CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 75a8
authors Achten, Henri H.
year 1997
title Generic representations : an approach for modelling procedural and declarative knowledge of building types in architectural design
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary The building type is a knowledge structure that is recognised as an important element in the architectural design process. For an architect, the type provides information about norms, layout, appearance, etc. of the kind of building that is being designed. Questions that seem unresolved about (computational) approaches to building types are the relationship between the many kinds of instances that are generally recognised as belonging to a particular building type, the way a type can deal with varying briefs (or with mixed use), and how a type can accommodate different sites. Approaches that aim to model building types as data structures of interrelated variables (so-called ‘prototypes’) face problems clarifying these questions. The research work at hand proposes to investigate the role of knowledge associated with building types in the design process. Knowledge of the building type must be represented during the design process. Therefore, it is necessary to find a representation which supports design decisions, supports the changes and transformations of the design during the design process, encompasses knowledge of the design task, and which relates to the way architects design. It is proposed in the research work that graphic representations can be used as a medium to encode knowledge of the building type. This is possible if they consistently encode the things they represent; if their knowledge content can be derived, and if they are versatile enough to support a design process of a building belonging to a type. A graphic representation consists of graphic entities such as vertices, lines, planes, shapes, symbols, etc. Establishing a graphic representation implies making design decisions with respect to these entities. Therefore it is necessary to identify the elements of the graphic representation that play a role in decision making. An approach based on the concept of ‘graphic units’ is developed. A graphic unit is a particular set of graphic entities that has some constant meaning. Examples are: zone, circulation scheme, axial system, and contour. Each graphic unit implies a particular kind of design decision (e.g. functional areas, system of circulation, spatial organisation, and layout of the building). By differentiating between appearance and meaning, it is possible to define the graphic unit relatively shape-independent. If a number of graphic representations have the same graphic units, they deal with the same kind of design decisions. Graphic representations that have such a specifically defined knowledge content are called ‘generic representations.’ An analysis of over 220 graphic representations in the literature on architecture results in 24 graphic units and 50 generic representations. For each generic representation the design decisions are identified. These decisions are informed by the nature of the design task at hand. If the design task is a building belonging to a building type, then knowledge of the building type is required. In a single generic representation knowledge of norms, rules, and principles associated with the building type are used. Therefore, a single generic representation encodes declarative knowledge of the building type. A sequence of generic representations encodes a series of design decisions which are informed by the design task. If the design task is a building type, then procedural knowledge of the building type is used. By means of the graphic unit and generic representation, it is possible to identify a number of relations that determine sequences of generic representations. These relations are: additional graphic units, themes of generic representations, and successive graphic units. Additional graphic units defines subsequent generic representations by adding a new graphic unit. Themes of generic representations defines groups of generic representations that deal with the same kind of design decisions. Successive graphic units defines preconditions for subsequent or previous generic representations. On the basis of themes it is possible to define six general sequences of generic representations. On the basis of additional and successive graphic units it is possible to define sequences of generic representations in themes. On the basis of these sequences, one particular sequence of 23 generic representations is defined. The particular sequence of generic representations structures the decision process of a building type. In order to test this assertion, the particular sequence is applied to the office building type. For each generic representation, it is possible to establish a graphic representation that follows the definition of the graphic units and to apply the required statements from the office building knowledge base. The application results in a sequence of graphic representations that particularises an office building design. Implementation of seven generic representations in a computer aided design system demonstrates the use of generic representations for design support. The set is large enough to provide additional weight to the conclusion that generic representations map declarative and procedural knowledge of the building type.
series thesis:PhD
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
more http://alexandria.tue.nl/extra2/9703788.pdf
