CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id d60a
authors Casti, J.C.
year 1997
title Would be Worlds: How simulation is changing the frontiers of science
source John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
summary Five Golden Rules is caviar for the inquiring reader. Anyone who enjoyed solving math problems in high school will be able to follow the author's explanations, even if high school was a long time ago. There is joy here in watching the unfolding of these intricate and beautiful techniques. Casti's gift is to be able to let the nonmathematical reader share in his understanding of the beauty of a good theory.-Christian Science Monitor "[Five Golden Rules] ranges into exotic fields such as game theory (which played a role in the Cuban Missile Crisis) and topology (which explains how to turn a doughnut into a coffee cup, or vice versa). If you'd like to have fun while giving your brain a first-class workout, then check this book out."-San Francisco Examiner "Unlike many popularizations, [this book] is more than a tour d'horizon: it has the power to change the way you think. Merely knowing about the existence of some of these golden rules may spark new, interesting-maybe even revolutionary-ideas in your mind. And what more could you ask from a book?"-New Scientist "This book has meat! It is solid fare, food for thought . . . makes math less forbidding, and much more interesting."-Ben Bova, The Hartford Courant "This book turns math into beauty."-Colorado Daily "John Casti is one of the great science writers of the 1990s."-San Francisco Examiner In the ever-changing world of science, new instruments often lead to momentous discoveries that dramatically transform our understanding. Today, with the aid of a bold new instrument, scientists are embarking on a scientific revolution as profound as that inspired by Galileo's telescope. Out of the bits and bytes of computer memory, researchers are fashioning silicon surrogates of the real world-elaborate "artificial worlds"-that allow them to perform experiments that are too impractical, too costly, or, in some cases, too dangerous to do "in the flesh." From simulated tests of new drugs to models of the birth of planetary systems and galaxies to computerized petri dishes growing digital life forms, these laboratories of the future are the essential tools of a controversial new scientific method. This new method is founded not on direct observation and experiment but on the mapping of the universe from real space into cyberspace. There is a whole new science happening here-the science of simulation. The most exciting territory being mapped by artificial worlds is the exotic new frontier of "complex, adaptive systems." These systems involve living "agents" that continuously change their behavior in ways that make prediction and measurement by the old rules of science impossible-from environmental ecosystems to the system of a marketplace economy. Their exploration represents the horizon for discovery in the twenty-first century, and simulated worlds are charting the course. In Would-Be Worlds, acclaimed author John Casti takes readers on a fascinating excursion through a number of remarkable silicon microworlds and shows us how they are being used to formulate important new theories and to solve a host of practical problems. We visit Tierra, a "computerized terrarium" in which artificial life forms known as biomorphs grow and mutate, revealing new insights into natural selection and evolution. We play a game of Balance of Power, a simulation of the complex forces shaping geopolitics. And we take a drive through TRANSIMS, a model of the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico, to discover the root causes of events like traffic jams and accidents. Along the way, Casti probes the answers to a host of profound questions these "would-be worlds" raise about the new science of simulation. If we can create worlds inside our computers at will, how real can we say they are? Will they unlock the most intractable secrets of our universe? Or will they reveal instead only the laws of an alternate reality? How "real" do these models need to be? And how real can they be? The answers to these questions are likely to change the face of scientific research forever.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id c6e1
authors Smulevich, Gerard
year 1997
title Berlin-Crane City: Cardboard, Bits, and the Post-industrial Design Process
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 139-153
summary This paper explores the impact of information technology on the architectural design process as seen through different design studios from three schools of architecture in Southern California over a two year period.

All three studios tested notions of representation, simulation and the design process in relation to a post-industrial world and its impact on how we design for it. The sites for two of these studios were in the city of Berlin, where the spearhead of the information age and a leftover of the industrial revolution overlap in an urban condition that is representative of our world after the cold war. The three studios describe a progressive shift in the use of information technology in the design process, from nearly pure image-driven simulation to a more low-tech, highly creative uses of everyday computing tools. Combined, all three cases describe an array of scenarios for content-supportive uses of digital media in a design studio. The first studio described here, from USC, utilized computer modeling and visualization to design a building for a site located within the former no-mans' land of the Berlin Wall. The second studio, from SCI-Arc, produced an urban design proposal for an area along the former Berlin Wall and included a pan-geographic design collaboration via Internet between SCI-Arc/Los Angeles and SCI-Arc/Switzerland. The third and last studio from Woodbury University participated in the 1997 ACSA/Dupont Laminated Glass Competition designing a consulate general for Germany and one for Hong Kong. They employed a hybrid digital/non-digital process extracting experiential representations from simple chipboard study models and then using that information to explore an "enhanced model" through digital imaging processes.

