CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id d60a
authors Casti, J.C.
year 1997
title Would be Worlds: How simulation is changing the frontiers of science
source John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
summary Five Golden Rules is caviar for the inquiring reader. Anyone who enjoyed solving math problems in high school will be able to follow the author's explanations, even if high school was a long time ago. There is joy here in watching the unfolding of these intricate and beautiful techniques. Casti's gift is to be able to let the nonmathematical reader share in his understanding of the beauty of a good theory.-Christian Science Monitor "[Five Golden Rules] ranges into exotic fields such as game theory (which played a role in the Cuban Missile Crisis) and topology (which explains how to turn a doughnut into a coffee cup, or vice versa). If you'd like to have fun while giving your brain a first-class workout, then check this book out."-San Francisco Examiner "Unlike many popularizations, [this book] is more than a tour d'horizon: it has the power to change the way you think. Merely knowing about the existence of some of these golden rules may spark new, interesting-maybe even revolutionary-ideas in your mind. And what more could you ask from a book?"-New Scientist "This book has meat! It is solid fare, food for thought . . . makes math less forbidding, and much more interesting."-Ben Bova, The Hartford Courant "This book turns math into beauty."-Colorado Daily "John Casti is one of the great science writers of the 1990s."-San Francisco Examiner In the ever-changing world of science, new instruments often lead to momentous discoveries that dramatically transform our understanding. Today, with the aid of a bold new instrument, scientists are embarking on a scientific revolution as profound as that inspired by Galileo's telescope. Out of the bits and bytes of computer memory, researchers are fashioning silicon surrogates of the real world-elaborate "artificial worlds"-that allow them to perform experiments that are too impractical, too costly, or, in some cases, too dangerous to do "in the flesh." From simulated tests of new drugs to models of the birth of planetary systems and galaxies to computerized petri dishes growing digital life forms, these laboratories of the future are the essential tools of a controversial new scientific method. This new method is founded not on direct observation and experiment but on the mapping of the universe from real space into cyberspace. There is a whole new science happening here-the science of simulation. The most exciting territory being mapped by artificial worlds is the exotic new frontier of "complex, adaptive systems." These systems involve living "agents" that continuously change their behavior in ways that make prediction and measurement by the old rules of science impossible-from environmental ecosystems to the system of a marketplace economy. Their exploration represents the horizon for discovery in the twenty-first century, and simulated worlds are charting the course. In Would-Be Worlds, acclaimed author John Casti takes readers on a fascinating excursion through a number of remarkable silicon microworlds and shows us how they are being used to formulate important new theories and to solve a host of practical problems. We visit Tierra, a "computerized terrarium" in which artificial life forms known as biomorphs grow and mutate, revealing new insights into natural selection and evolution. We play a game of Balance of Power, a simulation of the complex forces shaping geopolitics. And we take a drive through TRANSIMS, a model of the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico, to discover the root causes of events like traffic jams and accidents. Along the way, Casti probes the answers to a host of profound questions these "would-be worlds" raise about the new science of simulation. If we can create worlds inside our computers at will, how real can we say they are? Will they unlock the most intractable secrets of our universe? Or will they reveal instead only the laws of an alternate reality? How "real" do these models need to be? And how real can they be? The answers to these questions are likely to change the face of scientific research forever.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4062
authors Flanagan Robert and Shannon, Kelly
year 1998
title Digital Studio Confronts Tradition
source Computers in Design Studio Teaching [EAAE/eCAADe International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 09523687-7-3] Leuven (Belgium) 13-14 November 1998, pp. 65-71
summary This is a record of a collaborative teaching effort of two architect/educators, each contributing theoretical components to the educational process necessary for the development of an urban housing strategy vis à vis an integrated digital/judgment effort. Twenty graduate architecture students were involved in this ‘computer design studio’. The focus of the studio was the 1997 Otis Elevator Housing Design Competition. A prerequisite introductory computer class was required for participation in this studio. Two distinct analysis and design methodologies were introduced; one concentrating on the formal tectonic aspects of architecture and the other highlighting the multiplicity, and often competing, forces shaping the built reality. The summary offered at the conclusion of this document both supports and questions the direction of the class as a whole and further classifies the relative success and failures of the individual student initiatives. In some cases, the computer simply facilitated (and occasionally hindered) progress. In the most opportunistic examples, the computer undoubtedly changed both the process and the consequence of the design effort.  
series eCAADe
last changed 2000/11/21 08:13

