CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 499

_id debf
authors Bertol, D.
year 1997
title Designing Digital Space - An Architect's Guide to Virtual Reality
source John Wiley & Sons, New York
summary The first in-depth book on virtual reality (VR) aimed specifically at architecture and design professionals, Designing Digital Space steers you skillfully through the learning curve of this exciting new technology. Beginning with a historical overview of the evolution of architectural representations, this unique resource explains what VR is, how it is being applied today, and how it promises to revolutionize not only the design process, but the form and function of the built environment itself. Vividly illustrating how VR fits alongside traditional methods of architectural representation, this comprehensive guide prepares you to make optimum practical use of this powerful interactive tool, and embrace the new role of the architect in a virtually designed world. Offers in-depth coverage of the virtual universe-data representation and information management, static and dynamic worlds, tracking and visual display systems, control devices, and more. Examines a wide range of current VR architectural applications, from walkthroughs, simulations, and evaluations to reconstructions and networked environments Includes insightful essays by leading VR developers covering some of today's most innovative projects Integrates VR into the historical framework of architectural development, with detailed sections on the past, present, and future Features a dazzling array of virtual world images and sequential displays Explores the potential impact of digital architecture on the built environment of the future
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0992
authors Belibani, R. and Gadola, A.
year 1997
title On Digital Architecture
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary One of the main aims of this research was to highlight the influence of computer as a designing tool. Their wide acceptance as drawing tools might occult the importance of their role in architectural design. We will try to apprehend, with the help of synthetic images, that computers mark a historic step forward in drawing and representation, as well as a major progress in the understanding of creative processes.

Together these features offer a broader horizon to architectural design. New source of inspiration can be found in virtual reality that makes visible what does not really exist, permitting design to suggest itself with its primordial image. We mean a kind of architectural imprint, where the first three-dimensional lines suggest in some way the designer with their shape, and encourage the definition process.

Through the visualisation of some images, it is possible to show the modifications of language and style, to examine the transformation modalities of the design process and to propose an essay of the new methods to communicate architecture.

series eCAADe
email rbelibani@axrma.uniroma1.it
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/belibani/belibani.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c5a0
authors Bradford, J., Wong, W.S., Tang, A.H.F. and Yeung, C.S.K.
year 1997
title A Virtual Reality Building Block Composer for Architecture
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 51-59
summary Design is a complex and time consuming process. One way to simplify the design process is to use pre-build blocks for commonly known parts instead of creating them again with CAD. To give the designer an immediate 3D view of the design, designing in virtual reality is a good choice. This paper presents a virtual reality interface tool which allows a user to assemble an architecture structure from a library of pre-built blocks. The library is a distributed client-server database.
series CAADRIA
email bradford@hkuxa.hku.hk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e292
authors Charitos, D. and Bridges, A.H.
year 1997
title On Architectural Design of Virtual Environments
source Design Studies, Vol.18, No. 2, 143-154
summary This paper considers the domains of architectural design and film theory for the purpose of informing the design of virtual environments (VEs). It is suggested that these domains may form a background for the consideration of possible metaphors for the design of VEs. Firstly, the paper investigates the relation between architecture and virtual reality technology, through the nature of drawings and virtual environments as means of representing three-dimensional spaces. Then, differences between VEs and physical environments (PEs) are identified for the purpose of understanding the intrinsic nature of VEs, by comparing them to our familiar everyday spatial experience. This step is considered essential in helping us understand how we might be able to develop an architectural conception of designing spaces, in the context of VEs. The paper then presents two directions towards informing VE design by means of theoretical and practical architectural design knowledge. Finally, the use of film-related studies is considered as a means of enhancing our conception of time and movement in VEs.
