CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 519

_id sigradi2006_e131c
id sigradi2006_e131c
authors Ataman, Osman
year 2006
title Toward New Wall Systems: Lighter, Stronger, Versatile
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 248-253
summary Recent developments in digital technologies and smart materials have created new opportunities and are suggesting significant changes in the way we design and build architecture. Traditionally, however, there has always been a gap between the new technologies and their applications into other areas. Even though, most technological innovations hold the promise to transform the building industry and the architecture within, and although, there have been some limited attempts in this area recently; to date architecture has failed to utilize the vast amount of accumulated technological knowledge and innovations to significantly transform the industry. Consequently, the applications of new technologies to architecture remain remote and inadequate. One of the main reasons of this problem is economical. Architecture is still seen and operated as a sub-service to the Construction industry and it does not seem to be feasible to apply recent innovations in Building Technology area. Another reason lies at the heart of architectural education. Architectural education does not follow technological innovations (Watson 1997), and that “design and technology issues are trivialized by their segregation from one another” (Fernandez 2004). The final reason is practicality and this one is partially related to the previous reasons. The history of architecture is full of visions for revolutionizing building technology, ideas that failed to achieve commercial practicality. Although, there have been some adaptations in this area recently, the improvements in architecture reflect only incremental progress, not the significant discoveries needed to transform the industry. However, architectural innovations and movements have often been generated by the advances of building materials, such as the impact of steel in the last and reinforced concrete in this century. There have been some scattered attempts of the creation of new materials and systems but currently they are mainly used for limited remote applications and mostly for aesthetic purposes. We believe a new architectural material class is needed which will merge digital and material technologies, embedded in architectural spaces and play a significant role in the way we use and experience architecture. As a principle element of architecture, technology has allowed for the wall to become an increasingly dynamic component of the built environment. The traditional connotations and objectives related to the wall are being redefined: static becomes fluid, opaque becomes transparent, barrier becomes filter and boundary becomes borderless. Combining smart materials, intelligent systems, engineering, and art can create a component that does not just support and define but significantly enhances the architectural space. This paper presents an ongoing research project about the development of new class of architectural wall system by incorporating distributed sensors and macroelectronics directly into the building environment. This type of composite, which is a representative example of an even broader class of smart architectural material, has the potential to change the design and function of an architectural structure or living environment. As of today, this kind of composite does not exist. Once completed, this will be the first technology on its own. We believe this study will lay the fundamental groundwork for a new paradigm in surface engineering that may be of considerable significance in architecture, building and construction industry, and materials science.
keywords Digital; Material; Wall; Electronics
series SIGRADI
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id diss_ruhl
id diss_ruhl
authors Ruhl, Volker R.
year 1997
title Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing of Complex Shaped Concrete Formwork
source Doctor of Design Thesis, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
summary The research presented in this thesis challenges the appropriateness of existing, conventional forming practices in the building construction industry--both in situ or in prefabrication--for building concrete "freeforms," as they are characterized by impracticality and limitations in achieved geometric/formal quality. The author's theory proposes the application of alternative, non-traditional construction methods derived from the integration of information technology, in the form of Computer-Aided Design (CAD), Engineering (CAE) and Manufacturing (CAM), into the concrete tooling and placing process. This concept relies on a descriptive shape model of a physically non-existent building element which serves as a central database containing all the geometric data necessary to completely and accurately inform design development activities as well as the construction process. For this purpose, the thesis orients itself on existing, functioning models in manufacturing engineering and explores the broad spectrum of computer-aided manufacturing techniques applied in this industry. A two-phase, combined method study is applied to support the theory. Part I introduces the phenomenon of "complexity" in the architectural field, defines the goal of the thesis research and gives examples of complex shape. It also presents the two analyzed technologies: concrete tooling and automation technology. For both, it establishes terminology, classifications, gives insight into the state-of-the-art, and describes limitations. For concrete tooling it develops a set of quality criteria. Part II develops a theory in the form of a series of proposed "non-traditional" forming processes and concepts that are derived through a synthesis of state-of-the-art automation with current concrete forming and placing techniques, and describes them in varying depth, in both text and graphics, on the basis of their geometric versatility and their appropriateness for the proposed task. Emphasis is given to the newly emerging and most promising Solid Freeform Fabrication processes, and within this area, to laser-curing technology. The feasibility of using computer-aided formwork design, and computer-aided formwork fabrication in today's standard building practices is evaluated for this particular technology on the basis of case-studies. Performance in the categories of process, material, product, lead time and economy is analyzed over the complete tooling cycle and is compared to the performance of existing, conventional forming systems for steel, wood, plywood veneer and glassfiber reinforced plastic; value s added to the construction process and/or to the formwork product through information technology are pointed out and become part of the evaluation. For this purpose, an analytical framework was developed for testing the performance of various Solid Freeform Fabrication processes as well as the "sensitivity," or the impact of various influencing processes and/or product parameters on lead time and economy. This tool allows us to make various suggestions for optimization as well as to formulate recommendations and guidelines for the implementation of this technology. The primary objective of this research is to offer architects and engineers unprecedented independence from planar, orthogonal building geometry, in the realization of design ideas and/or design requirements for concrete structures and/or their components. The interplay between process-oriented design and innovative implementation technology may ultimately lead to an architecture conceived on a different level of complexity, with an extended form-vocabulary and of high quality.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id ce11
authors Bradford, J., Wong, W.S. and Tang, H.F.
year 1997
title Bridging Virtual Reality to Internet for Architecture
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper presents a virtual reality interface tool which allows a user to perform the following action :