_id 6a37
authors Fowler, Thomas and Muller, Brook
year 2002
title Physical and Digital Media Strategies For Exploring ‘Imagined’ Realities of Space, Skin and Light
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 13-23
summary This paper will discuss an unconventional methodology for using physical and digital media strategies ina tightly structured framework for the integration of Environmental Control Systems (ECS) principles intoa third year design studio. An interchangeable use of digital media and physical material enabledarchitectural explorations of rich tactile and luminous engagement.The principles that provide the foundation for integrative strategies between a design studio and buildingtechnology course spring from the Bauhaus tradition where a systematic approach to craftsmanship andvisual perception is emphasized. Focusing particularly on color, light, texture and materials, Josef Albersexplored the assemblage of found objects, transforming these materials into unexpected dynamiccompositions. Moholy-Nagy developed a technique called the photogram or camera-less photograph torecord the temporal movements of light. Wassily Kandinsky developed a method of analytical drawingthat breaks a still life composition into diagrammatic forces to express tension and geometry. Theseschematic diagrams provide a method for students to examine and analyze the implications of elementplacements in space (Bermudez, Neiman 1997). Gyorgy Kepes's Language of Vision provides a primerfor learning basic design principles. Kepes argued that the perception of a visual image needs aprocess of organization. According to Kepes, the experience of an image is "a creative act ofintegration". All of these principles provide the framework for the studio investigation.The quarter started with a series of intense short workshops that used an interchangeable use of digitaland physical media to focus on ECS topics such as day lighting, electric lighting, and skin vocabulary tolead students to consider these components as part of their form-making inspiration.In integrating ECS components with the design studio, an nine-step methodology was established toprovide students with a compelling and tangible framework for design:Examples of student work will be presented for the two times this course was offered (2001/02) to showhow exercises were linked to allow for a clear design progression.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 412e
authors Gross, M.D., Do, E. and McCall, R.J.
year 1997
title Collaboration and Coordination in Architectural Design: approaches to computer mediated team work
source TeamCAD 97, 17-23
summary In 1993 and 1994, instructors and students of architecture at several universities around the world* collaborated briefly on two "virtual design studio" projects. Using off-the-shelf technology of the time-email, CU-See-Me internet video, international conference calls, and exchange of CAD drawings, images, and Quicktime animations-this ambitious project explored the possibility of bringing together diverse members of an international design team together to collaborate on a short term (two week) project. Central to the "Virtual Design Studio" was a 'digital pinup board', an area where participating designers could post and view drawings and textual comments; video links and email exchange provided the media for direct communication media about designs. A report on the project [21] makes clear that the process was not without technical difficulties: a significant amount of communication concerned scheduling and coordinating file formats; disappointingly little was devoted to discussions of design issues. Although it's clear that many of the minor technical problems that inevitably plague a forward-looking effort like the Virtual Design Studio will be solved in the near term, the project also reveals the need for research on software and design practices to make computer mediated design collaboration realize its attractive promise.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 848a
authors Caneparo, Luca
year 1997
title Shared Virtual Reality for Architectural Design
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 431-442
summary The paper presents the implementation of a system of Shared Virtual Reality (SVR) in Internet applied to a large- scale project. The applications of SVR to architectural and urban design are presented in the context of a real project, the new railway junction of Porta Susa and the surrounding urban area in the city centre of Turin, Italy. SVR differs from Virtual Reality in that the experience of virtual spaces is no longer individual, but rather shared across the net with other users simultaneously connected. SVR offers an effective approach to Computer Supported Collaborative Work, because it integrates both the communicative tools to improve collaboration and the distributed environment to elaborate information across the networks.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ddss9837
id ddss9837
authors Liu, Yu-Tung and Bai, Rui-Yuan
year 1998
title The roles of virtual reality, image processing, and multimedia in thedesign of public spaces: 1997 Hsinchu Project
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary This paper examines the procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment proposed by Rahman and reviews the use of CAD applications in urban projects in the real world. A preliminary computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is proposed. An experiments wasconducted in our laboratory to verify the preliminary procedure. In order to further study the revised procedure in real urban projects, it was also applied into the renew project of The Eastern Gate Plaza located in the center of city Hsinchu, Taiwan from 1996 to 1998. According to several face-to-face discussions with Hsinchu habitants, government officials, and professional designers, a final computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is concluded.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 8b35
authors Maher, M.L., Simoff, S.J. and Mitchell, J.
year 1997
title Formalising building requirements using an Activity/Space Model
source Automation in Construction 6 (2) (1997) pp. 77-95
summary The specification of the spatial requirements for a building is the basis for the architectural design of the building. The specification usually takes the form of an extensive text-based document, a briefing database for large projects, or informal discussion between the architect and the client for a small project. The specification of a building is still a hand-crafted presentation of information that is neither carried forward to the next stage of the life cycle of the building, nor formalised so that it can be effectively used for another project. This paper presents a model, specifically developed to capture the idiosyncrasies of specifying buildings, that has the potential to provide the basis for specifying buildings more generally and could provide the basis for facilitating the generation of new designs or the reuse of existing designs. The model makes explicit the representation of activities, spaces and their relationships. The continued development of the Activity/Space (A/S) Model not only provides a formal representation of requirements, but could provide a standard for product modelling of buildings.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id c79d
authors Pinet, Celine
year 1997
title Design Evaluation Based on Virtual Representation of Spaces
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 111-120
summary When spaces are evaluated, clients and architects often discuss design proposals by looking down at scale models. This overhead perspective forces viewers to imagine themselves looking and moving about within the model. Misperceptions may well result from such a point of view. With the advancement in virtual reality (VR) technology, and with its rising popularity in architecture, it is becoming plausible to consider using VR to evaluate design projects.