series journal paper
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id d910
authors Kieferle, Joachim B. and Herzberger, Erwin
year 2002
title The “Digital year for Architects” Experiences with an integrated teaching concept
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 88-95
summary The “digital year for architects” is an integrated course for graduate architecture students, that has been held since 1997 at Stuttgart University. Its concept is to link together traditional design teaching and working with computers. Three seminars and one design project are the framework of the course, in which the students are taught in design of e.g. image and space composition, typography, video, using virtual reality, theoretical basics for the final design project like information management or working environments, approximately a dozen software packages and finally a visionary design project. It has shown that the advantage of an integrated course compared to separate courses is the more intensive dealing with the project as well as achieving better skills when learning the new media. Not only because the project topics are different from usual architecture and more abstract, the main effect is to widen the students way of thinking and designing.
series eCAADe
email kieferle@igp.uni-stuttgart.de
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id ijac20031105
id ijac20031105
authors Kieferle, Joachim B.; Herzberger, Erwin
year 2003
title The "Digital year for Architects" - Experiences with an Integrated Teaching Concept
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 1 - no. 1
summary The "digital year for architects" is an integrated course for graduate architecture students that has been running since 1997, at Stuttgart University. Its concept is to link together traditional design teaching and working with computers. Three seminar classes and one design project form the framework of the course. In it the students are taught the design of, for example, image and space composition, typography, video, and using virtual reality. Additionally we cover theoretical basics for the final design project, such as information management or working environments. The course takes in approximately a dozen software packages and ends with a visionary design project. The products have shown the advantage of an integrated course compared to separate courses. The course proves to be more intensive in dealing with the project as well as achieving better skills when learning the associated new digital media. An important feature is that because the project topics are different from conventional architectural schemes, and tend to be more abstract, a key effect is to widen the students' way of thinking about designing.
series journal
email kieferle@architektur.fh-wiesbaden.de
more http://www.multi-science.co.uk/ijac.htm
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id 8569
authors Kurmann, D., Elte, N. and Engeli, M.
year 1997
title Real-Time Modeling with Architectural Space
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 809-819
summary Space as an architectural theme has been explored in many ways over many centuries; designing the architectural space is a major issue in both architectural education and in the design process. Based on these observations, it follows that computer tools should be available that help architects manipulate and explore space and spatial configurations directly and interactively. Therefore, we have created and extended the computer tool Sculptor. This tool enables the architect to design interactively with the computer, directly in real-time and in three dimensions. We developed the concept of 'space as an element' and integrated it into Sculptor. These combinations of solid and void elements - positive and negative volumes - enable the architect to use the computer already in an early design stage for conceptual design and spatial studies. Similar to solids modeling but much simpler, more intuitive and in real-time this allows the creation of complex spatial compositions in 3D space. Additionally, several concepts, operations and functions are defined inherently. Windows and doors for example are negative volumes that connect other voids inside positive ones. Based on buildings composed with these spaces we developed agents to calculate sound atmosphere and estimate cost, and creatures to test building for fire escape reasons etc. The paper will look at the way to design with space from both an architect's point of view and a computer scientist's. Techniques, possibilities and consequences of this direct void modeling will be explained. It will elaborate on the principle of human machine interaction brought up by our research and used in Sculptor. It will present the possibility to create VRML models directly for the web and show some of the designs done by students using the tool in our CAAD courses.
series CAAD Futures
email kurmann@arch.ethz.ch, elte@arch.ethz.ch, engeli@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id 600e
authors Gavin, Lesley
year 1999
title Architecture of the Virtual Place
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 418-423
summary The Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London (UCL), set up the first MSc in Virtual Environments in the UK in 1995. The course aims to synthesise and build on research work undertaken in the arts, architecture, computing and biological sciences in exploring the realms of the creation of digital and virtual immersive spaces. The MSc is concerned primarily with equipping students from design backgrounds with the skills, techniques and theories necessary in the production of virtual environments. The course examines both virtual worlds as prototypes for real urban or built form and, over the last few years, has also developed an increasing interest in the the practice of architecture in purely virtual contexts. The MSc course is embedded in the UK government sponsored Virtual Reality Centre for the Built Environment which is hosted by the Bartlett School of Architecture. This centre involves the UCL departments of architecture, computer science and geography and includes industrial partners from a number of areas concerned with the built environment including architectural practice, surveying and estate management as well as some software companies and the telecoms industry. The first cohort of students graduated in 1997 and predominantly found work in companies working in the new market area of digital media. This paper aims to outline the nature of the course as it stands, examines the new and ever increasing market for designers within digital media and proposes possible future directions for the course.
