CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 510

_id 2e36
authors Bourdakis, Vassilis
year 1997
title Making Sense of the City
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 663-678
summary Large-scale, three dimensional, interactive computer models of cities are becoming feasible making it possible to test their suitability as a visualisation tool for the design and planning process, for data visualisation where socio-economic and physical data can be mapped on to the 3D form of the city and as an urban information repository. The CASA developed models of the City of Bath and London's West End in VRML format, are used as examples to illustrate the problems arising. The aim of this paper is to reflect on key issues related to interaction within urban models, data mapping techniques and appropriate metaphors for presenting information.
keywords 3D City modeling, Urban Modelling, Virtual Environments, Navigation, Data Mapping, VRML
series CAAD Futures
email v.bourdakis@prd.uth.gr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c2c6
authors Hendricx , Ann
year 1997
title Shape, Space And Building Element: Development of a Conceptual Object Model for the Design Process
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The paper describes the first steps taken in the search for a central object model presenting all possible data, concepts and operations concerning the architectural design process.  From the early design stage, an architectural model can be built on computer.  A central object model of this process is essential: a model describing geometrical shapes, spaces, building elements and user activities, together with all the basic operations these entities can undertake.  The model could provide the necessary information for the performance of tests to assist the designer (energy calculation, stability check, costs ...).  Appropriate interfaces between the object model and existing software packages allow different actors in the design process to make use of the model’s data. First, the conceptual model for CAAD in the design process is described. The second part deals with the methodology used for developing the object model: M.E.R.O.DE (Model-driven Entity-Relationship Object-oriented Development) proves to be a firm base to start our design.  Finally, we present some aspects of the first prototype for such a central object model.
keywords Object Model, CAAD, Object-oriented
series eCAADe
email ann.hendricx@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/hendricx/hendricx.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 736a
authors Van Helvoort, Rob
year 1997
title Drawing with Pencil, Pen and Mouse
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 363-368
summary The traditional way of architectural design leads to some shortcomings with respect to the quality of the design and the efficiency of the design process. Therefore possibilities for improvements have to be considered. In order to come to fundamental improvements the application of advanced computer technology in the field of architecture has to be co-ordinated with improvements in the area of design methodologies. In this paper we suggest a new methodology for architectural design. It is based on an integrated manner of designing. Despite some early design steps the whole design process is executed on the basis of a 3D model which is handled by means of computers. The central data objects in the design process are the different types of models. The models contain all relevant information generated in the design process. A comparison of our approach with the traditional way of designing illustrates the potential of the new methodology.
keywords Design Methodologies, Integrated Design Systems, Computer Support
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 536e
authors Bouman, Ole
year 1997
title RealSpace in QuickTimes: architecture and digitization
source Rotterdam: Nai Publishers
summary Time and space, drastically compressed by the computer, have become interchangeable. Time is compressed in that once everything has been reduced to 'bits' of information, it becomes simultaneously accessible. Space is compressed in that once everything has been reduced to 'bits' of information, it can be conveyed from A to B with the speed of light. As a result of digitization, everything is in the here and now. Before very long, the whole world will be on disk. Salvation is but a modem away. The digitization process is often seen in terms of (information) technology. That is to say, one hears a lot of talk about the digital media, about computer hardware, about the modem, mobile phone, dictaphone, remote control, buzzer, data glove and the cable or satellite links in between. Besides, our heads are spinning from the progress made in the field of software, in which multimedia applications, with their integration of text, image and sound, especially attract our attention. But digitization is not just a question of technology, it also involves a cultural reorganization. The question is not just what the cultural implications of digitization will be, but also why our culture should give rise to digitization in the first place. Culture is not simply a function of technology; the reverse is surely also true. Anyone who thinks about cultural implications, is interested in the effects of the computer. And indeed, those effects are overwhelming, providing enough material for endless speculation. The digital paradigm will entail a new image of humankind and a further dilution of the notion of social perfectibility; it will create new notions of time and space, a new concept of cause and effect and of hierarchy, a different sort of public sphere, a new view of matter, and so on. In the process it will indubitably alter our