CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 518

_id 9748
authors Trikac, S.N., Banerjeea, P. and Kashyapb, R.L.
year 1997
title Virtual reality interfaces for feature-based computer-aided design systems
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29 (8) (1997) pp. 565-574
summary A computer-aided design (CAD) system with a virtual reality (VR) interface simplifies the design of complex mechanical parts. To add a design feature (e.g., a hole,slot, or protrusion), the designer can navigate in the part to the appropriate face of the part where he/she wishes to attach the feature, and sketch directly on that face.Besides convenience, this method of feature specification implicitly enforces feature accessibility constraints, and also provides hints to the process-planner regardingthe order in which the features may be manufactured. We detail the design of a VR-based prototype CAD system. The system maintains the knowledge of part cavitiesand their adjacencies, and a triangulated boundary-representation of an approximating polyhedron. We present incremental provably correct algorithms for updatingthis representation as the user edits the part. We also show how this representation supports real-time displays, navigation, and collision detection. The user-interfaceof the CAD system relies on these capabilities to provide the above-mentioned advantages.
keywords User Interfaces, Virtual Reality, Feature-Based Design, Geometric Reasoning, Feature Extraction
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 2354
authors Clayden, A. and Szalapaj, P.
year 1997
title Architecture in Landscape: Integrated CAD Environments for Contextually Situated Design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper explores the future role of a more holistic and integrated approach to the design of architecture in landscape. Many of the design exploration and presentation techniques presently used by particular design professions do not lend themselves to an inherently collaborative design strategy.

Within contemporary digital environments, there are increasing opportunities to explore and evaluate design proposals which integrate both architectural and landscape aspects. The production of integrated design solutions exploring buildings and their surrounding context is now possible through the design development of shared 3-D and 4-D virtual environments, in which buildings no longer float in space.

The scope of landscape design has expanded through the application of techniques such as GIS allowing interpretations that include social, economic and environmental dimensions. In architecture, for example, object-oriented CAD environments now make it feasible to integrate conventional modelling techniques with analytical evaluations such as energy calculations and lighting simulations. These were all ambitions of architects and landscape designers in the 70s when computer power restricted the successful implementation of these ideas. Instead, the commercial trend at that time moved towards isolated specialist design tools in particular areas. Prior to recent innovations in computing, the closely related disciplines of architecture and landscape have been separated through the unnecessary development, in our view, of their own symbolic representations, and the subsequent computer applications. This has led to an unnatural separation between what were once closely related disciplines.

Significant increases in the performance of computers are now making it possible to move on from symbolic representations towards more contextual and meaningful representations. For example, the application of realistic materials textures to CAD-generated building models can then be linked to energy calculations using the chosen materials. It is now possible for a tree to look like a tree, to have leaves and even to be botanicaly identifiable. The building and landscape can be rendered from a common database of digital samples taken from the real world. The complete model may be viewed in a more meaningful way either through stills or animation, or better still, through a total simulation of the lifecycle of the design proposal. The model may also be used to explore environmental/energy considerations and changes in the balance between the building and its context most immediately through the growth simulation of vegetation but also as part of a larger planning model.

The Internet has a key role to play in facilitating this emerging collaborative design process. Design professionals are now able via the net to work on a shared model and to explore and test designs through the development of VRML, JAVA, whiteboarding and video conferencing. The end product may potentially be something that can be more easily viewed by the client/user. The ideas presented in this paper form the basis for the development of a dual course in landscape and architecture. This will create new teaching opportunities for exploring the design of buildings and sites through the shared development of a common computer model.

keywords Integrated Design Process, Landscape and Architecture, Shared Environmentsenvironments
series eCAADe
email a.clayden@sheffield.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/szalapaj/szalapaj.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 041e
authors Hall, Theodore W.
year 1997
title Hand-Eye Coordination in Virtual Reality, Using a Desktop Display, Stereo Glasses and a 3-D Mouse
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 73-82
summary Many virtual-reality displays augment the user’s view of the real world but do not completely mask it out or replace it. Intuitive control and realistic interaction with these displays depend on accurate hand-eye coordination: the projected image of a 3-D cursor in virtual space should align visually with the real position of the 3-D input device that controls it. This paper discusses some of the considerations and presents algorithms for coordinating the physical and virtual worlds.
series CAADRIA
email twhall@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 1999/02/01 11:49