1.Import design from other CAD tools.

2.Assemble an architecture structure from a library of pre-built blocks and geometry primitives dynamically created by user.

3.Export the design interactively in VRML format back to the library for Internet browsing.

The geometry primitives include polygon, sphere, cone, cylinder and cube. The pre-built blocks consist of fundamental architecture models which have been categorized with architectural related style, physical properties and environmental attributes. Upon a user’s request, the tool or the composer, has the ability to communicate with the library which indeed is a back-end distributed client-server database engine. The user may specify any combination of properties and attributes in the composer which will instantly bring up all matching 3-dimensional objects through the database engine. The database is designed in relational model and comes from the work of another research group.

keywords Virtual Reality, Architecture Models, Relational Database, Client-Server
series eCAADe
email bradford@hku.hk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/bradford/bradford.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id aa2f
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 1997
title An Intelligent Assistant for the Architectural Design Studio
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary It seems by now fairly accepted by many researchers in the field of the Computer Aided Design that the way to realise support tools for the architectural design is by means of the realisation of Intelligent Assistants. This kind of computer program, based on the Knowledge Engineering and machine learning, finds his power and effectiveness by the Knowledge Base on which it is based. Moreover, it appears evident that the modalities of dialogue among architects and operators in the field of building industry, are inadequate to support the exchange of information that the use of these tools requires.

In fact, many efforts at international level are in progress to define tools in order to make easier the multiple exchange of information in different fields of building design. Concerning this point, protocol and ontology of structured information interchanges constitute the first steps in this sense, e.g. those under standardisation by ISO (STEP), PDT models and Esprit project ToCEE. To model these problems it has brought forth a new research field: the collaborative design one, an evolution of distributed work and concurrent design.

The CAAD Laboratory of Dipartimento di Architettura and Urbanistica per l'Ingegneria has carried out a software prototype, KAAD, based on Knowledge Engineering in the fields of hospital building and of building for aged people. This software is composed by an Interface, a Knowledge Base, a Database and Constraints. The Knowledge Base has been codified by using the formal structure of frames, and has been implemented by the Lisp language. All the elements of KB are objects