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id eea1
authors Achten, Henri
year 1997
title Generic Representations - Typical Design without the Use of Types
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 117-133
summary The building type is a (knowledge) structure that is both recognised as a constitutive cognitive element of human thought and as a constitutive computational element in CAAD systems. Questions that seem unresolved up to now about computational approaches to building types are the relationship between the various instances that are generally recognised as belonging to a particular building type, the way a type can deal with varying briefs (or with mixed functional use), and how a type can accommodate different sites. Approaches that aim to model building types as data structures of interrelated variables (so-called 'prototypes') face problems clarifying these questions. It is proposed in this research not to focus on a definition of 'type,' but rather to investigate the role of knowledge connected to building types in the design process. The basic proposition is that the graphic representations used to represent the state of the design object throughout the design process can be used as a medium to encode knowledge of the building type. This proposition claims that graphic representations consistently encode the things they represent, that it is possible to derive the knowledge content of graphic representations, and that there is enough diversity within graphic representations to support a design process of a building belonging to a type. In order to substantiate these claims, it is necessary to analyse graphic representations. In the research work, an approach based on the notion of 'graphic units' is developed. The graphic unit is defined and the analysis of graphic representations on the basis of the graphic unit is demonstrated. This analysis brings forward the knowledge content of single graphic representations. Such knowledge content is declarative knowledge. The graphic unit also provides the means to articulate the transition from one graphic representation to another graphic representation. Such transitions encode procedural knowledge. The principles of a sequence of generic representations are discussed and it is demonstrated how a particular type - the office building type - is implemented in the theoretical work. Computational work on implementation part of a sequence of generic representations of the office building type is discussed. The paper ends with a summary and future work.
series CAAD Futures
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.n
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2a09
authors Donath, Judith Stefania
year 1997
title Inhabiting the virtual city : the design of social environments for electronic communities
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Program in Media Arts & Sciences
summary The goal of this work is to develop an approach to the design of on-line social environments. My thesis is that, in order to foster the development of vibrant and viable online communities, the environment - i.e. the technical infrastructure and user interface - must provide the means to communicate social cues and information: the participants must be able to perceive the social patterns of activity and affiliation and the community must be able to evolve a fluid and subtle cultural vocabulary. The theoretical foundation for the research is drawn from traditional studies of society and culture and from observations of contemporary on-line systems. Starting with an analysis of the fundamental differences between real and virtual societies - most notably, the presence and absence of the body - the first section examines the ways social cues are communicated in the real world, discusses the limits imposed on on-line communities due to their mediated and bodiless nature, and explores directions that virtual societies can take that are impossible for physical ones. These ideas form the basis for the main part of the thesis, a design platform for creating sociable virtual environments. The focus of the discussion is on the analysis of a set of implemented design experiments that explore three areas of the platform: the visual representations of social phenomena, the role of information spaces as contexts for communication, and the presentation of self in the virtual world.
series thesis:PhD
email judith@media.mit.edu
more http://smg.media.mit.edu/people/Judith/Thesis/
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6731
authors Gero, John S. and Park, Soon Hoon
year 1997
title Qualitative Representation of Shape and Space for Computer-Aided Architectural Design
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 323-334
summary In this paper we develop and describe a qualitative representation scheme for shapes which has the capacity to be utilised in the mappings to the semantics of spaces. The representation is founded on three types of qualitative codes based on landmark values for fundamental shape attributes. Qualitative values for these codes can vary to control the granularity of the representation. Structures in the resultant codings, which are the qualitative representation, can be analyzed to produce generic categories of shape features which provide a connection with "feature-based” models.
series CAADRIA
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au, soohoon@arch.usyd.edu.ausoohoon@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 1999/02/01 13:58