The end of the cold war was coincidental with the explosive popularization of information technology as a consumer product and is poised to have huge impact on how and what we design for our cities. Few places in world express this potential as does the city of Berlin. These three undergraduate design studios employed consumer-grade technology in an attempt to make a difference in how we design, incorporating discussions of historical change, ideological premise and what it means to be an architect in a world where image and content can become easily disconnected from one another.

series ACADIA
email gerards@ix.netcom.com
last changed 1998/12/31 12:37

_id eb53
authors Asanowicz, K. and Bartnicka, M.
year 1997
title Computer analysis of visual perception - endoscopy without endoscope
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary This paper presents a method of using computer animation techniques in order to solve problems of visual pollution of city environment. It is our observation that human-inducted degradation of city environmental results from well - intentioned but inappropriate preservation actions by uninformed designers and local administration. Very often, a local municipality administration permits to build bad-fitting surroundings houses. It is usually connected with lack of visual information's about housing areas of a city, its features and characteristics. The CAMUS system (Computer Aided Management of Urban Structure) is being created at the Faculty of Architecture of Bialystok Technical University. One of its integral parts is VIA - Visual Impact of Architecture. The basic element of this system is a geometrical model of the housing areas of Bialystok. This model can be enhanced using rendering packages as they create the basis to check our perception of a given area. An inspiration of this approach was the digital endoscopy presented by J. Breen and M. Stellingwerff at the 2nd EAEA Conferences in Vienna. We are presenting the possibilities of using simple computer programs for analysis of spatial model. This contribution presents those factors of computer presentation which can demonstrate that computers achieve such effects as endoscope and often their use be much more efficient and effective.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email mmm@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 817b
authors Bong, C.W. and Wang, Y.C.
year 2002
title A Shape Compactness Measurement Indexing with Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Making Approach
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 093-100
summary Compactness of a district or zone is determined by considering its appearance and the area of dispersal of the district (Altman, 1998) and it is used as a characteristic to describe shape (Shiode, 1998; Knight, 1997). However, existing compactness measurement used to assess district plans in redistricting applications are vague and imprecision although there are more than thirty over Euclidean or non-Euclidean measurement methods. Therefore, this paper presents an integrated shape compactness measurement indexing with a fuzzy multicriteria decision making approach (FMCDM) to enhance the measurement of shape compactness. An experiment is conducted in order to verify the practically of the proposed model to improve existing compactness measurement method.
series CAADRIA
email cwbong@pd.jaring.my
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 27
authors De Gregorio, R., Carmena, S., Morelli, R.D., AvendaÒo, C. and Lioi, C.
year 1998
title La Construccion del Espacio del Poder. Museo de la Casa Rosada (The Construction of the Space of Power. Museum of the "Casa Rosada" (Argentinean Presidential House))
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 212-217
summary The present work is part of the exposition "Francesco Tamburini, La ConstrucciÛn del Espacio del Poder I", exhibited in Rivadavia Cultural Center ( Rosario city), and in Casa Rosada Museum during 1997. The Exposition is based on an investigation program of the space that involves Casa Rosada, determining this space as the first piece of its collection. In 1995, when a group of argentines where visiting the picture gallery Pianetti (Jesi, Italy) there have been found some watercolours of Francesco Tamburini (1846-1890), planner of the main faÁades of the Government and author of many works. These watercolours have great value for architecture, and unknown by public, they have been the starting point of the Exposition. Among these argentines was Roberto De Gregorio architect, historian teacher of this school of architecture, and in charge of the historical investigation. C.I.A.D.'s specific work consists in converting in digital data Casa Rosada's faÁades. The two first stages, already completed, finished on the digital data conversion of facades, in front of Plaza de Mayo and Rivadavia street, with presidential access esplanade. Actually the work is centred on the two facades left and on the elaboration of an electronic model for the edition of a CD-ROM containing the information of the exposition.
series SIGRADI
email scarmena@agatha.unr.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id ddss9829
id ddss9829
authors De Hoog, J., Hendriks, N.A. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 1998
title Evaluating Office Buildings with MOLCA(Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment)