keywords Design Studio
series eCAADe
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/carrara/carrara.htm
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id ed09
authors Chang, Teng Wen and Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1997
title Efficient Design Spaces of Non-Manifold Solids
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 335-344
summary One widely accepted metaphor in design research is search or, equivalently, exploration which likens design to intelligent movement through a possibly infinite space of alternatives. In this metaphor, designers search design spaces, explore possibilities, discover new designs, and recall and adapt existing designs. We give the name design space explorers to computer programs that support exploration. This paper describes an efficient representation of states comprising three-dimensional non-manifold solid models and of design spaces made from such states.
series CAADRIA
email rob_woodbury@sfu.ca
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id 2698
authors Chien, Sheng Fen and Flemming, Ulrich
year 1997
title Information Navigation in Generative Design Systems
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 355-365
summary Generative design systems take an active part in the generation of computational design models. They make it easier for designers to explore conceptual alternatives, but the amount of information generated during a design session can become very large. Intelligent navigation aids are needed to enable designers to access the information with ease and low cognitive loads. We present an approach to support navigation in generative design systems. Our approach takes account of studies related to navigation in physical environments as well as information navigation in electronic media. Results of studies from the physical environment and electronic media reveal that 1) people exhibit similar cognitive behaviours (spatial cognition and the use of spatial knowledge) while navigating in physical and information spaces; and 2) the information space lacks legibility and imageability. The proposed information navigation model take these findings into account.
series CAADRIA
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id 2354
authors Clayden, A. and Szalapaj, P.
year 1997
title Architecture in Landscape: Integrated CAD Environments for Contextually Situated Design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper explores the future role of a more holistic and integrated approach to the design of architecture in landscape. Many of the design exploration and presentation techniques presently used by particular design professions do not lend themselves to an inherently collaborative design strategy.

Within contemporary digital environments, there are increasing opportunities to explore and evaluate design proposals which integrate both architectural and landscape aspects. The production of integrated design solutions exploring buildings and their surrounding context is now possible through the design development of shared 3-D and 4-D virtual environments, in which buildings no longer float in space.

The scope of landscape design has expanded through the application of techniques such as GIS allowing interpretations that include social, economic and environmental dimensions. In architecture, for example, object-oriented CAD environments now make it feasible to integrate conventional modelling techniques with analytical evaluations such as energy calculations and lighting simulations. These were all ambitions of architects and landscape designers in the 70s when computer power restricted the successful implementation of these ideas. Instead, the commercial trend at that time moved towards isolated specialist design tools in particular areas. Prior to recent innovations in computing, the closely related disciplines of architecture and landscape have been separated through the unnecessary development, in our view, of their own symbolic representations, and the subsequent computer applications. This has led to an unnatural separation between what were once closely related disciplines.

Significant increases in the performance of computers are now making it possible to move on from symbolic representations towards more contextual and meaningful representations. For example, the application of realistic materials textures to CAD-generated building models can then be linked to energy calculations using the chosen materials. It is now possible for a tree to look like a tree, to have leaves and even to be botanicaly identifiable. The building and landscape can be rendered from a common database of digital samples taken from the real world. The complete model may be viewed in a more meaningful way either through stills or animation, or better still, through a total simulation of the lifecycle of the design proposal. The model may also be used to explore environmental/energy considerations and changes in the balance between the building and its context most immediately through the growth simulation of vegetation but also as part of a larger planning model.

The Internet has a key role to play in facilitating this emerging collaborative design process. Design professionals are now able via the net to work on a shared model and to explore and test designs through the development of VRML, JAVA, whiteboarding and video conferencing. The end product may potentially be something that can be more easily viewed by the client/user. The ideas presented in this paper form the basis for the development of a dual course in landscape and architecture. This will create new teaching opportunities for exploring the design of buildings and sites through the shared development of a common computer model.

