CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 5a97
authors Rosenman, M.A. and Gero, J.S.
year 1997
title Collaborative CAD modelling in multidisciplinary design domains
source Maher, M. L., Gero, J. S. and Sudweeks, F. (eds), Preprints Formal Aspects of Collaborative Computer-Aided Design, Key Centre of Design Computing, University of Sydney, Sydney, pp. 387-403
summary In a multidisciplinary design environment, such as the AEC domain, the various designers will have their own concepts and representations of the design object making communication in such an environment a complex task. This paper argues for a multiple view approach based upon an assumption that different concepts of an object are based on different functional contexts. Thus an understanding of concepts such as function, purpose and intent is critical since the representation of the functional properties of design objects is the underlying basis for the formation of different concepts and coordination of these concepts. The paper points to the modelling of multidisciplinary design teams as cooperative intelligent agents in a distributed decisionmaking system where the explicit representation of function and purpose are essential, in a CAD environment, for the necessary communication of intent and effects.
series journal paper
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 2354
authors Clayden, A. and Szalapaj, P.
year 1997
title Architecture in Landscape: Integrated CAD Environments for Contextually Situated Design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper explores the future role of a more holistic and integrated approach to the design of architecture in landscape. Many of the design exploration and presentation techniques presently used by particular design professions do not lend themselves to an inherently collaborative design strategy.

Within contemporary digital environments, there are increasing opportunities to explore and evaluate design proposals which integrate both architectural and landscape aspects. The production of integrated design solutions exploring buildings and their surrounding context is now possible through the design development of shared 3-D and 4-D virtual environments, in which buildings no longer float in space.

The scope of landscape design has expanded through the application of techniques such as GIS allowing interpretations that include social, economic and environmental dimensions. In architecture, for example, object-oriented CAD environments now make it feasible to integrate conventional modelling techniques with analytical evaluations such as energy calculations and lighting simulations. These were all ambitions of architects and landscape designers in the 70s when computer power restricted the successful implementation of these ideas. Instead, the commercial trend at that time moved towards isolated specialist design tools in particular areas. Prior to recent innovations in computing, the closely related disciplines of architecture and landscape have been separated through the unnecessary development, in our view, of their own symbolic representations, and the subsequent computer applications. This has led to an unnatural separation between what were once closely related disciplines.

Significant increases in the performance of computers are now making it possible to move on from symbolic representations towards more contextual and meaningful representations. For example, the application of realistic materials textures to CAD-generated building models can then be linked to energy calculations using the chosen materials. It is now possible for a tree to look like a tree, to have leaves and even to be botanicaly identifiable. The building and landscape can be rendered from a common database of digital samples taken from the real world. The complete model may be viewed in a more meaningful way either through stills or animation, or better still, through a total simulation of the lifecycle of the design proposal. The model may also be used to explore environmental/energy considerations and changes in the balance between the building and its context most immediately through the growth simulation of vegetation but also as part of a larger planning model.

The Internet has a key role to play in facilitating this emerging collaborative design process. Design professionals are now able via the net to work on a shared model and to explore and test designs through the development of VRML, JAVA, whiteboarding and video conferencing. The end product may potentially be something that can be more easily viewed by the client/user. The ideas presented in this paper form the basis for the development of a dual course in landscape and architecture. This will create new teaching opportunities for exploring the design of buildings and sites through the shared development of a common computer model.

keywords Integrated Design Process, Landscape and Architecture, Shared Environmentsenvironments
series eCAADe
email a.clayden@sheffield.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/szalapaj/szalapaj.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id a1cc
authors Bridges, Alan H.
year 1997
title Building Systems Integration and the Implications for CAD Education
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The author has been a member of two important U.K. reviews of construction computing (references [1] and [2]). The paper draws on these reports, other U.K. Government Reports and theoretical work on collaborative design undertaken at the University of Strathclyde to present an evaluation of Information Technology use in practice and its implications for education.
keywords Use of computers in British architectural practice, The implications of information technology on the structure and working methods of the UK building industry, Implications for CAD education
series eCAADe
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/bridges/bridges.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c1ad
authors Cheng, Nancy Yen-wen
year 1997
title Teaching CAD with Language Learning Methods
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 173-188
summary By looking at computer aided design as design communication we can use pedagogical methods from the well-developed discipline of language learning. Language learning breaks down a complex field into attainable steps, showing how learning strategies and attitudes can enhance mastery. Balancing the linguistic emphases of organizational analysis, communicative intent and contextual application can address different learning styles. Guiding students in learning approaches from language study will equip them to deal with constantly changing technology.