_id a10d
authors Hall, Theodore W.
year 1997
title Hand-Eye Coordination in Desktop Virtual Reality
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 177-182
summary For hand-eye coordination and intuitive interaction with virtual-reality displays, the projected image of a 3-D cursor in virtual space should correspond to the real position of the 3-D input device that controls it. This paper summarizes some of the issues and algorithms for coordinating the physical and virtual worlds.
series CAAD Futures
email twhall@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id d910
authors Kieferle, Joachim B. and Herzberger, Erwin
year 2002
title The “Digital year for Architects” Experiences with an integrated teaching concept
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 88-95
summary The “digital year for architects” is an integrated course for graduate architecture students, that has been held since 1997 at Stuttgart University. Its concept is to link together traditional design teaching and working with computers. Three seminars and one design project are the framework of the course, in which the students are taught in design of e.g. image and space composition, typography, video, using virtual reality, theoretical basics for the final design project like information management or working environments, approximately a dozen software packages and finally a visionary design project. It has shown that the advantage of an integrated course compared to separate courses is the more intensive dealing with the project as well as achieving better skills when learning the new media. Not only because the project topics are different from usual architecture and more abstract, the main effect is to widen the students way of thinking and designing.
series eCAADe
email kieferle@igp.uni-stuttgart.de
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 5222
authors Moloney, Jules
year 1999
title Bike-R: Virtual Reality for the Financially Challenged
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 410-413
summary This paper describes a 'low tech' approach to producing interactive virtual environments for the evaluation of design proposals. The aim was to produce a low cost alternative to such expensive installations as CAVE virtual reality systems. The system utilises a library of pre-rendered animation, video and audio files and hence is not reliant on powerful hardware to produce real time simulation. The participant sits astride a bicycle exercise machine and animation is triggered by the pedal revolution. Navigation is achieved by steering along and around the streets of the animated design. This project builds on the work of Desmond Hii. ( Hii, 1997) The innovations are the bicycle interface and the application to urban scale simulation.
keywords Virtual, Design, Interface, Urban
series eCAADe
email j.moloney@auckland.ac.nz
last changed 2002/11/22 17:34

_id cf2011_p093
id cf2011_p093
authors Nguyen, Thi Lan Truc; Tan Beng Kiang
year 2011
title Understanding Shared Space for Informal Interaction among Geographically Distributed Teams
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 41-54.
summary In a design project, much creative work is done in teams, thus requires spaces for collaborative works such as conference rooms, project rooms and chill-out areas. These spaces are designed to provide an atmosphere conducive to discussion and communication ranging from formal meetings to informal communication. According to Kraut et al (E.Kraut et al., 1990), informal communication is an important factor for the success of collaboration and is defined as “conversations take place at the time, with the participants, and about the topics at hand. It often occurs spontaneously by chance and in face-to-face manner. As shown in many research, much of good and creative ideas originate from impromptu meeting rather than in a formal meeting (Grajewski, 1993, A.Isaacs et al., 1997). Therefore, the places for informal communication are taken into account in workplace design and scattered throughout the building in order to stimulate face-to-face interaction, especially serendipitous communication among different groups across disciplines such as engineering, technology, design and so forth. Nowadays, team members of a project are not confined to people working in one location but are spread widely with geographically distributed collaborations. Being separated by long physical distance, informal interaction by chance is impossible since people are not co-located. In order to maintain the benefit of informal interaction in collaborative works, research endeavor has developed a variety ways to shorten the physical distance and bring people together in one shared space. Technologies to support informal interaction at a distance include video-based technologies, virtual reality technologies, location-based technologies and ubiquitous technologies. These technologies facilitate people to stay aware of other’s availability in distributed environment and to socialize and interact in a multi-users virtual environment. Each type of applications supports informal interaction through the employed technology characteristics. One of the conditions for promoting frequent and impromptu face-to-face communication is being co-located in one space in which the spatial settings play as catalyst to increase the likelihood for frequent encounter. Therefore, this paper analyses the degree to which sense of shared space is supported by these technical approaches. This analysis helps to identify the trade-off features of each shared space technology and its current problems. A taxonomy of shared space is introduced based on three types of shared space technologies for supporting informal interaction. These types are named as shared physical environments, collaborative virtual environments and mixed reality environments and are ordered increasingly towards the reality of sense of shared space. Based on the problem learnt from other technical approaches and the nature of informal interaction, this paper proposes physical-virtual shared space for supporting intended and opportunistic informal interaction. The shared space will be created by augmenting a 3D collaborative virtual environment (CVE) with real world scene at the virtual world side; and blending the CVE scene to the physical settings at the real world side. Given this, the two spaces are merged into one global structure. With augmented view of the real world, geographically distributed co-workers who populate the 3D CVE are facilitated to encounter and interact with their real world counterparts in a meaningful and natural manner.
keywords shared space, collaborative virtual environment, informal interaction, intended interaction, opportunistic interaction
series CAAD Futures
email g0800518@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id c79d
authors Pinet, Celine
year 1997
title Design Evaluation Based on Virtual Representation of Spaces
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 111-120
summary When spaces are evaluated, clients and architects often discuss design proposals by looking down at scale models. This overhead perspective forces viewers to imagine themselves looking and moving about within the model. Misperceptions may well result from such a point of view. With the advancement in virtual reality (VR) technology, and with its rising popularity in architecture, it is becoming plausible to consider using VR to evaluate design projects.

