CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 492

_id b4c4
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2000
title A framework for an Architectural Collaborative Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 57-60
summary The building industry involves a larger number of disciplines, operators and professionals than other industrial processes. Its peculiarity is that the products (building objects) have a number of parts (building elements) that does not differ much from the number of classes into which building objects can be conceptually subdivided. Another important characteristic is that the building industry produces unique products (de Vries and van Zutphen, 1992). This is not an isolated situation but indeed one that is spreading also in other industrial fields. For example, production niches have proved successful in the automotive and computer industries (Carrara, Fioravanti, & Novembri, 1989). Building design is a complex multi-disciplinary process, which demands a high degree of co-ordination and co-operation among separate teams, each having its own specific knowledge and its own set of specific design tools. Establishing an environment for design tool integration is a prerequisite for network-based distributed work. It was attempted to solve the problem of efficient, user-friendly, and fast information exchange among operators by treating it simply as an exchange of data. But the failure of IGES, CGM, PHIGS confirms that data have different meanings and importance in different contexts. The STandard for Exchange of Product data, ISO 10303 Part 106 BCCM, relating to AEC field (Wix, 1997), seems to be too complex to be applied to professional studios. Moreover its structure is too deep and the conceptual classifications based on it do not allow multi-inheritance (Ekholm, 1996). From now on we shall adopt the BCCM semantic that defines the actor as "a functional participant in building construction"; and we shall define designer as "every member of the class formed by designers" (architects, engineers, town-planners, construction managers, etc.).
keywords Architectural Design Process, Collaborative Design, Knowledge Engineering, Dynamic Object Oriented Programming
series eCAADe
email fioravanti@uniroma1.it
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id c1ad
authors Cheng, Nancy Yen-wen
year 1997
title Teaching CAD with Language Learning Methods
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 173-188
summary By looking at computer aided design as design communication we can use pedagogical methods from the well-developed discipline of language learning. Language learning breaks down a complex field into attainable steps, showing how learning strategies and attitudes can enhance mastery. Balancing the linguistic emphases of organizational analysis, communicative intent and contextual application can address different learning styles. Guiding students in learning approaches from language study will equip them to deal with constantly changing technology.

From overall curriculum planning to specific exercises, language study provides a model for building a learner-centered education. Educating students about the learning process, such as the variety of metacognitive, cognitive and social/affective strategies can improve learning. At an introductory level, providing a conceptual framework and enhancing resource-finding, brainstorming and coping abilities can lead to threshold competence. Using kit-of-parts problems helps students to focus on technique and content in successive steps, with mimetic and generative work appealing to different learning styles.

Practicing learning strategies on realistic projects hones the ability to connect concepts to actual situations, drawing on resource-usage, task management, and problem management skills. Including collaborative aspects in these projects provides the motivation of a real audience and while linking academic study to practical concerns. Examples from architectural education illustrate how the approach can be implemented.

series ACADIA
email nywc@darkwing.uoregon.edu
last changed 1998/12/31 12:41

_id 2354
authors Clayden, A. and Szalapaj, P.
year 1997
title Architecture in Landscape: Integrated CAD Environments for Contextually Situated Design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper explores the future role of a more holistic and integrated approach to the design of architecture in landscape. Many of the design exploration and presentation techniques presently used by particular design professions do not lend themselves to an inherently collaborative design strategy.

Within contemporary digital environments, there are increasing opportunities to explore and evaluate design proposals which integrate both architectural and landscape aspects. The production of integrated design solutions exploring buildings and their surrounding context is now possible through the design development of shared 3-D and 4-D virtual environments, in which buildings no longer float in space.

The scope of landscape design has expanded through the application of techniques such as GIS allowing interpretations that include social, economic and environmental dimensions. In architecture, for example, object-oriented CAD environments now make it feasible to integrate conventional modelling techniques with analytical evaluations such as energy calculations and lighting simulations. These were all ambitions of architects and landscape designers in the 70s when computer power restricted the successful implementation of these ideas. Instead, the commercial trend at that time moved towards isolated specialist design tools in particular areas. Prior to recent innovations in computing, the closely related disciplines of architecture and landscape have been separated through the unnecessary development, in our view, of their own symbolic representations, and the subsequent computer applications. This has led to an unnatural separation between what were once closely related disciplines.