From overall curriculum planning to specific exercises, language study provides a model for building a learner-centered education. Educating students about the learning process, such as the variety of metacognitive, cognitive and social/affective strategies can improve learning. At an introductory level, providing a conceptual framework and enhancing resource-finding, brainstorming and coping abilities can lead to threshold competence. Using kit-of-parts problems helps students to focus on technique and content in successive steps, with mimetic and generative work appealing to different learning styles.

Practicing learning strategies on realistic projects hones the ability to connect concepts to actual situations, drawing on resource-usage, task management, and problem management skills. Including collaborative aspects in these projects provides the motivation of a real audience and while linking academic study to practical concerns. Examples from architectural education illustrate how the approach can be implemented.

series ACADIA
email nywc@darkwing.uoregon.edu
last changed 1998/12/31 12:41

_id 508b
authors Chiu, Mao-Lin
year 1997
title Representations and Communication channels in collaborative architectural design
source Mary L. M., John S. G., Fay S., editor, Formal Aspects of Collaborative CAD, IFIP97, Australia, Februrary, 1997, pp. 77-96
summary Collaborative design requires participation of individuals and coordination of design information and tasks. This paper focuses on the representations and communication channels in collaboration design. On the basis of a design communication model and findings of four collaborative design case studies, the phenomena of design communication are presented. The study also examines when the conditions of collaboration are achieved and what kinds of interfaces in computer-mediated collaborative work are needed, and propose a theme-oriented interface for computer-mediated collaborative design.
series other
email mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 71ad
authors Cicognani, Anna and Maher Mary Lou
year 1997
title Models of Collaboration for Designers in a Computer Supported Environment
source Formal Aspects of Collaborative CAD, IFIP, pp. 99-108
summary The development of models for Computer Mediated Collaborative Design (CMCD) provides guidelines for the continuing development of technology and tools for CMCD. In order to develop models for CMCD, a range of experiments and research objectives needs to be developed. The current literature around models for CMCD is still quite informal and descriptive. In this paper, we define the roles and types of models for CMCD. We propose a framework for understanding the contribution such models can make that considers two phenomomena in CMCD: communicating and designing. We present some descriptive models from design research, CSCW research, and CMCD research and show how these models address communicating and designing.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 454c
authors Jun, H. and Gero, J.S.
year 1997
title Representation, re-representation and emergence in collaborative computer-aided design
source Maher, M.L., Gero, J.S. and Sudweeks, F. (eds), Preprints Formal Aspects of Collaborative Computer-Aided Design, Key Centre of Design Computing, University of Sydney, Sydney, pp. 303-320
summary Representation of drawings in CAD systems can cause problems during design collaboration. The notion of re-representation is proposed as one way of addressing these problems. Furthermore, re-representation is one way of allowing emergence to occur; emergence is an important aspect of collaborative computer-mediated design. Based on the concept of re-representation a model for collaborative CAD supporting emergence is presented and an example is demonstrated.
keywords Representation, Emergence, Collaborative CAD
series journal paper
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id cc90
authors Kolarevic, Branko
year 1998
title CAD@HKU
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 16-17
summary Since 1993, we have experimented with Virtual Design Studios (VDS) as an on-going research project that investigates the combination of current computer-aided design (CAD), computer networks (Internet), and computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) techniques to bring together studentsat geographically distributed locations to work in a virtual atelier. In 1993 the theme of the first joint VDS project was in-fill housing for the traditional Chinese walled village of Kat Hing Wai in the New Territories north of Hong Kong, and our partners included MIT and Harvard in Boston (USA), UBC in Vancouver (Canada), and Washington University in St. Louis (USA). In 1994 we were joined by Cornell (USA) and Escola Tecnica Superior d’Arquitectura de Barcelona (Spain) to re-design Li Long housing in Shanghai, and 1995 added the Warsaw Institute of Technology (Poland) for the ACSA/Dupont competition to design a Center for Cultural and Religious Studies in Japan. The 1996 topic was an international competition to design a monument located in Hong Kong to commemorate the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty in 1997. Communication was via e-mail, the WorldWide Web with limited attempts at VRML, and network video. Several teaching and research experiments conducted through these projects have demonstrated the viability and potential of using electronic, telecommunications, and videoconferencing technologies in collaborative design processes. Results of these VDS have been presented at conferences worldwide, explained in journal papers and published in Virtual Design Studio, edited by J. Wojtowicz, published by HKU Press.
series ACADIA
email branko@pobox.upenn.edu
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id 0f97
authors Kvan, Th., West, R. and Vera, A.
year 1997
title Choosing Tools for a Virtual Community
source Creative Collaboration in Virtual Communities 1997, ed. A. Cicognani. VC'97. Sydney: Key Centre of Design Computing, Department of Architectural and Design Science, University of Sydney, 20 p.
summary This paper reports on the results of experiments carried out to identify the effects of computer-mediated communication between participants involved in a design problem. When setting up a virtual design community, choices must be made between a variety of tools, choices dictated by budget, bandwidth, ability, availability. How do you choose between the tools, which is useful and how will each affect the outcome of the design exchanges you plan? Cognitive modelling methodologies such as GOMS have been used by interface designers to capture the mechanisms of action and interaction involved in routine expert behavior. Using this technique, which breaks down an individual's behaviors into Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules, it is possible to evaluate the impact of different aspects of an interface in task-specific ways. In the present study, the GOMS methodology was used to characterize the interactive behavior of knowledgeable participants as they worked on a design task under different communication-support conditions.