The projects presented here are of three types: (1.) The first project compares people's evaluation of several slightly modified virtual models of a space. (2.) The second project compares how people evaluate a foam core model of a space to how they evaluate a virtual representation of the same space (3.) The third project compares people's evaluation of a real space to that of a virtual representation of this space. //

The wide range of results presented provides one argument in support of using VR simulations to study spaces and how they are perceived. For example, results shows that a virtual window serves to alleviate perceived crowding and that added furniture serves to make a virtual room feel slightly larger and less constraining. However, problems did emerge with using virtual reality simulations to gain information about peoples' behavioral reactions to a space. Thus, not all circumstances under which VR representations are used creates valid results. Differences appear to be in the type of evaluations measured (e.g. dimensional versus behavioral). More research is needed to clarify this issue.

series ACADIA
email pinet@ostia.phy.ohiou.edu
last changed 1998/12/31 12:34

_id 8804
authors QaQish, R. and Hanna, R.
year 1997
title A World-wide Questionnaire Survey on the Use of Computers in Architectural Education
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The paper reports on a study which examines the impact on architectural education needs arising from the changes brought about by the implications of CAD teaching/learning (CAI/CAL). The findings reflect the views of fifty-one (51) architecture schools through a world-wide questionnaire survey conducted in mid 1996. The survey was structured to cover four continents represented by seven countries, namely the USA, UK, Israel, Australia, Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands. Structurally the main findings of this study are summarised under five areas, namely: 1) General Information, 2) Program of Study (curriculum) and CAD course, 3) CAD Laboratories: Hardware, Software, 4) Departmental Current and Future Policies, 5) Multi-media and Virtual Reality. Principally, there were three main objectives for using the computers survey. Firstly, to accommodate a prevalent comprehension of CAD integration into the curriculum of architecture schools world wide. Secondly, to identify the main key factors that control the extent of association between CAD and architectural curriculum. Thirdly, to identify common trends of CAD teaching in Architecture schools world-wide and across the seven countries to establish whether there are any association between them. Several variables and factors that were found to have an impact on AE were examined, namely: the response rate, the conventional methods users and the CAD methods users amongst students, CAD course employment in the curriculum, age of CAD employment, the role of CAD in the curriculum, CAD training time in the Curriculum, CAD laboratories/Hardware & Software, computing staff and technicians, department policies, Multi-Media (MM) and Virtual-Reality (VR). The statistical analysis of the study revealed significant findings, one of which indicates that 35% of the total population of students at the surveyed architecture schools are reported as being CAD users. Out of the 51 architecture schools who participated in this survey, 47 have introduced CAD courses into the curriculum. The impact of CAD on the curriculum was noted to be significant in several areas, namely: architectural design, architectural presentation, structural engineering, facilities management, thesis project and urban design. The top five CAD packages found to be most highly used across universities were, namely, AutoCAD (46), 3DStudio (34), Microstation (23), Form Z (17), ArchiCAD (17). The findings of this study suggest some effective and efficient future directions in adopting some form of effective CAD strategies in the curriculum of architecture. The study also serves as an evaluation tool for computing teaching in the design studio and the curriculum.