_id a5c7
authors Hovestadt, Ludger and Hovestadt, Volkmar
year 1997
title ARMILLA5 - Supporting Design, Construction and Management of Complex Buildings
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 135-150
summary ARMILLA5 is a generic computer aided design system, which supports the cooperative design of complex buildings (such as labs, offices or schools) over multiple levels of abstraction. It follows the metaphor of a virtual building site. The designers and engineers meet at a spatial location on the Internet and prepare the building construction by simulating the building site. This article describes the three essential components of the ARMILLA5-model: the geometric model which describes the spatial and physical aspects of the building site, the semantic model which implements passive building components as objects and active building components as applets or applications, and the planning model, which organizes the work steps of the individual engineers and their cooperation. The model is described using different software prototypes written in Objective C, CAD systems and HTML/JAVA.
keywords Dynamic Buildings, CAAD, CSCW, VRML, Case-based Reasoning, Facility Management, Augmented Reality
series CAAD Futures
email Ihov@rhrk.uni-kI.de, volkmar@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id a965
authors Turner, James A.
year 1997
title Some Thoughts on the Existence of a Generic Building Object
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 532-552
summary The purpose of this paper is to propose a new universal data structure, called a Generic Building Object (GBO), to support the reinvention and re-implementation of a building data base application called PLAN. The paper reviews various building models as presented explicitly and implicitly in the writings of other computer-aided building design researchers.
series CAAD Futures
email turner@umich.edu
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id 0596
authors Van Leeuwen, Jos P. and Wagter, Harry
year 1997
title Architectural Design-By-Features
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 97-115
summary Design tasks, in particular architectural design tasks, have been found hard to support by means of computers. The main reason for this is that design is a problem solving process, which requires a dynamic way of handling information involved in the design process. The research presented in this paper focuses on this aspect of CAAD: the support of design tasks with dynamic, flexible information modelling techniques. The basic concepts for the developed approach is taken from the field of Feature-based modelling. We briefly review these concepts and then interpret and transport them to the context of architectural design. In defining types of Features, a distinction is made between domain-specific Features and generic Features for which we propose a classification. A framework for the definition and modelling of Features is discussed as well as a prototype Feature-based Modelling Shell based on this framework.
series CAAD Futures
email j.p.v.leeuwen@bwk.tue.nl, harry.wagter@nlehvips.origin.nl
more http://www.calibre.bwk.tue.nl
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id debf
authors Bertol, D.
year 1997
title Designing Digital Space - An Architect's Guide to Virtual Reality
source John Wiley & Sons, New York
summary The first in-depth book on virtual reality (VR) aimed specifically at architecture and design professionals, Designing Digital Space steers you skillfully through the learning curve of this exciting new technology. Beginning with a historical overview of the evolution of architectural representations, this unique resource explains what VR is, how it is being applied today, and how it promises to revolutionize not only the design process, but the form and function of the built environment itself. Vividly illustrating how VR fits alongside traditional methods of architectural representation, this comprehensive guide prepares you to make optimum practical use of this powerful interactive tool, and embrace the new role of the architect in a virtually designed world. Offers in-depth coverage of the virtual universe-data representation and information management, static and dynamic worlds, tracking and visual display systems, control devices, and more. Examines a wide range of current VR architectural applications, from walkthroughs, simulations, and evaluations to reconstructions and networked environments Includes insightful essays by leading VR developers covering some of today's most innovative projects Integrates VR into the historical framework of architectural development, with detailed sections on the past, present, and future Features a dazzling array of virtual world images and sequential displays Explores the potential impact of digital architecture on the built environment of the future
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2b38
authors Bradford, J., Wong, R. and Yeung, C.S.K.
year 1997
title Hierarchical Decomposition of Architectural Computer Models
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 197-203
summary Architectural models can be represented in a hierarchy of complexity. Higher level or more complex architecture structures are then designed by repetitively instantiating libraries of building blocks. The advantages are that the object can be achieved in modular fashion and any modification to the definition of a building block can be easily propagated to all higher level objects using the block. Unfortunately, many existing representations of architectural models are monolithic instead of hierarchical and modular, thus, making the reuse of models very difficult and inefficient. This paper describes a research project on developing a tool to decompose a monolithic architectural model into elementary building blocks and then create a hierarchy in the model representation. The tool provides a graphical interface for the visualization of a model and a cutting plane. An associated algorithm will then automatically detach parts of the model into building blocks depending on where the user is applying the cutting plane. Studies will also be made on dividing more complex models employing spherical and NURBS surfaces.
series CAADRIA
email bradford@hkuxa.hku.hk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id b656
authors Chase, S.C.
year 1997
title Logic based design modeling with shape algebras
source Automation in Construction 6 (4) (1997) pp. 311-322
summary A new method of describing designs by combining the paradigms of shape algebras and predicate logic representations is presented. Representing shapes and spatial relations in logic provides a natural, intuitive method of developing complete computer systems for reasoning about designs. The advantages of shape algebra formalisms over more traditional representations of geometric objects are discussed. The method employed involves the definition of a large set of high level design relations from a small set of simple structures and spatial relations. Examples in architecture and geographic information systems are illustrated.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 508b
authors Chiu, Mao-Lin
year 1997
title Representations and Communication channels in collaborative architectural design
source Mary L. M., John S. G., Fay S., editor, Formal Aspects of Collaborative CAD, IFIP97, Australia, Februrary, 1997, pp. 77-96
summary Collaborative design requires participation of individuals and coordination of design information and tasks. This paper focuses on the representations and communication channels in collaboration design. On the basis of a design communication model and findings of four collaborative design case studies, the phenomena of design communication are presented. The study also examines when the conditions of collaboration are achieved and what kinds of interfaces in computer-mediated collaborative work are needed, and propose a theme-oriented interface for computer-mediated collaborative design.
series other
email mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2354
authors Clayden, A. and Szalapaj, P.
year 1997
title Architecture in Landscape: Integrated CAD Environments for Contextually Situated Design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper explores the future role of a more holistic and integrated approach to the design of architecture in landscape. Many of the design exploration and presentation techniques presently used by particular design professions do not lend themselves to an inherently collaborative design strategy.