Pairs of participants were set a design problem and asked to solve it in face-to-face settings. The same problem was then tackled by participants in settings using two different modes of computer-supported communication: email and an electronic whiteboard. Protocols were collected and analyzed in terms of the constraints of each tool relative to the task and to each other. The GOMS methodology was used as a way to represent the collaborative design process in a way that yields information on both the productivity and performance of participants in each of the three experimental conditions. It also yielded information on the component elements of the design process, the basic cognitive building-blocks of design, thereby suggesting fundamentally new tools that might be created for interaction in virtual environments.

A further goal of the study was to explore the nature of task differences in relation to alternative platforms for communication. It was hypothesized that design processes involving significant negotiation would be less aided by computer support than straight forward design problems. The latter involve cooperative knowledge application by both participants and are therefore facilitated by information-rich forms of computer support. The former, on the other hand, requires conflict resolution and is inhibited by non face-to-face interaction. The results of this study point to the fact that the success of collaboration in virtual space is not just dependent on the nature of the tools but also on the specific nature of the collaborative task.

keywords Cognitive Models, Task-analysis, GOMS
series other
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2003/05/15 18:50

_id 789d
authors Kvan, Th., West, R. and Vera, A.
year 1997
title Tools for a Virtual Design Community
source Preprints Formal Aspects of Collaborative CAD, ed. M. L. Maher, J. S. Gero & F. Sudweeks, Sydney: Key Centre of Design Computing, Department of Architectural and Design Science, University of Sydney, pp. 109-123
summary This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the effects of computer-mediated communication on collaboratively solving design problems. When setting up a virtual design community; choices must be made between a variety of tools; choices dictated by budget; bandwidth; ability and availability. How do you choose between the tools; which is useful and how will each affect the outcome of the design exchanges you plan? A commonly used method is to analyze the work done and to identify tools which support this type of work. In general; research on the effects of computer-mediation on collaborative work has concentrated mainly on social-psychological factors such as deindividuation and attitude polarization; and used qualitative methods. In contrast; we propose to examine the process of collaboration itself; focusing on separating those component processes which primarily involve individual work from those that involve genuine interaction. Extending the cognitive metaphor of the brain as a computer; we view collaboration in terms of a network process; and examine issues of control; coordination; and delegation to separate sub-processors. Through this methodology we attempt to separate the individual problem-solving component from the larger process of collaboration.
keywords CSCW; Group Work; Design; Expertise; Collaboration; Novice
series other
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id f071
authors Maher, M.L., Cicognani, A. and Simoff, S.J.
year 1997
title An Experimental Study of Computer Mediated Collaborative Design
source International Journal of Design Computing, Key Centre of Design Computing, University of Sydney, Sydney
summary The use of computer technology in design practice is moving towards a distributed resource available to a team of designers. The development of software to support designers has traditionally been based on the assumption that there will be a single person using the software at a time. Recent developments have enabled the feasibility of software for two or more simultaneous users, leading to the possibility of computer mediated collaborative design (CMCD), where the computer plays the role of mediator and design information handler. There is the potential for the computer to play a more active role in collaborative design through enhanced visibility of 3D models and assistance in generating alternative designs and design critiques. With this potential the computer not only mediates the collaborative design process but actively supports the designers. Research in integrated CAD, multimedia and design database systems, virtual design studios, and design protocol studies provide the basis for a formal study of CMCD. We have developed an experimental methodology to study the difference in design semantics documented using computer applications when designing alone as compared to designing collaboratively. This methodology can be applied to study other aspects of CMCD.
series journal paper
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 9afb
authors Maher, M.L., Simoff, S. and Cicognani, A.
year 1997