environment. Offices, shopping centres, dockyards, schools, hospitals, prisons, cultural institutions, even the private domain of the home: all the familiar design types will be up for review. Fascinated, we watch how the new wave accelerates the process of social change. The most popular sport nowadays is 'surfing' - because everyone is keen to display their grasp of dirty realism. But there is another way of looking at it: under what sort of circumstances is the process of digitization actually taking place? What conditions do we provide that enable technology to exert the influence it does? This is a perspective that leaves room for individual and collective responsibility. Technology is not some inevitable process sweeping history along in a dynamics of its own. Rather, it is the result of choices we ourselves make and these choices can be debated in a way that is rarely done at present: digitization thanks to or in spite of human culture, that is the question. In addition to the distinction between culture as the cause or the effect of digitization, there are a number of other distinctions that are accentuated by the computer. The best known and most widely reported is the generation gap. It is certainly stretching things a bit to write off everybody over the age of 35, as sometimes happens, but there is no getting around the fact that for a large group of people digitization simply does not exist. Anyone who has been in the bit business for a few years can't help noticing that mum and dad are living in a different place altogether. (But they, at least, still have a sense of place!) In addition to this, it is gradually becoming clear that the age-old distinction between market and individual interests are still relevant in the digital era. On the one hand, the advance of cybernetics is determined by the laws of the marketplace which this capital-intensive industry must satisfy. Increased efficiency, labour productivity and cost-effectiveness play a leading role. The consumer market is chiefly interested in what is 'marketable': info- and edutainment. On the other hand, an increasing number of people are not prepared to wait for what the market has to offer them. They set to work on their own, appropriate networks and software programs, create their own domains in cyberspace, domains that are free from the principle whereby the computer simply reproduces the old world, only faster and better. Here it is possible to create a different world, one that has never existed before. One, in which the Other finds a place. The computer works out a new paradigm for these creative spirits. In all these distinctions, architecture plays a key role. Owing to its many-sidedness, it excludes nothing and no one in advance. It is faced with the prospect of historic changes yet it has also created the preconditions for a digital culture. It is geared to the future, but has had plenty of experience with eternity. Owing to its status as the most expensive of arts, it is bound hand and foot to the laws of the marketplace. Yet it retains its capacity to provide scope for creativity and innovation, a margin of action that is free from standardization and regulation. The aim of RealSpace in QuickTimes is to show that the discipline of designing buildings, cities and landscapes is not only a exemplary illustration of the digital era but that it also provides scope for both collective and individual activity. It is not just architecture's charter that has been changed by the computer, but also its mandate. RealSpace in QuickTimes consists of an exhibition and an essay.
series other
email oleb@xs4all.nl
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 460e
authors Dannettel, Mark E
year 1997
title Interactive Multimedia Design: Operational Structures and Intuitive Environments for CD-ROM
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 415-427
summary This paper presents practical design concepts for the production of CD-ROMs or on-line media projects which are intended for scholastic and professional use. It is based on the experience and knowledge which has been gained while developing a multimedia package here at the Department of Architecture at CUHK. The package deals exclusively with the technical issue of vertical transportation in buildings, and is intended to be used as a design tool in professional offices, as well as in classroom settings. The required research and production for the development of the structures, formats, and interfaces of this project, along with the consequential evaluation and revision of this work, has led to a greater understanding of appropriate applications for interactive interactive multimedia designs. Specially, the paper addresses the fundamental issues of ‘user-format’, and a distinction is made between applications which operate as ‘tools’ and those which operate as ‘resources’. Descriptions are provided for both types of operational formats, and suggestions are made as to how one might decided which format would be appropriate for a specific project. Briefly, resource produces imply that a user actively pursues information in a relatively static environment, while tool procedures imply that a user works jointly with the software to process information and arrive at a unique output. This distinction between the two formats is mostly grounded in the design of the structure and user-interface, and thus the point is made that the material content of the application does not necessarily imply a mandatory use of either format. In light of this observation that an application’s format relies on the appropriateness of operational procedures, rather than on its material content, further discussions of the implications of such procedures (using a ‘resource’ vs. using a ‘tool’) are provided.