Significant increases in the performance of computers are now making it possible to move on from symbolic representations towards more contextual and meaningful representations. For example, the application of realistic materials textures to CAD-generated building models can then be linked to energy calculations using the chosen materials. It is now possible for a tree to look like a tree, to have leaves and even to be botanicaly identifiable. The building and landscape can be rendered from a common database of digital samples taken from the real world. The complete model may be viewed in a more meaningful way either through stills or animation, or better still, through a total simulation of the lifecycle of the design proposal. The model may also be used to explore environmental/energy considerations and changes in the balance between the building and its context most immediately through the growth simulation of vegetation but also as part of a larger planning model.

The Internet has a key role to play in facilitating this emerging collaborative design process. Design professionals are now able via the net to work on a shared model and to explore and test designs through the development of VRML, JAVA, whiteboarding and video conferencing. The end product may potentially be something that can be more easily viewed by the client/user. The ideas presented in this paper form the basis for the development of a dual course in landscape and architecture. This will create new teaching opportunities for exploring the design of buildings and sites through the shared development of a common computer model.

keywords Integrated Design Process, Landscape and Architecture, Shared Environmentsenvironments
series eCAADe
email a.clayden@sheffield.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/szalapaj/szalapaj.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 4062
authors Flanagan Robert and Shannon, Kelly
year 1998
title Digital Studio Confronts Tradition
source Computers in Design Studio Teaching [EAAE/eCAADe International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 09523687-7-3] Leuven (Belgium) 13-14 November 1998, pp. 65-71
summary This is a record of a collaborative teaching effort of two architect/educators, each contributing theoretical components to the educational process necessary for the development of an urban housing strategy vis à vis an integrated digital/judgment effort. Twenty graduate architecture students were involved in this ‘computer design studio’. The focus of the studio was the 1997 Otis Elevator Housing Design Competition. A prerequisite introductory computer class was required for participation in this studio. Two distinct analysis and design methodologies were introduced; one concentrating on the formal tectonic aspects of architecture and the other highlighting the multiplicity, and often competing, forces shaping the built reality. The summary offered at the conclusion of this document both supports and questions the direction of the class as a whole and further classifies the relative success and failures of the individual student initiatives. In some cases, the computer simply facilitated (and occasionally hindered) progress. In the most opportunistic examples, the computer undoubtedly changed both the process and the consequence of the design effort.  
series eCAADe
email rflanaga@carbon.cudenver.edu, kelly.shannon@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
more http://www.eaae.be/
last changed 2000/11/21 08:13

_id aecc
authors Kosco, Igor
year 1997
title CAAD and Network Technologies - Reflexions From Education and Practice.
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary New technologies like Computer Aided Design and network facilities are affecting the building procurement, design and construction processes very rapidly. Network technologies are giving us a variety of possibilities : quick and simple access to information, quick and easy communication, exchange of datas in different formats ( texts, data, drawings, images, animations, hypertext or multimedia products, etc.) or access to differently located computer and work on it. As the result the communication or collaboration in a design and construction process and management could be used not only at the Level 1. (in one office), Level 2. (between different offices) or Level 3. (different participants and users) but, what is more important, between geographically dispersed members of design and construction teams (dispersed offices or communities in different places, towns, regions, countries or even continents). There are a lot of advantages : quick and easy communication and exchange of information, free choice of a team, easy revisions of a documentation, collaborative work on the same drawings, costs savings in travelling, issuing, copying and shipping of a documentation and finally possible use of the cheaper labour or more skilled professionals in a different region or country.
keywords Remote Communication, Collaboration, Internet, Network,Videoconference, Architectural Design, Project Management
series eCAADe
email kosco@dcaad.fa.stuba.sk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/kosco/kosco.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 29cf
authors Martens, B., Linzer. H. and Voigt, A. (Ed.)
year 1997
title Challenges of the Future
source 15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0 / Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997, CD-Rom
summary As most of us have observed in the past few years, we have begun to emerge as intermediaries between education, practice and the new technologies. We have begun to provide new computational research orientations to the generation of knowledge about design and design&planning process. Over and above acting as a medium of access to tools, we have begun to function in new roles in our schools as strengthening the presence of theories and the intellectual content of design and planning education.