title Observations from an experimental study of computer-mediated collaborative design
source M.L. Maher, J.S. Gero, and F Sudweeks eds. Preprints Formal Aspects of Collaborative CAD, Key Centre of Design Computing, University of Sydney, Sydney, pp.165-185
summary The use of computer technology in design practice is moving towards a distributed resource available to a team of designers. The development of software to support designers has been based largely on the assumption that there will be a single person using the software at a time. Recent developments have enabled the feasibility of software for two or more simultaneous users, leading to the possibility of computer-mediated collaborative design. Research in integrated CAD, virtual design studios, and design protocol studies provide the basis for a formal study of computer-mediated design. We develop an experimental study of computer-mediated collaborative design with the aim of collecting data on the amount and content of design semantics documented using computer applications when designing alone as compared to designing collaboratively. The experiment includes the definition of an hypothesis, aim, methodology, data collection and coding schemes. The experiment and some preliminary observations are presented, followed by directions for further research.
series other
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cf2011_p016
id cf2011_p016
authors Merrick, Kathryn; Gu Ning
year 2011
title Supporting Collective Intelligence for Design in Virtual Worlds: A Case Study of the Lego Universe
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 637-652.
summary Virtual worlds are multi-faceted technologies. Facets of virtual worlds include graphical simulation tools, communication, design and modelling tools, artificial intelligence, network structure, persistent object-oriented infrastructure, economy, governance and user presence and interaction. Recent studies (Merrick et al., 2010) and applications (Rosenman et al., 2006; Maher et al., 2006) have shown that the combination of design, modelling and communication tools, and artificial intelligence in virtual worlds makes them suitable platforms for supporting collaborative design, including human-human collaboration and human-computer co-creativity. Virtual worlds are also coming to be recognised as a platform for collective intelligence (Levy, 1997), a form of group intelligence that emerges from collaboration and competition among large numbers of individuals. Because of the close relationship between design, communication and virtual world technologies, there appears a strong possibility of using virtual worlds to harness collective intelligence for supporting upcoming “design challenges on a much larger scale as we become an increasingly global and technological society” (Maher et al, 2010), beyond the current support for small-scale collaborative design teams. Collaborative design is relatively well studied and is characterised by small-scale, carefully structured design teams, usually comprising design professionals with a good understanding of the design task at hand. All team members are generally motivated and have the skills required to structure the shared solution space and to complete the design task. In contrast, collective design (Maher et al, 2010) is characterised by a very large number of participants ranging from professional designers to design novices, who may need to be motivated to participate, whose contributions may not be directly utilised for design purposes, and who may need to learn some or all of the skills required to complete the task. Thus the facets of virtual worlds required to support collective design differ from those required to support collaborative design. Specifically, in addition to design, communication and artificial intelligence tools, various interpretive, mapping and educational tools together with appropriate motivational and reward systems may be required to inform, teach and motivate virtual world users to contribute and direct their inputs to desired design purposes. Many of these world facets are well understood by computer game developers, as level systems, quests or plot and achievement/reward systems. This suggests the possibility of drawing on or adapting computer gaming technologies as a basis for harnessing collective intelligence in design. Existing virtual worlds that permit open-ended design – such as Second Life and There – are not specifically game worlds as they do not have extensive level, quest and reward systems in the same way as game worlds like World of Warcraft or Ultima Online. As such, while Second Life and There demonstrate emergent design, they do not have the game-specific facets that focus users towards solving specific problems required for harnessing collective intelligence. However, a new massively multiplayer virtual world is soon to be released that combines open-ended design tools with levels, quests and achievement systems. This world is called Lego Universe (www.legouniverse.com). This paper presents technology spaces for the facets of virtual worlds that can contribute to the support of collective intelligence in design, including design and modelling tools, communication tools, artificial intelligence, level system, motivation, governance and other related facets. We discuss how these facets support the design, communication, motivational and educational requirements of collective intelligence applications. The paper concludes with a case study of Lego Universe, with reference to the technology spaces defined above. We evaluate the potential of this or similar tools to move design beyond the individual and small-scale design teams to harness large-scale collective intelligence. We also consider the types of design tasks that might best be addressed in this manner.