keywords Integrated Design Process, Landscape and Architecture, Shared Environmentsenvironments
series eCAADe
email a.clayden@sheffield.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/szalapaj/szalapaj.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 40d7
authors Dalyrmple, Michael and Gerzso, Michael
year 1998
title Executable Drawings: The Computation of Digital Architecture
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 172-187
summary Architectural designs are principally represented by drawings. Usually, each drawing corresponds to one design or aspects of one design. On the other hand, one executable drawing corresponds to a set of designs. These drawings are the same as conventional drawings except that they have computer code or programs embedded in them. A specific design is the result of the computer executing the code in a drawing for a particular set of parameter values. If the parameters are changed, a new design or design variation is produced. With executable drawings, a CAD system is also a program editor. A designer not only designs by drawing but also programming. It fuses two activities: the first, drawing, is basic in architectural practice; and the second, progamming, or specifying the relation of outputs from inputs, is basic in computer system development. A consequence of executable drawings is that architectural form is represented by graphical entities (lines or shapes) as well as computer code or programs. This type of architecture we call digital architecture. Two simple examples are presented: first, the design of a building in terms of an executable drawing of the architects, Sangallo the Younger and Michelangelo, and second, a description of an object oriented implementation of a preliminary prototype of an executable drawing system written in 1997 which computes a simple office layout.
series ACADIA
email michael.dalyrmple@usa.net, 104164.341@compuserve.com
last changed 1998/12/16 07:42