The projects presented here are of three types: (1.) The first project compares people's evaluation of several slightly modified virtual models of a space. (2.) The second project compares how people evaluate a foam core model of a space to how they evaluate a virtual representation of the same space (3.) The third project compares people's evaluation of a real space to that of a virtual representation of this space. //

The wide range of results presented provides one argument in support of using VR simulations to study spaces and how they are perceived. For example, results shows that a virtual window serves to alleviate perceived crowding and that added furniture serves to make a virtual room feel slightly larger and less constraining. However, problems did emerge with using virtual reality simulations to gain information about peoples' behavioral reactions to a space. Thus, not all circumstances under which VR representations are used creates valid results. Differences appear to be in the type of evaluations measured (e.g. dimensional versus behavioral). More research is needed to clarify this issue.

series ACADIA
last changed 1998/12/31 12:34

_id ce11
authors Bradford, J., Wong, W.S. and Tang, H.F.
year 1997
title Bridging Virtual Reality to Internet for Architecture
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper presents a virtual reality interface tool which allows a user to perform the following action :

1.Import design from other CAD tools.

2.Assemble an architecture structure from a library of pre-built blocks and geometry primitives dynamically created by user.

3.Export the design interactively in VRML format back to the library for Internet browsing.

The geometry primitives include polygon, sphere, cone, cylinder and cube. The pre-built blocks consist of fundamental architecture models which have been categorized with architectural related style, physical properties and environmental attributes. Upon a user’s request, the tool or the composer, has the ability to communicate with the library which indeed is a back-end distributed client-server database engine. The user may specify any combination of properties and attributes in the composer which will instantly bring up all matching 3-dimensional objects through the database engine. The database is designed in relational model and comes from the work of another research group.