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary MOLCA (Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment) is a project that aims to develop a tool that enables designers and builders to evaluate the environmental impact of their designs (of office buildings) from a environmental point of view. The model used is based on guidelinesgiven by ISO 14000, using the so-called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The MOLCA project started in 1997 and will be finished in 2001 resulting in the aforementioned tool. MOLCA is a module within broader research conducted at the Eindhoven University of Technology aiming to reduce design risks to a minimum in the early design stages.Since the MOLCA project started two major case-studies have been carried out. One into the difference in environmental load caused by using concrete and steel roof systems respectively and the role of recycling. The second study focused on biases in LCA data and how to handle them. For the simulations a computer-model named SimaPro was used, using the world-wide accepted method developed by CML (Centre for the Environment, Leiden, the Netherlands). With this model different life-cycle scenarios were studied and evaluated. Based on those two case studies and a third one into an office area, a first model has been developed.Bottle-neck in this field of study is estimating average recycling and re-use percentages of the total flow of material waste in the building sector and collecting reliable process data. Another problem within LCA studies is estimating the reliability of the input data and modelling uncertainties. All these topics will be subject of further analysis.
keywords Life-Cycle Assessment, Office Buildings, Uncertainties in LCA
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 6b4a
authors Ekholm, Anders and Fridqvist Sverker
year 1997
title Concepts of Space in Computer Based Product Modelling and Design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The everyday understanding of space may be self-evident and unproblematic. However, as soon as we are asked for a formal definition, e.g. in the context of building classification or product modelling, the concept of space is subject of controversy and misunderstanding. To some, space is the emptiness in which things are embedded, i.e. something immaterial. To others, space has no separate existence but is a property of the material world. Still, according to both views, space can be experienced. In this paper we analyse some influential work within building classification and building product modelling and criticise these for applying a concept of space without factual reference. We explore the ontological foundations for the concept of space, and conclude that space is an aspect view on things; depending on the view, it may be seen both as a property of things and as a thing in itself. Finally we show how construction space can be represented as an object in a conceptual schema for computer based space information.
keywords Space, Building, Construction, Classification, Product Modelling, Aspect Model, Spatial Modelling, CAD
series eCAADe
email Sverker.Fridqvist@caad.lth.se
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/ekholm/ekholm.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id f7e8
authors Frazer, J.H. and Stephenson, P.
year 1997
title The Groningen Experiment
source Architectural Association Publications, publ. pend.
summary In its first five years, the Architectural Association's Diploma unit II developed the theoretical framework of an alternative generative process, using computer models to compress evolutionary space and time. This led to a prototype that could be demonstrated interactively and the launch on the Internet of an experimental evolutionary environment which attracted global participation, established a dematerialised model. The new phase of the programme has begun to externalise this conceptual model into constructed form, focusing on urban-scale evolution and other historical and natural examples of co-operative and ecologically i integrated development. The approach has been to consider metabolic processes as a way of understanding both the formal development of urban symbiosis and the specific problem of materialization. The city planning department of Groningen commissioned a small working prototype demonstration of a predictive urban computer model. The unit produced an evolving model which explains the transition from the past to the present, and projects future trajectories a "what if" model for generating, exploring and evaluating alternatives. The model mediates in scale, space and time: ; in scale between the urban context and the fine grain of the housing typologies ; in space between the existing fabric of Groningen and specific dwelling units ; in time between the lifestyle within the medieval core and the desires of the citizens of tile next century
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 07d8
authors Garza, J.M. de la and Howitt, I.
year 1998
title Wireless communication and computing at the construction jobsite
source Automation in Construction 7 (4) (1998) pp. 327-347