keywords Virtual Reality, Immersive Spaces, Digital Media, Education
series eCAADe
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
more http://www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/ve/
last changed 2002/11/22 18:44

_id cf2011_p093
id cf2011_p093
authors Nguyen, Thi Lan Truc; Tan Beng Kiang
year 2011
title Understanding Shared Space for Informal Interaction among Geographically Distributed Teams
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 41-54.
summary In a design project, much creative work is done in teams, thus requires spaces for collaborative works such as conference rooms, project rooms and chill-out areas. These spaces are designed to provide an atmosphere conducive to discussion and communication ranging from formal meetings to informal communication. According to Kraut et al (E.Kraut et al., 1990), informal communication is an important factor for the success of collaboration and is defined as “conversations take place at the time, with the participants, and about the topics at hand. It often occurs spontaneously by chance and in face-to-face manner. As shown in many research, much of good and creative ideas originate from impromptu meeting rather than in a formal meeting (Grajewski, 1993, A.Isaacs et al., 1997). Therefore, the places for informal communication are taken into account in workplace design and scattered throughout the building in order to stimulate face-to-face interaction, especially serendipitous communication among different groups across disciplines such as engineering, technology, design and so forth. Nowadays, team members of a project are not confined to people working in one location but are spread widely with geographically distributed collaborations. Being separated by long physical distance, informal interaction by chance is impossible since people are not co-located. In order to maintain the benefit of informal interaction in collaborative works, research endeavor has developed a variety ways to shorten the physical distance and bring people together in one shared space. Technologies to support informal interaction at a distance include video-based technologies, virtual reality technologies, location-based technologies and ubiquitous technologies. These technologies facilitate people to stay aware of other’s availability in distributed environment and to socialize and interact in a multi-users virtual environment. Each type of applications supports informal interaction through the employed technology characteristics. One of the conditions for promoting frequent and impromptu face-to-face communication is being co-located in one space in which the spatial settings play as catalyst to increase the likelihood for frequent encounter. Therefore, this paper analyses the degree to which sense of shared space is supported by these technical approaches. This analysis helps to identify the trade-off features of each shared space technology and its current problems. A taxonomy of shared space is introduced based on three types of shared space technologies for supporting informal interaction. These types are named as shared physical environments, collaborative virtual environments and mixed reality environments and are ordered increasingly towards the reality of sense of shared space. Based on the problem learnt from other technical approaches and the nature of informal interaction, this paper proposes physical-virtual shared space for supporting intended and opportunistic informal interaction. The shared space will be created by augmenting a 3D collaborative virtual environment (CVE) with real world scene at the virtual world side; and blending the CVE scene to the physical settings at the real world side. Given this, the two spaces are merged into one global structure. With augmented view of the real world, geographically distributed co-workers who populate the 3D CVE are facilitated to encounter and interact with their real world counterparts in a meaningful and natural manner.