 

keywords CAD Integration, Employment, Users and Effectiveness
series eCAADe
email r.qaqish@gsa.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/qaqish/qaqish.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id diss_ruhl
id diss_ruhl
authors Ruhl, Volker R.
year 1997
title Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing of Complex Shaped Concrete Formwork
source Doctor of Design Thesis, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
summary The research presented in this thesis challenges the appropriateness of existing, conventional forming practices in the building construction industry--both in situ or in prefabrication--for building concrete "freeforms," as they are characterized by impracticality and limitations in achieved geometric/formal quality. The author's theory proposes the application of alternative, non-traditional construction methods derived from the integration of information technology, in the form of Computer-Aided Design (CAD), Engineering (CAE) and Manufacturing (CAM), into the concrete tooling and placing process. This concept relies on a descriptive shape model of a physically non-existent building element which serves as a central database containing all the geometric data necessary to completely and accurately inform design development activities as well as the construction process. For this purpose, the thesis orients itself on existing, functioning models in manufacturing engineering and explores the broad spectrum of computer-aided manufacturing techniques applied in this industry. A two-phase, combined method study is applied to support the theory. Part I introduces the phenomenon of "complexity" in the architectural field, defines the goal of the thesis research and gives examples of complex shape. It also presents the two analyzed technologies: concrete tooling and automation technology. For both, it establishes terminology, classifications, gives insight into the state-of-the-art, and describes limitations. For concrete tooling it develops a set of quality criteria. Part II develops a theory in the form of a series of proposed "non-traditional" forming processes and concepts that are derived through a synthesis of state-of-the-art automation with current concrete forming and placing techniques, and describes them in varying depth, in both text and graphics, on the basis of their geometric versatility and their appropriateness for the proposed task. Emphasis is given to the newly emerging and most promising Solid Freeform Fabrication processes, and within this area, to laser-curing technology. The feasibility of using computer-aided formwork design, and computer-aided formwork fabrication in today's standard building practices is evaluated for this particular technology on the basis of case-studies. Performance in the categories of process, material, product, lead time and economy is analyzed over the complete tooling cycle and is compared to the performance of existing, conventional forming systems for steel, wood, plywood veneer and glassfiber reinforced plastic; value s added to the construction process and/or to the formwork product through information technology are pointed out and become part of the evaluation. For this purpose, an analytical framework was developed for testing the performance of various Solid Freeform Fabrication processes as well as the "sensitivity," or the impact of various influencing processes and/or product parameters on lead time and economy. This tool allows us to make various suggestions for optimization as well as to formulate recommendations and guidelines for the implementation of this technology. The primary objective of this research is to offer architects and engineers unprecedented independence from planar, orthogonal building geometry, in the realization of design ideas and/or design requirements for concrete structures and/or their components. The interplay between process-oriented design and innovative implementation technology may ultimately lead to an architecture conceived on a different level of complexity, with an extended form-vocabulary and of high quality.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0286
authors Will, Barry F. and Siu-Pan Li , Thomas
year 1997
title Computers for Windows: Interactive Optimization Tools for Architects designing openings in walls (IOTA)
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary Size, shape and disposition of windows in walls has long been an integral expression of style in architecture. As buildings have grown taller the relationships of the windows to the ground plane and to the surrounding environments have become more complex and difficult to predict. Traditionally architects have had to use their own knowledge, experience and feelings in the design of windows. There may be few, if any, scientific bases for their decisions. The difficulty in making good design decisions is compounded because many criteria for window design, such as daylight, sunlight, ventilation, sound, view and privacy have to be considered simultaneously. It is here that computers can help, on the one hand, by providing ‘expert knowledge’ so that architects can consult the cumulative knowledge database before making a decision, whilst on the other hand, evaluations of the decisions taken can be compared with a given standard or with alternative solutions.

‘Expert knowledge’ provision has been made possible by the introduction of hypertext, the advancement of the world wide web and the development of large scale data-storage media. Much of the computer’s value to the architects lies in its ability to assist in the evaluation of a range of performance criteria. Without the help of a computer, architects are faced with impossibly complex arrays of solutions. This paper illustrates an evaluation tool for two factors which are important to the window design. The two factors to be investigated in this paper are sunlighting and views out of windows.

Sunlight is a quantitative factor that can theoretically be assessed by some mathematical formulae provided there is sufficient information for calculation but when total cumulative effects of insolation through the different seasons is required, in addition to yearly figures, a design in real-time evolution requires substantial computing power. Views out of windows are qualitative and subjective. They present difficulties in measurement by the use of conventional mathematical tools. These two fields of impact in window design are explored to demonstrate how computers can be used in assessing various options to produce optimal design solutions. This paper explains the methodologies, theories and principles underlying these evaluation tools. It also illustrates how an evaluation tool can be used as a design tool during the design process.

keywords Sunlight, View, Window Design, Performance Evaluation, Expert Systems, Simulation, Fuzzy LogicExpert Systems, Simulation, Fuzzy Logic
series eCAADe
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/li/li.htm
last changed 2003/03/05 12:14