series CAADRIA
email dannettel@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 1999/02/01 14:16

_id 0289
authors Huang, Jeffrey and Pollalis, Spiro N.
year 1997
title Knowledge, Agency, and Design Information Systems
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 481-488
summary This paper addresses CAAD from an organizational point of view. We employ recent developments in organizational economics to model the organizational processes in building design. Based on an analysis of (i) the cost of transferring knowledge, and (ii) agency cost in existing design organizations, we propose a framework for redesigning organizational processes and for developing appropriate design information systems. The paper describes work on a larger ongoing research project at the Harvard Design School on intra- and interorganizational design information systems.
keywords computer Supported Cooperative Design, Knowledge Transfer, Process Modeling, Organization Theory, Agency Problems
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id 53ad
authors Huang, Jeffrey
year 1997
title Interorganizational Systems in Design
source Harvard University, Graduate School of Design
summary This thesis employs recent developments in coordination theory to analyze and map the coordination processes among participating firms in building design. The process model enables an understanding of the activities and dependencies in the collaborative design process, based on which potential implications of Interorganizational Information Systems (IOS), such as concurrent design platforms, vertical information links and electronic marketplaces, can be understood and critically assessed. Part One defines the parameters of the research, and contrasts the implementation of IOS in the aerospace, automobile and consulting industry to the state of practice in the building design industry. From the comparison, the need for fundamentally rethinking and redesigning the building design process is derived. Part Two describes how this can be accomplished by making the coordination processes in building design explicit. The building design process is decomposed into its core activities and dependencies, and new ways of recomposing the processes are identified which use alternative coordination mechanisms facilitated by IOS. Part Three describes the implications of the process model. Suggestions for appropriate IOS are made, and evidence of IOS applications in design is given in the analysis of four field studies, and in an example redesign of a design process.
series thesis:PhD
email jhuang@gsd.harvard.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 4b2a
id 4b2a
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 2004
title A FRAMEWORK FOR COMPUTER-SUPPORTED COLLABORATION IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
source University of Michigan
summary The development of appropriate research frameworks and guidelines for the construction of software aids in the area of architectural design can lead to a better understanding of designing and computer support for designing (Gero and Maher 1997). The field of research and development in computer-supported collaborative architectural design reflects that of the early period in the development of the field of computersupported cooperative work (CSCW). In the early 1990s, the field of CSCW relied on unsystematic attempts to generate software that increases the productivity of people working together (Robinson 1992). Furthermore, a shift is taking place by which researchers in the field of architecture are increasingly becoming consumers of rather than innovators of technology (Gero and Maher . In particular, the field of architecture is rapidly becoming dependent on commercial software implementations that are slow to respond to new research or to user demands. Additionally, these commercial systems force a particular view of the domain they serve and as such might hinder rather than help its development. The aim of this dissertation is to provide information to architects and others to help them build their own tools or, at a minimum, be critical of commercial solutions.
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2004/10/24 20:35

_id d5b3
authors Knight, Michael and Brown, Andre
year 1999
title Working in Virtual Environments through appropriate Physical Interfaces
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 431-436
summary The work described here is aimed at contributing towards the debate and development relating to the construction of interfaces to explore buildings and their environs through virtual worlds. We describe a particular hardware and software configuration which is derived by the use of low cost games software to create the Virtual Environment. The Physical Interface responds to the work of other researchers, in this area, in particular Shaw (1994) and Vasquez de Velasco & Trigo (1997). Virtual Evironments might have the potential to be "a magical window into other worlds, from molecules to minds" (Rheingold, 1992), but what is the nature of that window? Currently it is often a translucent opening which gives a hazy and distorted (disembodied) view. And many versions of such openings are relatively expensive. We consider ways towards clearing the haze without too much expense, adapting techniques proposed by developers of low cost virtual reality systems (Hollands, 1995) for use in an architectural setting.
keywords Virtual Environments, Games Software
series eCAADe
email mknight@liv.ac.uk
last changed 2002/11/22 17:33

_id 51c2
authors Melling, G., Bradley, D.A., McKee, H. and Widden, M.B.