Within contemporary digital environments, there are increasing opportunities to explore and evaluate design proposals which integrate both architectural and landscape aspects. The production of integrated design solutions exploring buildings and their surrounding context is now possible through the design development of shared 3-D and 4-D virtual environments, in which buildings no longer float in space.

The scope of landscape design has expanded through the application of techniques such as GIS allowing interpretations that include social, economic and environmental dimensions. In architecture, for example, object-oriented CAD environments now make it feasible to integrate conventional modelling techniques with analytical evaluations such as energy calculations and lighting simulations. These were all ambitions of architects and landscape designers in the 70s when computer power restricted the successful implementation of these ideas. Instead, the commercial trend at that time moved towards isolated specialist design tools in particular areas. Prior to recent innovations in computing, the closely related disciplines of architecture and landscape have been separated through the unnecessary development, in our view, of their own symbolic representations, and the subsequent computer applications. This has led to an unnatural separation between what were once closely related disciplines.

Significant increases in the performance of computers are now making it possible to move on from symbolic representations towards more contextual and meaningful representations. For example, the application of realistic materials textures to CAD-generated building models can then be linked to energy calculations using the chosen materials. It is now possible for a tree to look like a tree, to have leaves and even to be botanicaly identifiable. The building and landscape can be rendered from a common database of digital samples taken from the real world. The complete model may be viewed in a more meaningful way either through stills or animation, or better still, through a total simulation of the lifecycle of the design proposal. The model may also be used to explore environmental/energy considerations and changes in the balance between the building and its context most immediately through the growth simulation of vegetation but also as part of a larger planning model.

The Internet has a key role to play in facilitating this emerging collaborative design process. Design professionals are now able via the net to work on a shared model and to explore and test designs through the development of VRML, JAVA, whiteboarding and video conferencing. The end product may potentially be something that can be more easily viewed by the client/user. The ideas presented in this paper form the basis for the development of a dual course in landscape and architecture. This will create new teaching opportunities for exploring the design of buildings and sites through the shared development of a common computer model.