keywords Virtual Reality, Architecture Models, Relational Database, Client-Server
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 389b
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 2000
title Sketch that Scene for Me: Creating Virtual Worlds by Freehand Drawing
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 265-268
summary With the Web people can now view virtual threedimensional worlds and explore virtual space. Increasingly, novice users are interested in creating 3D Web sites. Virtual Reality Modeling Language gained ISO status in 1997, although it is being supplanted by the compatible Java3D API and alternative 3D Web technologies compete. Viewing VRML scenes is relatively straightforward on most hardware platforms and browsers, but currently there are only two ways to create 3D virtual scenes: One is to code the scene directly using VRML. The other is to use existing CAD and modeling software, and save the world in VRML format or convert to VRML from some other format. Both methods are time consuming, cumbersome, and have steep learning curves. Pen-based user interfaces, on the other hand, are for many an easy and intuitive method for graphics input. Not only are people familiar with the look and feel of paper and pencil, novice users also find it less intimidating to draw what they want, where they want it instead of using a complicated tool palette and pull-down menus. Architects and designers use sketches as a primary tool to generate design ideas and to explore alternatives, and numerous computer-based interfaces have played on the concept of "sketch". However, we restrict the notion of sketch to freehand drawing, which we believe helps people to think, to envision, and to recognize properties of the objects with which they are working. SKETCH employs a pen interface to create three-dimensional models, but it uses a simple language of gestures to control a three-dimensional modeler; it does not attempt to interpret freehand drawings. In contrast, our support of 3D world creation using freehand drawing depend on users’ traditional understanding of a floor plan representation. Igarashi et al. used a pen interface to drive browsing in a 3D world, by projecting the user’s marks on the ground plane in the virtual world. Our Sketch-3D project extends this approach, investigating an interface that allows direct interpretation of the drawing marks (what you draw is what you get) and serves as a rapid prototyping tool for creating 3D virtual scenes.
keywords Freehand Sketching, Pen-Based User Interface, Interaction, VRML, Navigation
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 641c
authors Howe, A. Scott
year 1997
title A Network-based Kit-of-parts Virtual Building System
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 691-706
summary This paper describes an experimental browser / modeler which will allow the user to collect and assemble virtual kit-of-parts components from "component libraries" located on the Internet (such as manufacturer's databases) and assemble them into a virtual representation of a building. The fully assembled virtual building will provide a basis for ordering and manufacturing actual components and preparing for construction. The browser will allow the designer to affect a limited degree of remote fabrication at real manufacturing facilities, and facilitate eventual interface with built in sensors and actuators. The browser will manipulate and display interactive three dimensional objects using Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). Upon assembly, actual components will have sensors built into them for providing data about the real building, which could be viewed during a walkthrough of the virtual building by clicking on parts of the model. The virtual building will work as a remote facility management tool for monitoring or controlling various architectural devices attached to the real building (such as electrically driven louvers, HVAC systems, appliances, etc.).
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id 6e4f
authors Lewin, J.S., Ehrhardt, M. and Gross, M.D.
year 1997
title Not Just Another Pretty Face: Images and Arguments in an Anthropology Web Site
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 635-654
summary We are developing a web site with photorealistic animations and virtual reality walk throughs of architecture and artifacts at an archaeological site in El Salvador. The goal of the site is to support research and teaching about household anthropology in sixthcentury Meso-America. To counter the false sense of realism and truth these experiences often convey we have developed Image Arguments, a scheme for integrating with images the arguments and data that they are based on. We provide this contextual information using a server side database and client side Java applets, enabling viewers to examine the assumptions and the data behind the images.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id 9748
authors Trikac, S.N., Banerjeea, P. and Kashyapb, R.L.
year 1997
title Virtual reality interfaces for feature-based computer-aided design systems
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29 (8) (1997) pp. 565-574
summary A computer-aided design (CAD) system with a virtual reality (VR) interface simplifies the design of complex mechanical parts. To add a design feature (e.g., a hole,slot, or protrusion), the designer can navigate in the part to the appropriate face of the part where he/she wishes to attach the feature, and sketch directly on that face.Besides convenience, this method of feature specification implicitly enforces feature accessibility constraints, and also provides hints to the process-planner regardingthe order in which the features may be manufactured. We detail the design of a VR-based prototype CAD system. The system maintains the knowledge of part cavitiesand their adjacencies, and a triangulated boundary-representation of an approximating polyhedron. We present incremental provably correct algorithms for updatingthis representation as the user edits the part. We also show how this representation supports real-time displays, navigation, and collision detection. The user-interfaceof the CAD system relies on these capabilities to provide the above-mentioned advantages.
keywords User Interfaces, Virtual Reality, Feature-Based Design, Geometric Reasoning, Feature Extraction
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 3e1c
authors Mortenson, M.E.
year 1997
title Geometric Modeling
source New York: Wiley Computer Publishing
summary A comprehensive, up-to-date presentation of all the indispensable core concepts of geometric modeling. Now completely updated to reflect the most recent developments in the field, Geometric Modeling clearly presents and compares all the important mathematical approaches to modeling curves, surfaces, and solids, and shows how to shape and assemble these elements into more complex models. Its thorough coverage also includes the concomitant geometric processing necessary, e.g., the computation of intersections, offsets, and fillets. Written in a style that is virtually free of the jargon of special applications, this unique book focuses on the essence of geometric modeling and treats it as a discipline in its own right. This integrated approach allows the reader to focus on the principles and logic of geometric modeling without requiring background knowledge of CAD/CAM, computer graphics, or computer programming. Supported by more than 300 illustrations, Geometric Modeling appeals to the reader's visual and intuitive skills in a way that makes understanding the more abstract concepts much easier. This new edition features a host of new application areas, including topology, special effects in cinematography, the design and control of type fonts, and virtual reality, as well as numerous application examples. For computer graphics specialists, application designers and developers, scientific programmers, and advanced students, Geometric Modeling, Second Edition will serve as a complete and invaluable guide to the entire field.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 8956
authors Charitos, D. and Rutherford, P.
year 1997
title Ways of aiding navigation in VRML worlds
source Proceedings of the Sixth international EuropIA Conference, europia Production
summary This paper suggests ways of enhancing spatial awareness for the operator of a VRML world, in order to augment her performance, in terms of orientation and wayfinding. In essence, it draws from the fields of environmental cognition, architectural and urban design theories, in order to address the problem of designing VRML worlds, so as to aid the operator's spatial awareness. In addition, it explores the possible development of navigation aids for wayfinding, within such virtual environments. The inclusion of these navigation aids will be seen to have a direct bearing upon the spatial awareness of the designed VRML world.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 6112
authors Daru, Roel and Snijder, H.P.S.
year 1997
title GACAAD or AVOCAAD? CAAD and Genetic Algorithms for an Evolutionary Design Paradigm
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 145-161
summary One of the dominant paradigms in architecture is about its creation: it is done by human designers supported by tools like sketching, drawing or modelling and evaluation tools. The Darwinistic paradigm demands a paradigmatic switch from drawing, modelling and evaluation to the breeding of forms with a much more integrated generation and selecting process embedded in the computer machinery. This means a paradigm switch from a designer as the performer of (sketch, draw or modelling) work to a machine driven creation and selection process of forms with the designer as the supervisor, fully entitled to steer the process in some preferred directions. The designer creates by establishing the evolutionary rules and making choices among the architectural creatures emerging in rapid fire modethrough the synthesis performed by the machine. Natural selection is a Metaphor: in fact the designer plays Nature (or God). The creatures allowed to flourish are not adequate according to laws of Nature, but to the judgement of the designer (or to the designing team).
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 082c
authors Gero, John S. and Park, Soo-Hoon
year 1997
title Computable Feature-Based Qualitative Modeling of Shape
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 821-830
summary This paper introduces and describes a qualitative approach to the modeling of shapes applicable at the early stage of designing. The approach is based on using qualitative codes at landmarks to describe shapes. These strings of codes can be analysed to determine patterns which map onto features. An analogy with language is drawn to assist in articulating the modeling ideas. An example is presented which demonstrates the utility of the approach.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/08/07 12:07