year 1997
title The development of a rapid-prototyping technique for mechatronic-augmented heavy plant
source Automation in Construction 5 (5) (1997) pp. 365-378
summary Telechiric, semi-autonomous and autonomous heavy plant is finding an increasing role in applications such as construction, sub-sea work and decommissioning. There is a need for improved operator interfaces for such plant, and hence for rapid-prototyping tools which link the development of the operator interface with control and operational strategies and with machine geometries. The paper sets out a strategy by which different operator interfaces can be readily evaluated while at the same time generating the requisite information structure for the control of real items of plant. The proposed system is based on the use of interconnected PCs, one to simulate the operator interface and another to provide a kinematic representation of the machine using an appropriate "desk-top reality" environment. This system offers a safe, practical, rapid and cost-effective means of assessing proposed operator interfaces, as well as facilitating the development of machine kinematic structures and the associated operational and control strategies.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 4cce
authors Monedero, Javier
year 1997
title Parametric Design. A Review and Some Experiences
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary During the last few years there has been an extraordinary development of computer aided tools intended to present or communicate the results of architectural projects. But there has not been a comparable progress in the development of tools intended to assist design to generate architectural forms in an easy and interactive way. Even worst, architects who use the powerful means provided by computers, as a direct tool to create architectural forms are still an exception. Architecture continues to be produced by traditional means using the computer as little more than a drafting tool.

The main reasons that may explain this situation can be identified rather easily, although there will be significant differences of opinion. Mine is that it is a mistake trying to advance too rapidly and, for instance, propose integrated design methods using expert systems and artificial intelligence resources when do not have still an adequate tool to generate and modify simple 3D models.

The modelling tools we have at the present moment are clearly unsatisfactory. Their principal limitation is the lack of appropriate instruments to modify interactively the model once it has been created. This is a fundamental aspect in any design activity, where the designer is constantly going forward and backwards, reelaborating once and again some particular aspect of the model, or its general layout, or even coming back to a previous solution that had been temporarily abandoned.

keywords Parametric Design
series eCAADe
email monedero@ega1.upc.es
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/moneder/moneder.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id ddssup9619
id ddssup9619
authors Tisma, Alexandra
year 1996
title Multimedia Training "Designing Randstad"
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The project multimedia training "Designing Randstad" (MTDR) is an experimental attempt to introduce multimedia in education at the Faculty of Architecture in Delft. It intends to develope teachware which will learn the students the basics of Geographic Informational Systems (GIS) implementation in land use evaluation appropriate for physical planning purposes. Interaction between students and the system will enable students to learn about GIS, to design a model of the spatial development of Randstad area and to evaluate their own designs, to produce immediate graphic visualisation of the evaluation and to compare it with the evaluations of the fellow students. The project will be applied in the first year curriculum, in the course "Region" of the Department of Urban planning of the Faculty of Architecture, in the first half of the year 1997.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 9748
authors Trikac, S.N., Banerjeea, P. and Kashyapb, R.L.
year 1997
title Virtual reality interfaces for feature-based computer-aided design systems
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29 (8) (1997) pp. 565-574
summary A computer-aided design (CAD) system with a virtual reality (VR) interface simplifies the design of complex mechanical parts. To add a design feature (e.g., a hole,slot, or protrusion), the designer can navigate in the part to the appropriate face of the part where he/she wishes to attach the feature, and sketch directly on that face.Besides convenience, this method of feature specification implicitly enforces feature accessibility constraints, and also provides hints to the process-planner regardingthe order in which the features may be manufactured. We detail the design of a VR-based prototype CAD system. The system maintains the knowledge of part cavitiesand their adjacencies, and a triangulated boundary-representation of an approximating polyhedron. We present incremental provably correct algorithms for updatingthis representation as the user edits the part. We also show how this representation supports real-time displays, navigation, and collision detection. The user-interfaceof the CAD system relies on these capabilities to provide the above-mentioned advantages.