summary For many years, the walkie-talkie has been synonymous with the construction industry. During jobsite project execution, there are three variables which can either hinder or facilitate successful results, namely, quality, quantity, and timing of information. Wireless data communications technology is capable of delivering just-in-time information within the `last mile' between the trailer and a desired location on the jobsite. This paper reports on a study which surveyed information needs at the jobsite, emerging wireless data communications technology, and assessed the extent to which wireless data technology can fulfill the information needs of the jobsite [J.M. de la Garza, I. Howitt, Wireless communication and computing at the jobsite, Research Report 136-11, Construction Industry Institute, Austin, TX, 1997]. We have organized jobsite information needs into the following ten categories: (a) requests for information, (b) materials management, (c) equipment management, (d) cost management, (e) schedule and means and methods, (f) jobsite record keeping, (g) submittals, (h) safety, (i) QC/QA, and (k) future trends. Each category was analyzed in terms of its appropriateness to take advantage of wireless technology. The four formats considered to transmit information wirelessly were: (a) live voice, (b) live video, (c) batched data, and (d) live data. Current wireless communication technology has been classified into the following five classes: (a) circuit-switched wireless data systems, (b) packet-switched wireless data systems––this class was further subdivided into specialized mobile radio systems and cellular digital packet data systems, (c) wireless local area networks, (d) paging systems, and (e) satellite-based data communications. A primer for wireless communications covering both fundamental and advanced communications concepts has also been included to enable a better understanding of the issues involved in making trade-offs while configuring a wireless jobsite communication system. The example presented in this paper shows how a contractor can define a subset of information needs by choosing from those already articulated herein and determine if a given wireless technology should even be considered as a viable way of meeting the information needs that such company has.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id diss_marsh
id diss_marsh
authors Marsh, A.J.
year 1997
title Performance Analysis and Conceptual Design
source School of Architecture and Fine Arts, University of Western Australia
summary A significant amount of the research referred to by Manning has been directed into the development of computer software for building simulation and performance analysis. A wide range of computational tools are now available and see relatively widespread use in both research and commercial applications. The focus of development in this area has long been on the accurate simulation of fundamental physical processes, such as the mechanisms of heat flow though materials, turbulent air movement and the inter-reflection of light. The adequate description of boundary conditions for such calculations usually requires a very detailed mathematical model. This has tended to produce tools with a very engineering-oriented and solution-based approach. Whilst becoming increasingly popular amongst building services engineers, there has been a relatively slow response to this technology amongst architects. There are some areas of the world, particularly the UK and Germany, where the use of such tools on larger projects is routine. However, this is almost exclusively during the latter stages of a project and usually for purposes of plant sizing or final design validation. The original conceptual work, building form and the selection of materials being the result of an aesthetic and intuitive process, sometimes based solely on precedent. There is no argument that an experienced designer is capable of producing an excellent design in this way. However, not all building designers are experienced, and even fewer have a complete understanding of the fundamental physical processes involved in building performance. These processes can be complex and often highly inter-related, often even counter-intuitive. It is the central argument of this thesis that the needs of the building designer are quite different from the needs of the building services engineer, and that existing building design and performance analysis tools poorly serve these needs. It will be argued that the extensive quantitative input requirement in such tools acts to produce a psychological separation between the act of design and the act of analysis. At the conceptual stage, building geometry is fluid and subject to constant change, with solid quantitative information relatively scarce. Having to measure off surface areas or search out the emissivity of a particular material forces the designer to think mathematically at a time when they are thinking intuitively. It is, however, at this intuitive stage that the greatest potential exists for performance efficiencies and environmental economies. The right orientation and fenestration choice can halve the airconditioning requirement. Incorporating passive solar elements and natural ventilation pathways can eliminate it altogether. The building form can even be designed to provide shading using its own fabric, without any need for additional structure or applied shading. It is significantly more difficult and costly to retrofit these features at a later stage in a project’s development. If the role of the design tool is to serve the design process, then a new approach is required to accommodate the conceptual phase. This thesis presents a number of ideas on what that approach may be, accompanied by some example software that demonstrates their implementation.
series thesis:PhD
more http://www.squ1.com/site.html
last changed 2003/11/28 06:33