_id 0c91
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1997
title Computer - Tool vs. Medium
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary We have arrived an important juncture in the history of computing in our profession: This history is long enough to reveal clear trends in the use of computing, but not long to institutionalize them. As computers peremate every area of architecture - from design and construction documents to project administration and site supervision - can “virtual practice” be far behind? In the old days, there were basically two ways of architects working. Under stress. Or under lots more stress. Over time, someone forwarded the radical motion that the job could be easier, you could actually get more work done. Architects still have been looking for ways to produce more work in less time. They need a more productive work environment. The ideal environment would integrate man and machine (computer) in total harmony. As more and more architects and firms invest more and more time, money, and effort into particular ways of using computers, these practices will become resistant to change. Now is the time to decide if computing is developing the way we think it should. Enabled and vastly accelerated by technology, and driven by imperatives for cost efficiency, flexibility, and responsiveness, work in the design sector is changing in every respect. It is stands to reason that architects must change too - on every level - not only by expanding the scope of their design concerns, but by altering design process. Very often we can read, that the recent new technologies, the availability of computers and software, imply that use of CAAD software in design office is growing enormously and computers really have changed the production of contract documents in architectural offices.
keywords Computers, CAAD, Cyberreal, Design, Interactive, Medium, Sketches, Tools, Virtual Reality
series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/asan/asanowic.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id debf
authors Bertol, D.
year 1997
title Designing Digital Space - An Architect's Guide to Virtual Reality
source John Wiley & Sons, New York
summary The first in-depth book on virtual reality (VR) aimed specifically at architecture and design professionals, Designing Digital Space steers you skillfully through the learning curve of this exciting new technology. Beginning with a historical overview of the evolution of architectural representations, this unique resource explains what VR is, how it is being applied today, and how it promises to revolutionize not only the design process, but the form and function of the built environment itself. Vividly illustrating how VR fits alongside traditional methods of architectural representation, this comprehensive guide prepares you to make optimum practical use of this powerful interactive tool, and embrace the new role of the architect in a virtually designed world. Offers in-depth coverage of the virtual universe-data representation and information management, static and dynamic worlds, tracking and visual display systems, control devices, and more. Examines a wide range of current VR architectural applications, from walkthroughs, simulations, and evaluations to reconstructions and networked environments Includes insightful essays by leading VR developers covering some of today's most innovative projects Integrates VR into the historical framework of architectural development, with detailed sections on the past, present, and future Features a dazzling array of virtual world images and sequential displays Explores the potential impact of digital architecture on the built environment of the future
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c5a0
authors Bradford, J., Wong, W.S., Tang, A.H.F. and Yeung, C.S.K.
year 1997
title A Virtual Reality Building Block Composer for Architecture
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 51-59
summary Design is a complex and time consuming process. One way to simplify the design process is to use pre-build blocks for commonly known parts instead of creating them again with CAD. To give the designer an immediate 3D view of the design, designing in virtual reality is a good choice. This paper presents a virtual reality interface tool which allows a user to assemble an architecture structure from a library of pre-built blocks. The library is a distributed client-server database.
series CAADRIA
email bradford@hkuxa.hku.hk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 848a
authors Caneparo, Luca
year 1997
title Shared Virtual Reality for Architectural Design
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 431-442
summary The paper presents the implementation of a system of Shared Virtual Reality (SVR) in Internet applied to a large- scale project. The applications of SVR to architectural and urban design are presented in the context of a real project, the new railway junction of Porta Susa and the surrounding urban area in the city centre of Turin, Italy. SVR differs from Virtual Reality in that the experience of virtual spaces is no longer individual, but rather shared across the net with other users simultaneously connected. SVR offers an effective approach to Computer Supported Collaborative Work, because it integrates both the communicative tools to improve collaboration and the distributed environment to elaborate information across the networks.
series CAAD Futures
email luca.caneparo@polito.it
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 88f9
authors Carrara, G., Novembri, G., Zorgno, A.M., Brusasco, P.L.
year 1997
title Virtual Studio of Design and Technology on Internet (I) - Educator's approach
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper presents a teaching experience involving students and professors from various universities, in Italy and abroad, which began in 1996 and is still on going. The Virtual Studios on the Internet (VSI) have some features in common with the Teaching Studios planned for the new programme of the faculties of Architecture in Italian universities. These are the definition of a common design theme, and the participation of disciplinary teachers. The greatest difference is in the modes of collaboration, which is achieved through information and communication technologies. The chief result of this is that the various work groups in different places can work and collaborate at the same time: the computer networks provide the means to express, communicate and share the design project.