keywords User Interfaces, Virtual Reality, Feature-Based Design, Geometric Reasoning, Feature Extraction
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id a35a
authors Arponen, Matti
year 2002
title From 2D Base Map To 3D City Model
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, I.17-I.28
summary Since 1997 Helsinki City Survey Division has proceeded in experimenting and in developing the methods for converting and supplementing current digital 2D base maps in the scale 1:500 to a 3D city model. Actually since 1986 project areas have been produced in 3D for city planning and construction projects, but working with the whole map database started in 1997 because of customer demands and competitive 3D projects. 3D map database needs new data modelling and structures, map update processes need new working orders and the draftsmen need to learn a new profession; the 3D modeller. Laser-scanning and digital photogrammetry have been used in collecting 3D information on the map objects. During the years 1999-2000 laser-scanning experiments covering 45 km2 have been carried out utilizing the Swedish TopEye system. Simultaneous digital photography produces material for orto photo mosaics. These have been applied in mapping out dated map features and in vectorizing 3D buildings manually, semi automatically and automatically. In modelling we use TerraScan, TerraPhoto and TerraModeler sw, which are developed in Finland. The 3D city model project is at the same time partially a software development project. An accuracy and feasibility study was also completed and will be shortly presented. The three scales of 3D models are also presented in this paper. Some new 3D products and some usage of 3D city models in practice will be demonstrated in the actual presentation.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email matti.arponen@hel.fi
more www.udms.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 00e7
authors Bushby, S.T.
year 1997
title BACnetTM: a standard communication infrastructure for intelligent buildings
source Automation in Construction 6 (5-6) (1997) pp. 529-540
summary Intelligent buildings require integration of a variety of computer-based building automation and control system products that are usually made by different manufacturers. The exchange of information among these devices is critical to the successful operation of the building systems. Proprietary approaches to providing this communication have created great challenges for system integrators and hampered the development of intelligent building technology. Even though digital automation and control technology has been widely available for more than a decade and islands of automation are common, intelligent buildings with integrated building services are still more of a promise than a reality. BACnetTM is a standard communication protocol for building automation and control networks developed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE, Standard 135-1995: BACnetTM--A Data Communication Protocol for Building Automation and Control Networks. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers. Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 1995). BACnetTM provides the communication infrastructure needed to integrate products made by different vendors and to integrate building services that are now independent. This paper describes the main features of the BACnetTM protocol and early experience implementing it.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 7ebf
authors Clark, G. and Mehta, P.
year 1997
title Artificial intelligence and networking in integrated building management systems
source Automation in Construction 6 (5-6) (1997) pp. 481-498
summary In recent years the emphasis has moved towards integrating all a building's systems via centralised building management systems (BMS). To provide a more intelligent approach to the facility management, safety and energy control in building management systems (IBMS), this paper proposes a methodology for integrating the data within a BMS via a single multi-media networking technology and providing the BMS with artificial intelligence (AI) through the use of knowledge-based systems (KBS) technology. By means of artificial intelligence, the system is capable of assessing, diagnosing and suggesting the best solution. This paper outlines how AI techniques can enhance the control of HVAC systems for occupant comfort and efficient running costs based on occupancy prediction. Also load control and load balancing are investigated. Instead of just using pre-programmed load priorities, this work has investigated the use of a dynamic system of priorities which are based on many factors such as area usage, occupancy, time of day and real time environmental conditions. This control strategy which is based on a set of rules running on the central control system, makes use of information gathered from outstations throughout the building and communicated via the building's data-bus.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 123c
authors Coomans, M.K.D. and Timmermans, H.J.P.
year 1997
title Towards a Taxonomy of Virtual Reality User Interfaces
source Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV97), pp. 17-29
summary Virtual reality based user interfaces (VRUIs) are expected to bring about a revolution in computing. VR can potentially communicate large amounts of data in an easily understandable format. VR looks very promising, but it is still a very new interface technology for which very little application oriented knowledge is available. As a basis for such a future VRUI design theory, a taxonomy of VRUIs is required. A general model of human computer communication is formulated. This model constitutes a frame for the integration of partial taxonomies of human computer interaction that are found in the literature. The whole model constitutes a general user interface taxonomy. The field of VRUIs is described and delimited with respect to this taxonomy.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 4983
authors Cutting-Decelle, A.-F., Dubois, A.-M. and Fernandez, I.