The emergence of new media and techniques are further influencing our function as interpreters of the conceptual implications of change and development. This is the challenge of ECAADE Vienna 97. We believe that it will be an exhilarating experience.

keywords Collaborative Teamwork, Digital Design Process, Spatial Modeling
series eCAADe
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/
last changed 2001/08/17 13:13

_id cf2011_p093
id cf2011_p093
authors Nguyen, Thi Lan Truc; Tan Beng Kiang
year 2011
title Understanding Shared Space for Informal Interaction among Geographically Distributed Teams
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 41-54.
summary In a design project, much creative work is done in teams, thus requires spaces for collaborative works such as conference rooms, project rooms and chill-out areas. These spaces are designed to provide an atmosphere conducive to discussion and communication ranging from formal meetings to informal communication. According to Kraut et al (E.Kraut et al., 1990), informal communication is an important factor for the success of collaboration and is defined as “conversations take place at the time, with the participants, and about the topics at hand. It often occurs spontaneously by chance and in face-to-face manner. As shown in many research, much of good and creative ideas originate from impromptu meeting rather than in a formal meeting (Grajewski, 1993, A.Isaacs et al., 1997). Therefore, the places for informal communication are taken into account in workplace design and scattered throughout the building in order to stimulate face-to-face interaction, especially serendipitous communication among different groups across disciplines such as engineering, technology, design and so forth. Nowadays, team members of a project are not confined to people working in one location but are spread widely with geographically distributed collaborations. Being separated by long physical distance, informal interaction by chance is impossible since people are not co-located. In order to maintain the benefit of informal interaction in collaborative works, research endeavor has developed a variety ways to shorten the physical distance and bring people together in one shared space. Technologies to support informal interaction at a distance include video-based technologies, virtual reality technologies, location-based technologies and ubiquitous technologies. These technologies facilitate people to stay aware of other’s availability in distributed environment and to socialize and interact in a multi-users virtual environment. Each type of applications supports informal interaction through the employed technology characteristics. One of the conditions for promoting frequent and impromptu face-to-face communication is being co-located in one space in which the spatial settings play as catalyst to increase the likelihood for frequent encounter. Therefore, this paper analyses the degree to which sense of shared space is supported by these technical approaches. This analysis helps to identify the trade-off features of each shared space technology and its current problems. A taxonomy of shared space is introduced based on three types of shared space technologies for supporting informal interaction. These types are named as shared physical environments, collaborative virtual environments and mixed reality environments and are ordered increasingly towards the reality of sense of shared space. Based on the problem learnt from other technical approaches and the nature of informal interaction, this paper proposes physical-virtual shared space for supporting intended and opportunistic informal interaction. The shared space will be created by augmenting a 3D collaborative virtual environment (CVE) with real world scene at the virtual world side; and blending the CVE scene to the physical settings at the real world side. Given this, the two spaces are merged into one global structure. With augmented view of the real world, geographically distributed co-workers who populate the 3D CVE are facilitated to encounter and interact with their real world counterparts in a meaningful and natural manner.
keywords shared space, collaborative virtual environment, informal interaction, intended interaction, opportunistic interaction
series CAAD Futures
email g0800518@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 4ce8
authors Rinner, Claus
year 1997
title Discussing Plans via the World-Wide Web
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary Collaborative teamwork often goes beyond same place - same time situations: new information technologies allow for distributed asynchronous cooperation. In urban planning procedures, the elaboration of a land-use or building plan may be considered as the common goal of all actors. But in general, the participants do have conflicting subgoals. Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW), therefore, must include tools that allow for discussions in distributed workgroups. GMD's Zeno system aims at structuring such argumentation processes and at mediating between opposite interests.
keywords Collaborative Teamwork
series eCAADe
email Claus.Rinner@gmd.de
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/rinner/rinner.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id a93b
authors Anders, Peter
year 1997
title Cybrids: Integrating Cognitive and Physical Space in Architecture
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 17-34
summary People regularly use non-physical, cognitive spaces to navigate and think. These spaces are important to architects in the design and planning of physical buildings. Cognitive spaces inform design - often underlying principles of architectural composition. They include zones of privacy, territory and the space of memory and visual thought. They let us to map our environment, model or plan projects, even imagine places like Heaven or Hell.