keywords CAAD, Teaching of architectural design, Shared virtual reality, Virtualdesign studio, Collective intelligence.
series eCAADe
email guyver@arch.hku.hk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/lvi_i&ii/zorgno.html
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id d60a
authors Casti, J.C.
year 1997
title Would be Worlds: How simulation is changing the frontiers of science
source John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
summary Five Golden Rules is caviar for the inquiring reader. Anyone who enjoyed solving math problems in high school will be able to follow the author's explanations, even if high school was a long time ago. There is joy here in watching the unfolding of these intricate and beautiful techniques. Casti's gift is to be able to let the nonmathematical reader share in his understanding of the beauty of a good theory.-Christian Science Monitor "[Five Golden Rules] ranges into exotic fields such as game theory (which played a role in the Cuban Missile Crisis) and topology (which explains how to turn a doughnut into a coffee cup, or vice versa). If you'd like to have fun while giving your brain a first-class workout, then check this book out."-San Francisco Examiner "Unlike many popularizations, [this book] is more than a tour d'horizon: it has the power to change the way you think. Merely knowing about the existence of some of these golden rules may spark new, interesting-maybe even revolutionary-ideas in your mind. And what more could you ask from a book?"-New Scientist "This book has meat! It is solid fare, food for thought . . . makes math less forbidding, and much more interesting."-Ben Bova, The Hartford Courant "This book turns math into beauty."-Colorado Daily "John Casti is one of the great science writers of the 1990s."-San Francisco Examiner In the ever-changing world of science, new instruments often lead to momentous discoveries that dramatically transform our understanding. Today, with the aid of a bold new instrument, scientists are embarking on a scientific revolution as profound as that inspired by Galileo's telescope. Out of the bits and bytes of computer memory, researchers are fashioning silicon surrogates of the real world-elaborate "artificial worlds"-that allow them to perform experiments that are too impractical, too costly, or, in some cases, too dangerous to do "in the flesh." From simulated tests of new drugs to models of the birth of planetary systems and galaxies to computerized petri dishes growing digital life forms, these laboratories of the future are the essential tools of a controversial new scientific method. This new method is founded not on direct observation and experiment but on the mapping of the universe from real space into cyberspace. There is a whole new science happening here-the science of simulation. The most exciting territory being mapped by artificial worlds is the exotic new frontier of "complex, adaptive systems." These systems involve living "agents" that continuously change their behavior in ways that make prediction and measurement by the old rules of science impossible-from environmental ecosystems to the system of a marketplace economy. Their exploration represents the horizon for discovery in the twenty-first century, and simulated worlds are charting the course. In Would-Be Worlds, acclaimed author John Casti takes readers on a fascinating excursion through a number of remarkable silicon microworlds and shows us how they are being used to formulate important new theories and to solve a host of practical problems. We visit Tierra, a "computerized terrarium" in which artificial life forms known as biomorphs grow and mutate, revealing new insights into natural selection and evolution. We play a game of Balance of Power, a simulation of the complex forces shaping geopolitics. And we take a drive through TRANSIMS, a model of the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico, to discover the root causes of events like traffic jams and accidents. Along the way, Casti probes the answers to a host of profound questions these "would-be worlds" raise about the new science of simulation. If we can create worlds inside our computers at will, how real can we say they are? Will they unlock the most intractable secrets of our universe? Or will they reveal instead only the laws of an alternate reality? How "real" do these models need to be? And how real can they be? The answers to these questions are likely to change the face of scientific research forever.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e292
authors Charitos, D. and Bridges, A.H.
year 1997
title On Architectural Design of Virtual Environments
source Design Studies, Vol.18, No. 2, 143-154
summary This paper considers the domains of architectural design and film theory for the purpose of informing the design of virtual environments (VEs). It is suggested that these domains may form a background for the consideration of possible metaphors for the design of VEs. Firstly, the paper investigates the relation between architecture and virtual reality technology, through the nature of drawings and virtual environments as means of representing three-dimensional spaces. Then, differences between VEs and physical environments (PEs) are identified for the purpose of understanding the intrinsic nature of VEs, by comparing them to our familiar everyday spatial experience. This step is considered essential in helping us understand how we might be able to develop an architectural conception of designing spaces, in the context of VEs. The paper then presents two directions towards informing VE design by means of theoretical and practical architectural design knowledge. Finally, the use of film-related studies is considered as a means of enhancing our conception of time and movement in VEs.
series journal paper
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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