year 1997
title Management and Integration of Product Information in Construction: Reality and Future Trends
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 5(2), pp. 19-46
summary For many years numerous efforts have been spent on the development of standardized approaches for modelling industrial information. During this period stand-alone software tools have been developed in most industries including the Building and Construction sector : Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools, technical software such as software development for energy analysis, project management systems, product databases etc. As this set of computer tools became more and more heterogeneous, the need for communication tools has emerged to enable data to be exchanged between them. Standardising data exchange then becomes a logical step in the improvement of the information management during the whole construction process. The aim of this paper is to put forward the state-of-the art in the domain of product model approaches and standards developments : ISO 10303 STEP, ISO 13584 P-LIB and ISO 15531 MANDATE. We will give a global overview of the existing applications in the construction sector, both in terms of product, or process models, most of them provided by either national or European projects.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id ddss9829
id ddss9829
authors De Hoog, J., Hendriks, N.A. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 1998
title Evaluating Office Buildings with MOLCA(Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment)
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary MOLCA (Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment) is a project that aims to develop a tool that enables designers and builders to evaluate the environmental impact of their designs (of office buildings) from a environmental point of view. The model used is based on guidelinesgiven by ISO 14000, using the so-called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The MOLCA project started in 1997 and will be finished in 2001 resulting in the aforementioned tool. MOLCA is a module within broader research conducted at the Eindhoven University of Technology aiming to reduce design risks to a minimum in the early design stages.Since the MOLCA project started two major case-studies have been carried out. One into the difference in environmental load caused by using concrete and steel roof systems respectively and the role of recycling. The second study focused on biases in LCA data and how to handle them. For the simulations a computer-model named SimaPro was used, using the world-wide accepted method developed by CML (Centre for the Environment, Leiden, the Netherlands). With this model different life-cycle scenarios were studied and evaluated. Based on those two case studies and a third one into an office area, a first model has been developed.Bottle-neck in this field of study is estimating average recycling and re-use percentages of the total flow of material waste in the building sector and collecting reliable process data. Another problem within LCA studies is estimating the reliability of the input data and modelling uncertainties. All these topics will be subject of further analysis.
keywords Life-Cycle Assessment, Office Buildings, Uncertainties in LCA
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id b3b1
authors Ebrahim, Mostafa Abdel-Bary
year 1997
title Application and evaluation of digital image techniques in close range photogrammetry
source University of Innsbruck
summary Most of the orthomapping techniques that are used in the present are restricted to surfaces that arise from a function of 'ground co- ordinates' z = f (x, y) , so-called 2.5D objects. Some techniques are also restricted to surfaces with kind of smooth shape or even to regular surfaces, but all of them are established to rectify images (although increasingly digitally). A new approach has been established for digital restitution and orthomapping of close range objects of almost any shape and size and with almost no restriction to images or objects. The idea of this approach is an inversion of the photographic technique and is (on the contrary to the 'rectification approach') strictly object oriented. All of the objects are regarded to be describable in their geometrical shape by a number of particular faces that can be regular or irregular but can anyway be created in a CAD environment. The data needed to get this surface can come from any photogrammetric, tachometric or other source with any particular one wants to have for the results. All the details that lie on that surface don't have to be restituted by analog or analytical point measurement but can after that be projected onto this surface from any photo, from any side and with any camera they have been taken. A 'Digital Projector' does the projection of the photos from the same positions and with the same inner orientation as of photographic camera. Using this approach any measurements of any details on the facades can be done easily. No details of the object can be neglected, none can be forgotten, no prior filtering of details has preceded this using. The full information of the original photos is available in the results. The results of the restitution can be presented in many ways. One of them is create orthoimages in any scale. Other results are any perspective or parallel view of the object. Other use of the strict 3D map-covered object for visualization (e.g. in architecture and archaeology application) is possible  
keywords Digital Image; Digital Projector; Close Range Photogrammetry; Architectural Photogrammetry; 2.5d Objects; Visualization
series thesis:PhD
email ebrahim@acc.aun.eun.eg
more http://www.arcs.ac.at/dissdb/rn027356
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

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