keywords Integrated Design Process, Landscape and Architecture, Shared Environmentsenvironments
series eCAADe
email a.clayden@sheffield.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/szalapaj/szalapaj.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 47fc
authors Costanzo, E., De Vecchi, A., Di Miceli, C. and Giacchino, V.
year 1997
title A Software for Automatically Verifying Compatibility in Complicated Building Assemblies
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The research we are carrying on is intended to develop a tool aiding to design building mechanical assembly systems, which are often characterised by high complexity levels. In fact, when designing complicated building assemblies by making use of common graphical representations, it might be impossible for the operator to choose the proper shape and installation sequence of components so that they do not interfere during the assembly, and to check, in the meantime, the most favorable setting up modalities according to execution problems. Our software, running within CAD, by starting from the definition of the node features, will allow the operator to automatically get three types of representation that can simulate the assembly according to the assigned installation sequence: - instant images of the phases for setting up each component into the node; - 3D views showing the position of each component disassembled from the node and indicating the movements required for connection; - the components moving while the node is being constructed. All the representations can be updated step by step each time modifications to the node are made. Through this digital iterative design process - that takes advantage of various simultaneous and realistic prefigurations - the shape and function compatibility between the elements during the assembling can be verified. Furthermore, the software can quickly check whether any change and integration to the node is efficacious, rising the approximation levels in the design phase. At the moment we have developed the part of the tool that simulates the assembly by moving the components into the nodes according to the installation sequence.
series eCAADe
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/costanzo/costanzo.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 20ff
id 20ff
authors Derix, Christian
year 2004
title Building a Synthetic Cognizer
source Design Computation Cognition conference 2004, MIT
summary Understanding ‘space’ as a structured and dynamic system can provide us with insight into the central concept in the architectural discourse that so far has proven to withstand theoretical framing (McLuhan 1964). The basis for this theoretical assumption is that space is not a void left by solid matter but instead an emergent quality of action and interaction between individuals and groups with a physical environment (Hillier 1996). In this way it can be described as a parallel distributed system, a self-organising entity. Extrapolating from Luhmann’s theory of social systems (Luhmann 1984), a spatial system is autonomous from its progenitors, people, but remains intangible to a human observer due to its abstract nature and therefore has to be analysed by computed entities, synthetic cognisers, with the capacity to perceive. This poster shows an attempt to use another complex system, a distributed connected algorithm based on Kohonen’s self-organising feature maps – SOM (Kohonen 1997), as a “perceptual aid” for creating geometric mappings of these spatial systems that will shed light on our understanding of space by not representing space through our usual mechanics but by constructing artificial spatial cognisers with abilities to make spatial representations of their own. This allows us to be shown novel representations that can help us to see new differences and similarities in spatial configurations.
keywords architectural design, neural networks, cognition, representation
series other
type poster
email christian.derix@aedas.com
more http://www.springer.com/computer/ai/book/978-1-4020-2392-7
last changed 2012/09/17 19:13

_id cda8
authors Gero, John S. and Cha, Myung Yeol
year 1997
title Computable Representations of Patterns in Architectural Shapes
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 377-388
summary This paper develops a schema theory based approach to the representation of patterns in architectural shapes. This representation is capable of computer implementation. The adequacy of any representation is critical for information processing in computer-aided design. Shape representation using shape elements and spatial relationships are elaborated and the construction of shape schemas and characteristics of shape schema are investigated. A representation for patterns in architectural shapes is demonstrated.
series CAADRIA
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au, cha@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 1999/02/01 14:12

_id 02e4
authors Groh, Paul H.
year 1997
title Computer Visualization as a Tool for the Conceptual Understanding of Architecture
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 243-248
summary A good piece of architecture contains many levels of interrelated complexity. Understanding these levels and their interrelationship is critical to the understanding of a building to both architects and non-architects alike. A building's form, function, structure, materials, and details all relate to and impact one another. By selectively dissecting and taking apart buildings through their representations, one can carefully examine and understand the interrelationship of these building components.

With the recent introduction of computer graphics, much attention has been given to the representation of architecture. Floor plans and elevations have remained relatively unchanged, while digital animation and photorealistic renderings have become exciting new means of representation. A problem with the majority of this work and especially photorealistic rendering is that it represents the building as a image and concentrates on how a building looks as opposed to how it works. Often times this "look" is artificial, expressing the incapacity of programs (or their users) to represent the complexities of materials, lighting, and perspective. By using digital representation in a descriptive, less realistic way, one can explore the rich complexities and interrelationships of architecture. Instead of representing architecture as a finished product, it is possible to represent the ideas and concepts of the project.

series ACADIA
email 105137.1054@compuserve.com
last changed 1998/12/31 12:43

_id e664
authors Herbert, Daniel M.
year 1997
title Taking Turns: Strained Metaphors as Generators of Form in Computer Aided Design
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 267-280
summary This paper examines the role of certain graphic metaphors as generators of form in computer aided design. An introduction establishes that representation in architectural design is largely metaphorical, that metaphor is only one among several types of rhetorical turns, and that such turns can be of value in the design process. The paper then describes a case study a residential design project in which the author used a 3D computer-based modeling program to produce a type of strained rhetorical turn called catachresis. Through a series of catachrestic moves, conventional representations were made to yield unconventional architectural meanings. Next the paper discusses inferences from the case study regarding the play of rhetorical turns in computer aided design. The paper concludes with suggestions for catachrestic "wild card" and indeterminate functions in CAD systems to keep design processes and products open to uncertainty.