_id a51c
authors Gero, John S.
year 1997
title What Are We Learning from Designers and its Role in Future CAAD Tools
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 61-70
summary Recent research into the activity and behaviour of human designers as they design has provide an impetus to carry out research which underpins the development of new CAAD support tools. However, there are computational processes of interest in designing which are not modeled on human design processes. This paper outlines some of the design processes which are being researched based on our understanding of human designers and provides examples from some early implementations.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id eaea2005_151
id eaea2005_151
authors Ohno, Ruyzo
year 2006
title Seat preference in public squares and distribution of the surrounding people: An examination of the validity of using visual simulation
source Motion, E-Motion and Urban Space [Proceedings of the 7th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN-10: 3-00-019070-8 - ISBN-13: 978-3-00-019070-4], pp. 151-163
summary Public squares are shared by people who use them for various purposes. When people choose seats in a square, they unconsciously evaluate not only the physical characteristics of the space but also the distribution of others already present (Hall, 1966; Sommer, 1969; Whyte, 1988). Knowing the hidden rules of this behaviour will be important in designing squares that remain comfortable even in crowded situations. Most past studies of seat choice preference have reported on statistical tendencies derived from observations of subject behavior in actually existing sites (i.e., Abe, 1997; Imai, 1999; Kawamoto, 2003). However, they provide no clear theoretical model for explaining the basic mechanisms regulating such behaviour. The present study conducts a series of experiments in both real and virtual settings in order to extract quantitative relationships between subjects’ seat preferences and the presence of nearby strangers and to clarify what factors influence their seat choices.
series EAEA
type normal paper
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

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