Cyberspace is an electronic extension of this cognitive space. Designers of virtual environments already know the power these spaces have on the imagination. Computers are no longer just tools for projecting buildings. They change the very substance of design. Cyberspace is itself a subject for design. With computers architects can design space both for physical and non-physical media. A conscious integration of cognitive and physical space in architecture can affect construction and maintenance costs, and the impact on natural and urban environments.

This paper is about the convergence of physical and electronic space and its potential effects on architecture. The first part of the paper will define cognitive space and its relationship to cyberspace. The second part will relate cyberspace to the production of architecture. Finally, a recent project done at the University of Michigan Graduate School of Architecture will illustrate the integration of physical and cyberspaces.

series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 6c45
authors Drewe, Paul
year 2000
title In Search of New Concepts of Physical and Virtual Space
source CORP 2000, Vienna, pp. 37-44
summary Physical space is the material object of spatial planning and urbanism. It comprises, traditionally, zonesadapted to activities and channels of communication providing links between zones, catering to transport. Orvarious types of buildings, if one includes architecture. Virtual space opened by ICT, still is less familiar. Itis, after all, "no more than abstract flows of electronic signals, coded as information, representation andexchange" (Graham). This partly explains the frequent use of metaphors to describe it, among them spatialmetaphors (Graham, 1997). In dealing with the interactions between physical and virtual space, spatialmetaphors tend to obscure the issues and therefore better be avoided.Physical and virtual space must be defined as distinct entities. After all, only utopians believe in urbandissolution with all information supposed to become available at all times and places to all people. What arethe most important interactions between physical and virtual space?
series other
email P.Drewe@bk.tudelft.nl
more www.corp.at
last changed 2002/12/19 11:15

_id 2483
authors Gero, J.S. and Kazakov, V.
year 1997
title Learning and reusing information in space layout problems using genetic engineering
source Artificial Intelligence in Engineering 11(3):329-334
summary The paper describes the application of a genetic engineering based extension to genetic algorithms to the layout planning problem. We study the gene evolution which takes place when an algorithm of this type is running and demonstrate that in many cases it effectively leads to the partial decomposition of the layout problem by grouping some activit ies together and optimally placing these groups during the first stage of the computation. At a second stage it optimally places activities within these groups. We show that the algorithm finnds the solution faster than standard evolutionary methods and that evolved genes represent design features that can be re-used later in a range of similar problems.
keywords Genetic Engineering, Learning
series other
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2001/09/08 10:04

_id acadia06_150
id acadia06_150
authors Boza, Luis Eduardo
year 2006
title (Un) Intended Discoveries Crafting the Design Process
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 150-157
summary Computer Numeric Controlled (CNC) fabrication machineries are changing the way we design and build. These technologies have increased productivity through greater efficiencies and have helped to create new forms of practice, including increased specializations and broader collaborative approaches. (Kieran Timberlake 2003: 31). However, some argue that these technologies can have a de-humanizing effect, stripping the human touch away from the production of objects and redistributing the associated skills to machines. (Dormer 1997: 103). The (Digital) Craft studio explored the notions of technology and craft to understand how and when designers should exploit the tools employed (both the hand and the machine) during the design and production processes.
series ACADIA
email boza@cua.edu
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id a1cc
authors Bridges, Alan H.
year 1997
title Building Systems Integration and the Implications for CAD Education
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The author has been a member of two important U.K. reviews of construction computing (references [1] and [2]). The paper draws on these reports, other U.K. Government Reports and theoretical work on collaborative design undertaken at the University of Strathclyde to present an evaluation of Information Technology use in practice and its implications for education.
keywords Use of computers in British architectural practice, The implications of information technology on the structure and working methods of the UK building industry, Implications for CAD education
series eCAADe
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/bridges/bridges.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 63ea
authors Brown, A.G.P., Berridge, P. and Mackie, D.
year 1997
title Gaming as a Vehicle for Collaborative Designcollaborative design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper outlines one approach to addressing the problem of participation in a properly understood process and goes on to show how the principles used are being reinforced by an interactive computer based application.
keywords Collaborative Design
series eCAADe
email andygpb@liv.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/berridge/berridge.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 848a
authors Caneparo, Luca
year 1997
title Shared Virtual Reality for Architectural Design
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 431-442
summary The paper presents the implementation of a system of Shared Virtual Reality (SVR) in Internet applied to a large- scale project. The applications of SVR to architectural and urban design are presented in the context of a real project, the new railway junction of Porta Susa and the surrounding urban area in the city centre of Turin, Italy. SVR differs from Virtual Reality in that the experience of virtual spaces is no longer individual, but rather shared across the net with other users simultaneously connected. SVR offers an effective approach to Computer Supported Collaborative Work, because it integrates both the communicative tools to improve collaboration and the distributed environment to elaborate information across the networks.
series CAAD Futures
email luca.caneparo@polito.it
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id aa2f
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 1997
title An Intelligent Assistant for the Architectural Design Studio
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary It seems by now fairly accepted by many researchers in the field of the Computer Aided Design that the way to realise support tools for the architectural design is by means of the realisation of Intelligent Assistants. This kind of computer program, based on the Knowledge Engineering and machine learning, finds his power and effectiveness by the Knowledge Base on which it is based. Moreover, it appears evident that the modalities of dialogue among architects and operators in the field of building industry, are inadequate to support the exchange of information that the use of these tools requires.