_id a106
authors Martelli, T.
year 1997
title Automatic Procedure for the Dimensioning and Arrangement of Space Units of an Architectural Organism
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The application of a Mathematical Programming (M.P.) technique, typical of Operational Research (O. R.), is proposed as a means to cope with the decisional problem of layout dimensioning and arrangement. Within the ambit of O.R., Mathematical Programming. deals with decisional problems of simplest structure: only one decision factor, only one preference function, complete (deterministic) knowledge of the environment in which one operates.

Such a problem, in standard form, presents an objective function Z=f(x), of n variables x, to be minimized and a system of linear equations and/or inequalities, on the same variables, which represent the constraints and which define an admissible area for the solution.

The architectural organism is modelled as an assembly of parallelepiped shaped space entities or units, provided with a certain number of "holes" that permit functional corresponding connection. The pursued intent being optimal assembly.

The model, in its mathematical form, fits a standard Non-Linear M.P. (N.L.P.) problem, since the objective function Z is non-linear and the constraints are represented by inequalities. In its graphic form it reproduces an image of all the space units constituting the organism; moreover it is able to represent these units, in their logical and physical individuality, and their mutual relationship, as well as the ones with the external environment.

keywords Layout Dimensioning, Modelling, Mathematical Programming, Gradient Method
series eCAADe
email bcolajan@mbox.unipa.it
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/martelli/martelli.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 0b16
authors Mortola, E., Giangrande, A., Mirabelli, P. and Fortuzzi, A.Fortuzzi
year 1997
title The Self-sustainable Community Laboratories of Rome
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The experience of the Laboratories is not new for Rome. In 1993 the Historical Heritage Office of the Municipality came to an agreement with the Dioguardi Co. to found the Laboratory of Ghetto - the ancient Jewish quarter - with the following objectives: to offer space and tools to analyse public and private proposals for buildings restoration; to collect, elaborate and diffuse data and information about the neighbourhood; to involve inhabitants and train some of them in renewal and restoration activities through the creation of a "pilot yard". The data gathered in the Laboratory were elaborated and used to produce an hypertext which could be consulted by inhabitants. A section of this hypertext showed all the restoration projects, public and private ones (Sivo 1995).
keywords Design Methods, Hypertext, Interactive Design, Multimediacommunity laboratories, development, planning, projects; traffic calmin
series eCAADe
email mortola@arch.uniroma3.it
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/mortola/mortgfm.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id a706
authors Petric, Jelena
year 1997
title Use of Multi-Media in the Design of a Community Media Centre
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper describes the innovative use of a range of multi-media information technologies:

a) to analyse the economic, social, cultural and political factors which relate to the proposed site for a new Media Centre in a deprived area of Glasgow.;

b) to model the physical characteristics of the site and its vicinity;

c) to explain to, and encourage participation of the community in the evaluation of design ideas for the Media Centre and thereby create a "media culture"

keywords Multi-Media
series eCAADe
email abacus@strath.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/petric/petric.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id diss_ruhl
id diss_ruhl
authors Ruhl, Volker R.
year 1997
title Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing of Complex Shaped Concrete Formwork
source Doctor of Design Thesis, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
summary The research presented in this thesis challenges the appropriateness of existing, conventional forming practices in the building construction industry--both in situ or in prefabrication--for building concrete "freeforms," as they are characterized by impracticality and limitations in achieved geometric/formal quality. The author's theory proposes the application of alternative, non-traditional construction methods derived from the integration of information technology, in the form of Computer-Aided Design (CAD), Engineering (CAE) and Manufacturing (CAM), into the concrete tooling and placing process. This concept relies on a descriptive shape model of a physically non-existent building element which serves as a central database containing all the geometric data necessary to completely and accurately inform design development activities as well as the construction process. For this purpose, the thesis orients itself on existing, functioning models in manufacturing engineering and explores the broad spectrum of computer-aided manufacturing techniques applied in this industry. A two-phase, combined method study is applied to support the theory. Part I introduces the phenomenon of "complexity" in the architectural field, defines the goal of the thesis research and gives examples of complex shape. It also presents the two analyzed technologies: concrete tooling and automation technology. For both, it establishes terminology, classifications, gives insight into the state-of-the-art, and describes limitations. For concrete tooling it develops a set of quality criteria. Part II develops a theory in the form of a series of proposed "non-traditional" forming processes and concepts that are derived through a synthesis of state-of-the-art automation with current concrete forming and placing techniques, and describes them in varying depth, in both text and graphics, on the basis of their geometric versatility and their appropriateness for the proposed task. Emphasis is given to the newly emerging and most promising Solid Freeform Fabrication processes, and within this area, to laser-curing technology. The feasibility of using computer-aided formwork design, and computer-aided formwork fabrication in today's standard building practices is evaluated for this particular technology on the basis of case-studies. Performance in the categories of process, material, product, lead time and economy is analyzed over the complete tooling cycle and is compared to the performance of existing, conventional forming systems for steel, wood, plywood veneer and glassfiber reinforced plastic; value s added to the construction process and/or to the formwork product through information technology are pointed out and become part of the evaluation. For this purpose, an analytical framework was developed for testing the performance of various Solid Freeform Fabrication processes as well as the "sensitivity," or the impact of various influencing processes and/or product parameters on lead time and economy. This tool allows us to make various suggestions for optimization as well as to formulate recommendations and guidelines for the implementation of this technology. The primary objective of this research is to offer architects and engineers unprecedented independence from planar, orthogonal building geometry, in the realization of design ideas and/or design requirements for concrete structures and/or their components. The interplay between process-oriented design and innovative implementation technology may ultimately lead to an architecture conceived on a different level of complexity, with an extended form-vocabulary and of high quality.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id a8ff
authors Sanchez, Santiago, Zulueta, Alberto and Barrallo, Javier
year 1997
title CAAD and Historical Buildings: The Importance of the Simulation of the Historical Process
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The majority of the problems that CAAD deals with are located in contemporary buildings. But many other buildings of the historical heritage also need special attentions with their computer design prior to the restoration projects. Generally, in restoration work, hand drawing and artistic criteria have been more usual than work with precision topographic data and accurate technical plans.