_id cebb
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen and Gross, Mark D.
year 1997
title Tools for Visual and Spatial Analysis of CAD Models - Implementing Computer Tools as a Means to Thinking about Architecture
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 189-202
summary The paper describes a suite of spatial analysis programs to support architectural design. Building these computational tools not only supports the task of spatial analysis for designers but it also helps us think about the spatial perception. We argue that building design software is an important vehicle for understanding architecture, using our efforts to build various visual and spatial analysis tools as examples.
series CAAD Futures
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id c906
authors Ekholm, Anders and Fridqvist, Sverker
year 1997
title Design and Modelling in a Computer Integrated Construction Process - The BAS-CAAD Project
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 501-518
summary A new approach to product modelling in a design context is proposed. CAD-software must not only enable product modelling, but must also support product design. This is not fully achieved in the traditional 'enumerative' approach to product modelling. We discuss how product design and modelling can be based on a facetted' approach to information modelling, and how a data model that supports the design process can be based on a framework for system information. The background for our research is the current development in the construction industry towards a computer integrated construction process. A first prerequisite for this is the use of computer based models. Another prerequisite is that CAD-software can support the design of the results of the construction process, including construction works, user organisations, and the production and facility management processes. A third prerequisite is that computer based models are built with standardised concepts and terminology to enable exchange of information between different actors and computer systems during different stages of the construction process. Principles for organising frameworks for user organisation and construction works information are presented in an appendix.
series CAAD Futures
email Anders.Ekholm@caadlth.se, Sverker.Fridqvist@caadlth.se
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id e821
authors Hartkopf, V., Loftness, V., Mahdavi, A., Lee, S. and Shankavaram, J.
year 1997
title An integrated approach to design and engineering of intelligent buildings--The Intelligent Workplace at Carnegie Mellon University
source Automation in Construction 6 (5-6) (1997) pp. 401-415
summary In the past few years, there have been significant advances made in the design and engineering of "intelligent" workplaces, buildings that not only accommodate major advances in office technology but provide better physical and environmental settings for the occupants. This paper will briefly present recent approaches to the creation of innovative environments for the advanced workplace. The architectural and engineering advances demonstrated in Japan, Germany, North America, the United Kingdom, and France can be summarized in four major system categories: (1) enclosure innovations including approaches to load balancing, natural ventilation, and daylighting; (2) heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system innovations including approaches to local control and improved environmental contact; (3) data/voice/power "connectivity" innovations; and (4) interior system innovations, including approaches to workstation and workgroup design for improved spatial, thermal, acoustic, visual, and air quality. In-depth international field studies of over 20 intelligent office buildings have been carried out by a multidisciplinary expert team of the Advanced Building Systems Integration Consortium (ABSIC) based at Carnegie Mellon University. ABSIC is a university-industry-government partnership focused on the definition and development of the advanced workplace. The ABSIC field team evaluated the component and integrated system innovations for their multidimensional performance qualities, through expert analysis, occupancy assessments, and field diagnostics. Based on the results of the case studies and building on the most recent technological advances, the ABSIC team developed the concepts for the Intelligent Workplace, a 7000 square foot living laboratory of office environments and innovations. This project is now under construction at Carnegie Mellon University and its features are discussed in the second section of this paper.
series journal paper
email amahdavi@tuwien.ac.at
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id c59c
authors Kokosalakis, Jen
year 1997
title C AD VANTAGE for Communities, Professionals and Students
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 235-254
summary I propose to consider how added value for professionals, and the consumers of their buildings and students of these processes might be attained. Through the vehicle of new technologies including the humble 'CAD' system a fuller collaboration in design decision- making is aided through representation of 3 dimensional design ideas and their comprehension from different 'vantage' points. Thus computing may enhance opportunity for more informed dialogue involving verbal and visual responses between the intentions of the architect and client and promise to open up more of the architectural design process to participation by the building consumers, bringing advantage' to all actors in the design process. More liberated sketching at the system is becoming evident as programmers, and users' skills adapt to the search for more enabling, creative and easier tools, procedures and interfaces freeing responsiveness to consumer wishes. Reflection from clients and practitioners brings hope that a more informed dialogue is enabled through computer supported designing. The beginnings of CAAD support to community groups acts as a facilitator. Contacting and working with community groups follows effective 'Community Development' precedents established in the Liverpool of the sixties; to contact, activate, enable and provide necessary skill supports for community-driven striving for resolution of housing problems. Results of this, ploughed back into CAD teaching for Environmental Planners, brings increased awareness and visualisation of environmental, architectural and human issues and promises to begin a new cycle of more informed participation for citizens, architects, planners and consultants.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id f071
authors Maher, M.L., Cicognani, A. and Simoff, S.J.
year 1997
title An Experimental Study of Computer Mediated Collaborative Design
source International Journal of Design Computing, Key Centre of Design Computing, University of Sydney, Sydney
summary The use of computer technology in design practice is moving towards a distributed resource available to a team of designers. The development of software to support designers has traditionally been based on the assumption that there will be a single person using the software at a time. Recent developments have enabled the feasibility of software for two or more simultaneous users, leading to the possibility of computer mediated collaborative design (CMCD), where the computer plays the role of mediator and design information handler. There is the potential for the computer to play a more active role in collaborative design through enhanced visibility of 3D models and assistance in generating alternative designs and design critiques. With this potential the computer not only mediates the collaborative design process but actively supports the designers. Research in integrated CAD, multimedia and design database systems, virtual design studios, and design protocol studies provide the basis for a formal study of CMCD. We have developed an experimental methodology to study the difference in design semantics documented using computer applications when designing alone as compared to designing collaboratively. This methodology can be applied to study other aspects of CMCD.
series journal paper
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 9afb
authors Maher, M.L., Simoff, S. and Cicognani, A.
year 1997
title Observations from an experimental study of computer-mediated collaborative design
source M.L. Maher, J.S. Gero, and F Sudweeks eds. Preprints Formal Aspects of Collaborative CAD, Key Centre of Design Computing, University of Sydney, Sydney, pp.165-185
summary The use of computer technology in design practice is moving towards a distributed resource available to a team of designers. The development of software to support designers has been based largely on the assumption that there will be a single person using the software at a time. Recent developments have enabled the feasibility of software for two or more simultaneous users, leading to the possibility of computer-mediated collaborative design. Research in integrated CAD, virtual design studios, and design protocol studies provide the basis for a formal study of computer-mediated design. We develop an experimental study of computer-mediated collaborative design with the aim of collecting data on the amount and content of design semantics documented using computer applications when designing alone as compared to designing collaboratively. The experiment includes the definition of an hypothesis, aim, methodology, data collection and coding schemes. The experiment and some preliminary observations are presented, followed by directions for further research.
series other
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e7ff
authors Malkawi, A., Vakalo, E.G. and Emdanat, S.S.
year 1997
title An Intelligent CAD System for Integrating Thermal and Form-Making Analysis
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 41-49
summary This paper presents an intelligent CAD system for integration morphological and thermal considerations involved in the making of architectural form. A shared knowledge base is at the core of the proposed system. The system is designed to allow independent modules that target the different aspects of a building design and analysis (e.g. thermal analysis and morphological analysis) to access and modify the knowledge contained in this knowledge base. The paper discusses the structure of the system and issues pertaining to its implementation. An example of the use of the system is illustrated. Conclusions and findings about the utility of the system are drawn.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 11:40