In fact, many efforts at international level are in progress to define tools in order to make easier the multiple exchange of information in different fields of building design. Concerning this point, protocol and ontology of structured information interchanges constitute the first steps in this sense, e.g. those under standardisation by ISO (STEP), PDT models and Esprit project ToCEE. To model these problems it has brought forth a new research field: the collaborative design one, an evolution of distributed work and concurrent design.

The CAAD Laboratory of Dipartimento di Architettura and Urbanistica per l'Ingegneria has carried out a software prototype, KAAD, based on Knowledge Engineering in the fields of hospital building and of building for aged people. This software is composed by an Interface, a Knowledge Base, a Database and Constraints. The Knowledge Base has been codified by using the formal structure of frames, and has been implemented by the Lisp language. All the elements of KB are objects

keywords Design Studio
series eCAADe
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/carrara/carrara.htm
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 80f7
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2001
title Knowledge-based System to Support Architectural Design - Intelligent objects, project net-constraints, collaborative work
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 80-85
summary The architectural design business is marked by a progressive increase in operators all cooperating towards the realization of building structures and complex infrastructures (Jenckes, 1997). This type of design implies the simultaneous activity of specialists in different fields, often working a considerable distance apart, on increasingly distributed design studies. Collaborative Architectural Design comprises a vast field of studies that embraces also these sectors and problems. To mention but a few: communication among operators in the building and design sector; design process system logic architecture; conceptual structure of the building organism; building component representation; conflict identification and management; sharing of knowledge; and also, user interface; global evaluation of solutions adopted; IT definition of objects; inter-object communication (in the IT sense). The point of view of the research is that of the designers of the architectural artefact (Simon, 1996); its focus consists of the relations among the various design operators and among the latter and the information exchanged: the Building Objects. Its primary research goal is thus the conceptual structure of the building organism for the purpose of managing conflicts and developing possible methods of resolving them.
keywords Keywords. Collaborative Design, Architectural And Building Knowledge, Distributed Knowledge Bases, Information Management, Multidisciplinarity
series eCAADe
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id 6496
authors Chen, Y.Z. and Maver, T.W.
year 1997
title Integrating Design Tools within a Human Collaborative Working
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 5(2), pp. 47-73
summary This paper stresses the importance of establishing a collaborative working context as the basis for design integration. Within a virtual studio environment framework, a hybrid architecture for design tool integration is presented. Each design tool is wrapped as an autonomous service provider with its own data store; thus the project design data is physically distributed with the design tools. A global product model, which is augmented with meta-data description, is employed to provide a common vocabulary for communications and to assist the management of the distributed resources and activities. Collaboration-aware information is modelled and structured through the meta-data model and a tool model. Based on this, mechanisms for tool service coodination in varying modes are developed. It is then illustrated, through an implemented prototype system, how the integrated design tools might be used in human design work.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

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