keywords collective intelligence, collective design, virtual worlds, computer games
series CAAD Futures
email k.merrick@adfa.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 2064
authors Murakami, Y., Morozumi, M., Iino, K., Homma, R. and Iki, K.
year 1997
title On the Development and the Use of Group Work CAD for Windows-PCS
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 179-186
summary With the development of high-band width communication technology, designers’ interests seem to shift gradually from a single-user, single-domain system to a network based group-work design system. So long as one regards that the design activity develops only in a concurrent, but asynchronous fashions, it is possible to say that file transfers through computer networks have already opened up the possibility of a hands-on collaborative design process in which all participants do not have to gather in the same place. However few CAD systems support group design work that develops in a concurrent synchronous fashion. This paper discusses a basic model of group work CAD systems that the authors have developed for windows PCs linked with LAN. Reviewing procedure of system operation, the authors conclude that the system could stimulate and accelerate a process of group wok design.
series CAADRIA
email moro@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id 05fc
authors Park, Hoon
year 1997
title Cyber Design Studio: Using Manual Media Via Internet Connections for Collaborative Design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This article explores how Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems can be applicable and integrated into the early stage of design. CAD systems are still technologies that are not broadly accepted as useful to the designer especially in this stage of design because CAD systems use the monitor and mouse which differ from the sketch paper and pen of manual media. This article discusses how manual media and Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) technologies - video conferencing, in my examples - that employ multimedia and Internet can empower designers by providing them with new ways of working together. For accommodating this approach, a prototype CAD system has been developed in which the system consists of a conventional drawing and extra capabilities. This system allows the designer to work with computer based and paper based tools in the same conventional environment as well as remote communications between the designers. This environment is used as the setting for a case study of design tutorials in the design studio. The analysis of this work provides interesting insight into the traditional roles of design studio as well as the relationship between digital and manual media.
keywords Cyber Design Studio, Collaborative Design
series eCAADe
email hoon@caad.ed.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/parkh/parkhoon.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 83a5
authors Bock, Thomas
year 1997
title CAD-So What?
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 15-43
summary Computers were applied in construction towards the end of the 50s. In the meantime CA-X technologies rapidly evolved in areas such as integration of application software, 3D modelling and simulation, multimedia systems, artificial intelligence, CAD/CAM, robotics, and computer-based integration of design, construction and facility management. The structural changes under way in the construction industry ask for a transition from mere CAD, where "D" stands for design and drafting, towards CAC, where the second "C" represents construction , thus farther processing the previously generated CAD data .
series CAAD Futures
email Thomas.Bock@bri.arch.tu-muenchen.de
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4983
authors Cutting-Decelle, A.-F., Dubois, A.-M. and Fernandez, I.
year 1997
title Management and Integration of Product Information in Construction: Reality and Future Trends
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 5(2), pp. 19-46
