to a Detail/Aggregate/Manipulate (DAM) strategy that takes advantage of the compositional logic underlying a design.
keywords Architectural Design, Computer_aided Drafting; User Behaviour; Case Study; Modelling
series journal paper
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id c557
authors Fuchs, W. and Martinico, A.
year 1997
title The V.C.net--A digital study in architecture
source Automation in Construction 6 (4) (1997) pp. 335-339
summary The V.C.net project is an Internet-based educational and communication tool for the architectural community. Its goal is to encourage students from architecture programs across the country and around the world to examine problems and collaborate in the exploration of ideas through the World Wide Web. The central concept of the project involves the creation of a simulated, vital urban environment constructed from various forms of digital data. This `virtual city' will be comprised of projects executed by students of architecture and urban design in US and abroad. Projects will be proposed for specific sites and will reflect real-world questions as they are mirrored in the virtual world. The city exists as a heuristic tool and is not intended as a copy of any existing human habitat. The ultimate goal of the project is to create a dynamic platform to study the interrelationship of various forces effecting urban development: architecture, planning, civil engineering, economics, social sciences, etc. The project originates at the School of Architecture of the University of Detroit Mercy and is intended to be truly interdisciplinary.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

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