keywords shared space, collaborative virtual environment, informal interaction, intended interaction, opportunistic interaction
series CAAD Futures
email g0800518@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 8ec9
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 1997
title Incompatible Pencil - Chance for Changing in Design Process
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 93-101
summary The existing Caad systems limit designers creativity by constraining them to work with prototypes provided by the system's knowledge base. Most think of computers as drafting machines and consider CAAD models as merely proposals for future buildings. But this kind of thinking (computers as simple drafting machines) seems to be a way without future. New media demands new process and new process demands new media. We have to give some thougt to impact of CAAD on the design process and in which part of it CAAD can add new value. In this paper there will be considered two ways of using of computers. First - creation of architectural form in an architect's mind and projects visualisation with using renderings, animation and virtual reality. In the second part - computer techniques are investigated as a medium of creation. Unlike a conventional drawing the design object within computer has a life of its own. In computer space design and the final product are one. Computer creates environments for new kind of design activities. In fact, many dimensions of meaning in cyberspace have led to a cyberreal architecture that is sure to have dramatic consequences for the profession.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 536e
authors Bouman, Ole
year 1997
title RealSpace in QuickTimes: architecture and digitization
source Rotterdam: Nai Publishers
summary Time and space, drastically compressed by the computer, have become interchangeable. Time is compressed in that once everything has been reduced to 'bits' of information, it becomes simultaneously accessible. Space is compressed in that once everything has been reduced to 'bits' of information, it can be conveyed from A to B with the speed of light. As a result of digitization, everything is in the here and now. Before very long, the whole world will be on disk. Salvation is but a modem away. The digitization process is often seen in terms of (information) technology. That is to say, one hears a lot of talk about the digital media, about computer hardware, about the modem, mobile phone, dictaphone, remote control, buzzer, data glove and the cable or satellite links in between. Besides, our heads are spinning from the progress made in the field of software, in which multimedia applications, with their integration of text, image and sound, especially attract our attention. But digitization is not just a question of technology, it also involves a cultural reorganization. The question is not just what the cultural implications of digitization will be, but also why our culture should give rise to digitization in the first place. Culture is not simply a function of technology; the reverse is surely also true. Anyone who thinks about cultural implications, is interested in the effects of the computer. And indeed, those effects are overwhelming, providing enough material for endless speculation. The digital paradigm will entail a new image of humankind and a further dilution of the notion of social perfectibility; it will create new notions of time and space, a new concept of cause and effect and of hierarchy, a different sort of public sphere, a new view of matter, and so on. In the process it will indubitably alter our environment. Offices, shopping centres, dockyards, schools, hospitals, prisons, cultural institutions, even the private domain of the home: all the familiar design types will be up for review. Fascinated, we watch how the new wave accelerates the process of social change. The most popular sport nowadays is 'surfing' - because everyone is keen to display their grasp of dirty realism. But there is another way of looking at it: under what sort of circumstances is the process of digitization actually taking place? What conditions do we provide that enable technology to exert the influence it does? This is a perspective that leaves room for individual and collective responsibility. Technology is not some inevitable process sweeping history along in a dynamics of its own. Rather, it is the result of choices we ourselves make and these choices can be debated in a way that is rarely done at present: digitization thanks to or in spite of human culture, that is the question. In addition to the distinction between culture as the cause or the effect of digitization, there are a number of other distinctions that are accentuated by the computer. The best known and most widely reported is the generation gap. It is certainly stretching things a bit to write off everybody over the age of 35, as sometimes happens, but there is no getting around the fact that for a large group of people digitization simply does not exist. Anyone who has been in the bit business for a few years can't help noticing that mum and dad are living in a different place altogether. (But they, at least, still have a sense of place!) In addition to this, it is gradually becoming clear that the age-old distinction between market and individual interests are still relevant in the digital era. On the one hand, the advance of cybernetics is determined by the laws of the marketplace which this capital-intensive industry must satisfy. Increased efficiency, labour productivity and cost-effectiveness play a leading role. The consumer market is chiefly interested in what is 'marketable': info- and edutainment. On the other hand, an increasing number of people are not prepared to wait for what the market has to offer them. They set to work on their own, appropriate networks and software programs, create their own domains in cyberspace, domains that are free from the principle whereby the computer simply reproduces the old world, only faster and better. Here it is possible to create a different world, one that has never existed before. One, in which the Other finds a place. The computer works out a new paradigm for these creative spirits. In all these distinctions, architecture plays a key role. Owing to its many-sidedness, it excludes nothing and no one in advance. It is faced with the prospect of historic changes yet it has also created the preconditions for a digital culture. It is geared to the future, but has had plenty of experience with eternity. Owing to its status as the most expensive of arts, it is bound hand and foot to the laws of the marketplace. Yet it retains its capacity to provide scope for creativity and innovation, a margin of action that is free from standardization and regulation. The aim of RealSpace in QuickTimes is to show that the discipline of designing buildings, cities and landscapes is not only a exemplary illustration of the digital era but that it also provides scope for both collective and individual activity. It is not just architecture's charter that has been changed by the computer, but also its mandate. RealSpace in QuickTimes consists of an exhibition and an essay.