summary For many years numerous efforts have been spent on the development of standardized approaches for modelling industrial information. During this period stand-alone software tools have been developed in most industries including the Building and Construction sector : Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools, technical software such as software development for energy analysis, project management systems, product databases etc. As this set of computer tools became more and more heterogeneous, the need for communication tools has emerged to enable data to be exchanged between them. Standardising data exchange then becomes a logical step in the improvement of the information management during the whole construction process. The aim of this paper is to put forward the state-of-the art in the domain of product model approaches and standards developments : ISO 10303 STEP, ISO 13584 P-LIB and ISO 15531 MANDATE. We will give a global overview of the existing applications in the construction sector, both in terms of product, or process models, most of them provided by either national or European projects.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 6b4a
authors Ekholm, Anders and Fridqvist Sverker
year 1997
title Concepts of Space in Computer Based Product Modelling and Design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The everyday understanding of space may be self-evident and unproblematic. However, as soon as we are asked for a formal definition, e.g. in the context of building classification or product modelling, the concept of space is subject of controversy and misunderstanding. To some, space is the emptiness in which things are embedded, i.e. something immaterial. To others, space has no separate existence but is a property of the material world. Still, according to both views, space can be experienced. In this paper we analyse some influential work within building classification and building product modelling and criticise these for applying a concept of space without factual reference. We explore the ontological foundations for the concept of space, and conclude that space is an aspect view on things; depending on the view, it may be seen both as a property of things and as a thing in itself. Finally we show how construction space can be represented as an object in a conceptual schema for computer based space information.
keywords Space, Building, Construction, Classification, Product Modelling, Aspect Model, Spatial Modelling, CAD
series eCAADe
email Sverker.Fridqvist@caad.lth.se
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/ekholm/ekholm.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id c906
authors Ekholm, Anders and Fridqvist, Sverker
year 1997
title Design and Modelling in a Computer Integrated Construction Process - The BAS-CAAD Project
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 501-518
summary A new approach to product modelling in a design context is proposed. CAD-software must not only enable product modelling, but must also support product design. This is not fully achieved in the traditional 'enumerative' approach to product modelling. We discuss how product design and modelling can be based on a facetted' approach to information modelling, and how a data model that supports the design process can be based on a framework for system information. The background for our research is the current development in the construction industry towards a computer integrated construction process. A first prerequisite for this is the use of computer based models. Another prerequisite is that CAD-software can support the design of the results of the construction process, including construction works, user organisations, and the production and facility management processes. A third prerequisite is that computer based models are built with standardised concepts and terminology to enable exchange of information between different actors and computer systems during different stages of the construction process. Principles for organising frameworks for user organisation and construction works information are presented in an appendix.
series CAAD Futures
email Anders.Ekholm@caadlth.se, Sverker.Fridqvist@caadlth.se
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id d60d
authors Flemming, U., Bhavnani, S.K. and John, B.E.
year 1997
title Mismatched Metaphor: User vs. System Model in Computer-Aided Drafting
source Design Studies 18 (1997), 349-368
summary We report findings from an extensive study of the users of a Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) system. Our observations suggest that the CAD system is used inefficiently, because users approach computer_aided drafting from a T-square metaphor reflecting their past experience with traditional drawing media. This prevents them from discovering and using effectively powerful system commands that have no equivalent in manual techniques. These findings suggest that we should rethink the ways in which CAD users are trained and manuals are written, and that we introduce CAD users to a more strategic use of CAD, particularly to a Detail/Aggregate/Manipulate (DAM) strategy that takes advantage of the compositional logic underlying a design.
keywords Architectural Design, Computer_aided Drafting; User Behaviour; Case Study; Modelling
series journal paper
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

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