But a very rigorous design is not always enough to start restoration work. The real state that presents a historical building could have been modified substantially from its original state due to previous interventions, wars, seismic movements, erosion, biological aggressions or any other historical event.

So, it is necessary to join CAAD tasks with a simulation of the historical process suffered by the building. Historical data and ancient cartography must be the basis of all the CAAD works, and the quality of the computer 3D model can be established comparing it with the original available maps.

This paper explains the CAAD works and the intervention proposals for the restoration of the City Walls of Hondarribia, a small Spanish village placed in the frontier between Spain and France. These Renaissance bastioned walls were partially destroyed throughout many wars with France. The exact knowledge of their original trace and dimensions only is possible comparing the real CAD models with the plans that exist in the Spanish Military Archives since the XVIth. century.

The digital store and index of all the historical information, their comparison with real photographs of the city walls, the creation of photo realistic images with the intervention proposals, and the influence of the structural repairs in the final project will be explained in the CAAD context.

keywords CAAD, Historical Buildings
series eCAADe
email mapbacaj@sa.ehu.es
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/barrallo/sanchez.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4eea
authors Sook Lee, Y. and Kyung Shin, H.
year 1997
title Development and visualization of interior space models for university professor's office.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [3rd EAEA-Conference Proceedings]
summary When visualization is required in academic area, the sound mundane realism ideally defined through scientific research is a requirement to make the testing of the visualized model worthy. Spatial model development is an essential part in every space type. Without space standards, architecture can not be existed. Lack of space standards causes some confusion, delay of decision, and trials and errors in building practice. This research deals with university professor's office space model. Currently in Korea, university building construction has been increased because of rapidly growing quantitative and qualitative needs for better education. There has been a wide range of size preference of the office space. Because of Korea's limited land availability, deliberate consideration in suggesting the minimum space standards without sacrificing the function is needed. This is especially important since professors traditionally have been highly respected from society, thereby rather authoritative with strong territoriality and privacy need and relatively sensitive to space size. Thus, presenting the 3D visual models to convince professors that the models accommodate their needs is important as well as the search process for ideal space models. The aim of the project was to develop a set of interior space models for university professor's office. To achieve the goal, 3 research projects and 1 design simulation project were implemented. Objectives of the 4 projects were 1) to identify the most popular office space conditions that is architectural characteristics, 2) to identify the most popular office space use type, 3) to identify user needs for spatial improvement, 4) to develop and suggest interior design alternatives systematically and present them in 3 dimentional computer simulation. This simulated images will be a basis of scaled model construction for endoscopy research and of full scale modelling in the future.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email YUN2256@chollian.dacom.co.kr
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ddssup9619
id ddssup9619
authors Tisma, Alexandra
year 1996
title Multimedia Training "Designing Randstad"
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The project multimedia training "Designing Randstad" (MTDR) is an experimental attempt to introduce multimedia in education at the Faculty of Architecture in Delft. It intends to develope teachware which will learn the students the basics of Geographic Informational Systems (GIS) implementation in land use evaluation appropriate for physical planning purposes. Interaction between students and the system will enable students to learn about GIS, to design a model of the spatial development of Randstad area and to evaluate their own designs, to produce immediate graphic visualisation of the evaluation and to compare it with the evaluations of the fellow students. The project will be applied in the first year curriculum, in the course "Region" of the Department of Urban planning of the Faculty of Architecture, in the first half of the year 1997.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 736a
authors Van Helvoort, Rob
year 1997
title Drawing with Pencil, Pen and Mouse
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 363-368
summary The traditional way of architectural design leads to some shortcomings with respect to the quality of the design and the efficiency of the design process. Therefore possibilities for improvements have to be considered. In order to come to fundamental improvements the application of advanced computer technology in the field of architecture has to be co-ordinated with improvements in the area of design methodologies. In this paper we suggest a new methodology for architectural design. It is based on an integrated manner of designing. Despite some early design steps the whole design process is executed on the basis of a 3D model which is handled by means of computers. The central data objects in the design process are the different types of models. The models contain all relevant information generated in the design process. A comparison of our approach with the traditional way of designing illustrates the potential of the new methodology.
keywords Design Methodologies, Integrated Design Systems, Computer Support
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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