_id 2064
authors Murakami, Y., Morozumi, M., Iino, K., Homma, R. and Iki, K.
year 1997
title On the Development and the Use of Group Work CAD for Windows-PCS
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 179-186
summary With the development of high-band width communication technology, designers’ interests seem to shift gradually from a single-user, single-domain system to a network based group-work design system. So long as one regards that the design activity develops only in a concurrent, but asynchronous fashions, it is possible to say that file transfers through computer networks have already opened up the possibility of a hands-on collaborative design process in which all participants do not have to gather in the same place. However few CAD systems support group design work that develops in a concurrent synchronous fashion. This paper discusses a basic model of group work CAD systems that the authors have developed for windows PCs linked with LAN. Reviewing procedure of system operation, the authors conclude that the system could stimulate and accelerate a process of group wok design.
series CAADRIA
email moro@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id ab09
authors Qaqish, Ra’ed and Hanna, Raid
year 1997
title The Impact of CAL Strategies on CAD
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 475-489
summary This paper reports on a two fold study, which examines the impact of CAL on CAD and architectural education, and evaluates the overall effectiveness and efficiency of CAD teaching and strategies in the curriculum of architecture. The study also examined the need for a framework within which the creation of a module for applying CAL in CAD to support the curriculum of architecture can be structured and assessed. The main concern of the study was to explore the range and balance of computer assisted activities in the design studio, and the interpretation of the various roles of the CAD tutor and his/her involvement in delivering these activities. In delivering these activities two criteria, namely: teaching methods and CAD integration (which are interchangeable and yet play different roles), can have a distinct effect on the implementation of CAL in the design studio. The case study evaluated and investigated the CAL the AEC course as part of the 3rd year design studio at Mackintosh School of Architecture, to determine to what extent the AEC learning events were effective in advocating new strategies in CAD. The methods of this investigation consisted of classroom observations and administrating questionnaires. Variables such as the group and gender differences/participation, the tutor’s confidence, level of administration and strategies to help with technical problems and motivations, also the task-related activities, tangibility of the learning materials, and the minutes of lesson have been examined. The global rating of the CAL events in CAD lessons, the CAL organisation and sequence, the level of students’ confidence, the rate of students’ interest, the mode of classroom, the level of learner performance and the relationship between CAL and the overall curriculum have also been empirically examined and their interdependent relationships explored. The findings of this study may help in establishing future directions in adopting some form of effective CAL strategies in CAD. The study also serves as an evaluation tool for computing teaching in the design studio. Furthermore, the checklist used in this case study may also be used in evaluating the different courses in CAD in the curriculum of architectural schools.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 14:21

_id 7b96
authors Schley, M., Buday, R., Sanders, K. and Smith, D. (eds.)
year 1997
title AIA CAD layer guidelines
source Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects Press
summary The power and potential of computer-aided design (CAD) is based on the ability to reuse and share information. This is particularly true in building design and construction, a field that involves extensive information and teamwork between a variety of consultants. CAD provides both a common medium of exchange and a tool for producing the documentation required for construction and management. The key to realizing the potential of CAD is using common organizing principles. In particular, standard organization of files and layers is essential for efficient work and communication. Virtually all CAD systems support the concept of layers. This function allows graphic information to be grouped for display or plotting purposes. Intelligent use of layers can reduce drawing time and improve drawing coordination. By turning selected layers on or off, a variety of different plotted sheets can be produced. The layer is the basic CAD tool for managing visual information. By making it possible to reuse information, layers reduce drawing time and improve coordination. Layers and the new class libraries and object data complement, rather than compete with each other. Using layers to manage the visual aspects of graphic entities, with class libraries and object data to store the non-graphic data, gives architects an efficient way to work in CAD.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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