series ACADIA
email herbert@aaa.uoregon.edu
last changed 1998/12/31 12:45

_id cc87
authors Johnson, Scott
year 1997
title What's in a Representation, Why Do We Care, and What Does It Mean? Examining Evidence from Psychology
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 5-15
summary This paper examines psychological evidence on the nature and role of representations in cognition. Both internal (mental) and external (physical or digital) representations are considered. It is discovered that both types of representation are deeply linked to thought processes. They are linked to learning, the ability to use existing knowledge, and problem solving strategies. The links between representations, thought processes, and behavior are so deep that even eye movements are partly governed by representations. Choice of representations can affect limited cognitive resources like attention and short-term memory by forcing a person to try to utilize poorly organized information or perform "translations" from one representation to another. The implications of this evidence are discussed. Based on these findings, a set of guidelines is presented, for digital representations which minimize drain of cognitive resources. These guidelines describe what sorts of characteristics and behaviors a representation should exhibit, and what sorts of information it should contain in order to accommodate and facilitate design. Current attempts to implement such representations are discussed.

series ACADIA
email sven@umich.edu
last changed 1998/12/31 12:10

_id 0bc0
authors Kellett, R., Brown, G.Z., Dietrich, K., Girling, C., Duncan, J., Larsen, K. and Hendrickson, E.
year 1997
title THE ELEMENTS OF DESIGN INFORMATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN NEIGHBORHOOD-SCALE PLANNING
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 295-304
summary Neighborhood scale planning and design in many communities has been evolving from a rule-based process of prescriptive codes and regulation toward a principle- and performance-based process of negotiated priorities and agreements. Much of this negotiation takes place in highly focused and interactive workshop or 'charrette' settings, the best of which are characterized by a fluid and lively exchange of ideas, images and agendas among a diverse mix of citizens, land owners, developers, consultants and public officials. Crucial to the quality and effectiveness of the exchange are techniques and tools that facilitate a greater degree of understanding, communication and collaboration among these participants.

Digital media have a significant and strategic role to play toward this end. Of particular value are representational strategies that help disentangle issues, clarify alternatives and evaluate consequences of very complex and often emotional issues of land use, planning and design. This paper reports on the ELEMENTS OF NEIGHBORHOOD, a prototype 'electronic notebook' (relational database) tool developed to bring design information and example 'to the table' of a public workshop. Elements are examples of the building blocks of neighborhood (open spaces, housing, commercial, industrial, civic and network land uses) derived from built examples, and illustrated with graphic, narrative and numeric representations relevant to planning, design, energy, environmental and economic performance. Quantitative data associated with the elements can be linked to Geographic Information based maps and spreadsheet based-evaluation models.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
email kellett@interchange.ubc.ca
last changed 2006/03/15 21:35

_id cb26
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1997
title Digital Architectural Visualization
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The traditional emphasis of architectural education and practice on spatial visualization has contributed to the development of an overtly visual architectural culture which agrees with our predominantly visual interaction with the built environment. The democratization of computer technologies is changing architectural visualization in two significant ways. The first is that the availability of affordable, powerful digital versions of analogue visual media and of new, complementary techniques is facilitating the application of computer visualization in most aspects of the design and management of the built environment. The second is the opening of a wide and exciting new market for visualization in information systems, for example through interfaces that employ spatial metaphors, which arguably are extensions of the three dimensional structures the architect knows better than other design specialists of today.

The transition from analogue to digital visualization poses questions that encompass the traditional investigation of relationships between geometric representations and built form, as well as issues such as a unified theory of architectural representation, the relationships between analysis and visualization and the role of abstraction in the structure of a representation. In addition to theoretical investigations, the utilization of new possibilities in architectural visualization requires technology and knowledge transfer from areas other than computer science. The integration of such transfers suggests flexible, modular approach which contradicts the holistic, integral principles of computer-aided architectural design.

keywords Visualization
series eCAADe
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/koutam/koutam1.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

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