series other
email oleb@xs4all.nl
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 8b25
authors Do, Ellen Yi Luen and Gross, Mark D.
year 1997
title Inferring Design Intentions From Sketches: An Investigation of Freehand Drawing Conventions in Design
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 217-227
summary Designers draw to explore ideas and solutions. We look at empirical studies of the use of drawing in design, including our own work on the connection between graphic symbols and specific design concerns. We describe an empirical study on sketching for designing an architect’s office. We found that designers use different drawing conventions when thinking about different design concerns. We are implementing a freehand drawing program to recognize these drawing conventions and to deliver appropriate knowledge based support for the task at hand.
series CAADRIA
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id eb06
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 1997
title Computability of Design Diagrams - An Empirical Study of Diagram Conventions in Design
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 171-176
summary Designers draw diagrams to think about architectural concepts and design concerns. We are interested in programming a computer to recognize and interpret design diagrams to deliver appropriate tools for the design task at hand. We conducted empirical studies to find out if designers share drawing conventions when designing. In this paper we first discuss reasons to investigate design diagrams. Then we describe our experiment on diagramming for designing an architect's office. The experiment results show that designers use different diagramming conventions when thinking about different design concerns. We discuss and report our efforts to implement a freehand drawing program.
series CAAD Futures
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 2e3b
authors Kvan, Thomas and Kvan, Erik
year 1997
title Is Design Really Social
source Creative Collaboration in Virtual Communities 1997, ed. A. Cicognani. VC'97. Sydney: Key Centre of Design Computing, Department of Architectural and Design Science, University of Sydney, 8 p.
summary There are many who will readily agree with Mitchell’s assertion that “the most interesting new directions (for computer-aided design) are suggested by the growing convergence of computation and telecommunication. This allows us to treat designing not just as a technical process... but also as a social process.” [Mitchell 1995]. The assumption is that design was a social process until users of computer-aided design systems were distracted into treating it as a merely technical process. Most readers will assume that this convergence must and will lead to increased communication between design participants; that better social interaction leads to be better design. The unspoken assumption appears to be that putting the participants into an environment with maximal communication channels will result in design collaboration. The tools provided; therefore; must permit the best communication and the best social interaction. We think it essential to examine the foundations and assumptions on which software and environments are designed to support collaborative design communication. Of particular interest to us in this paper is the assumption about the “social” nature of design. Early research in computer-assisted design collaborations has jumped immediately into conclusions about communicative models which lead to high-bandwidth video connections as the preferred channel of collaboration. The unstated assumption is that computer-supported design environments are not adequate until they replicate in full the sensation of being physically present in the same space as the other participants (you are not there until you are really there). It is assumed that the real social process of design must include all the signals used to establish and facilitate face-to-face communication; including gestures; body language and all outputs of drawing (e.g. Tang [1991]). In our specification of systems for virtual design communities; are we about to fall into the same traps as drafting systems did?
keywords CSCW; Virtual Community; Architectural Design; Computer-Aided Design
series other
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id f071
authors Maher, M.L., Cicognani, A. and Simoff, S.J.
year 1997
title An Experimental Study of Computer Mediated Collaborative Design
source International Journal of Design Computing, Key Centre of Design Computing, University of Sydney, Sydney
summary The use of computer technology in design practice is moving towards a distributed resource available to a team of designers. The development of software to support designers has traditionally been based on the assumption that there will be a single person using the software at a time. Recent developments have enabled the feasibility of software for two or more simultaneous users, leading to the possibility of computer mediated collaborative design (CMCD), where the computer plays the role of mediator and design information handler. There is the potential for the computer to play a more active role in collaborative design through enhanced visibility of 3D models and assistance in generating alternative designs and design critiques. With this potential the computer not only mediates the collaborative design process but actively supports the designers. Research in integrated CAD, multimedia and design database systems, virtual design studios, and design protocol studies provide the basis for a formal study of CMCD. We have developed an experimental methodology to study the difference in design semantics documented using computer applications when designing alone as compared to designing collaboratively. This methodology can be applied to study other aspects of CMCD.
series journal paper
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 9afb
authors Maher, M.L., Simoff, S. and Cicognani, A.
year 1997
title Observations from an experimental study of computer-mediated collaborative design
source M.L. Maher, J.S. Gero, and F Sudweeks eds. Preprints Formal Aspects of Collaborative CAD, Key Centre of Design Computing, University of Sydney, Sydney, pp.165-185
summary The use of computer technology in design practice is moving towards a distributed resource available to a team of designers. The development of software to support designers has been based largely on the assumption that there will be a single person using the software at a time. Recent developments have enabled the feasibility of software for two or more simultaneous users, leading to the possibility of computer-mediated collaborative design. Research in integrated CAD, virtual design studios, and design protocol studies provide the basis for a formal study of computer-mediated design. We develop an experimental study of computer-mediated collaborative design with the aim of collecting data on the amount and content of design semantics documented using computer applications when designing alone as compared to designing collaboratively. The experiment includes the definition of an hypothesis, aim, methodology, data collection and coding schemes. The experiment and some preliminary observations are presented, followed by directions for further research.
series other
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c6e1
authors Smulevich, Gerard
year 1997
title Berlin-Crane City: Cardboard, Bits, and the Post-industrial Design Process
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 139-153
summary This paper explores the impact of information technology on the architectural design process as seen through different design studios from three schools of architecture in Southern California over a two year period.

All three studios tested notions of representation, simulation and the design process in relation to a post-industrial world and its impact on how we design for it. The sites for two of these studios were in the city of Berlin, where the spearhead of the information age and a leftover of the industrial revolution overlap in an urban condition that is representative of our world after the cold war. The three studios describe a progressive shift in the use of information technology in the design process, from nearly pure image-driven simulation to a more low-tech, highly creative uses of everyday computing tools. Combined, all three cases describe an array of scenarios for content-supportive uses of digital media in a design studio. The first studio described here, from USC, utilized computer modeling and visualization to design a building for a site located within the former no-mans' land of the Berlin Wall. The second studio, from SCI-Arc, produced an urban design proposal for an area along the former Berlin Wall and included a pan-geographic design collaboration via Internet between SCI-Arc/Los Angeles and SCI-Arc/Switzerland. The third and last studio from Woodbury University participated in the 1997 ACSA/Dupont Laminated Glass Competition designing a consulate general for Germany and one for Hong Kong. They employed a hybrid digital/non-digital process extracting experiential representations from simple chipboard study models and then using that information to explore an "enhanced model" through digital imaging processes.

The end of the cold war was coincidental with the explosive popularization of information technology as a consumer product and is poised to have huge impact on how and what we design for our cities. Few places in world express this potential as does the city of Berlin. These three undergraduate design studios employed consumer-grade technology in an attempt to make a difference in how we design, incorporating discussions of historical change, ideological premise and what it means to be an architect in a world where image and content can become easily disconnected from one another.

series ACADIA
email gerards@ix.netcom.com
last changed 1998/12/31 12:37

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id acadia03_022
id acadia03_022
authors Anders, Peter
year 2003
title Towards Comprehensive Space: A context for the programming/design of cybrids
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 161-171
summary Cybrids have been presented as mixed realities: spatial, architectural compositions comprised of physical and cyberspaces (Anders 1997). In order to create a rigorous approach to the design of architectural cybrids, this paper offers a model for programming their spaces. Other than accepting cyberspaces as part of architecture’s domain, this approach is not radical. Indeed, many parts of program development resemble those of conventional practice. However, the proposition that cyberspaces should be integrated with material structures requires that their relationship be developed from the outset of a project. Hence, this paper provides a method for their integration from the project’s earliest stages, the establishment of its program. This study for an actual project, the Planetary Collegium, describes a distributed campus comprising buildings and cyberspaces in various locales across the globe. The programming for these cybrids merges them within a comprehensive space consisting not only of the physical and cyberspaces, but also in the cognitive spaces of its designers and users.
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/11/27 14:21

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