CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id d869
authors Chu, C.-C., Dani, T.H. and Gadh, R.
year 1997
title Multi-sensory user interface for a virtual-reality-based computer-aided design system
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29 (10) (1997) pp. 709-725
summary The generation of geometric shapes called `geometric concept designs' via the multi-sensory user interface of a virtual reality (VR) based system motivates the currentresearch. In this new VR-based system, geometric designs can be more effectively inputted into the computer in a physically intuitive way. The interaction mechanism issimilar to the way in which industrial designers sit and discuss concept design shapes across a table from each other, prior to making a final decision about the productdetails. By using different sensory modalities, such as voice, hand motions and gestures, product designers can convey design ideas through the VR-basedcomputer-aided design (CAD) system. In this scenario, the multi-sensory interface between human and computer plays a central role with respect to usability, usefulnessand accuracy. The current paper focuses on determining the requirements for the multi-sensory user interface and assessing the applications of different input and outputmechanisms in the virtual environment (VE). In order to evaluate this multi-sensory user interface, this paper formulates the typical activities in product shape design intoa set of requirements for the VR-CAD system. On the basis of these requirements, we interviewed typical CAD users about the effectiveness of using different sensoryinput and output interaction mechanisms such as visual, auditory and tactile. According to the results of these investigations, a nodal network of design activity thatdefines the multi-sensory user interface of the VR-CAD system is determined in the current research. The VR-CAD system is still being developed. However, voicecommand input, hand motion input, three-dimensional visual output and auditory output have been successfully integrated into the current system. Moreover, severalmechanical parts have been successfully created through the VR interface. Once designers use the VR-CAD system that we are currently developing, the interfacerequirements determined in the current paper may be verified or refined. The objectives of the current research are to expand the frontiers of product design and establisha new paradigm for the VR-based conceptual shape design system.
keywords Virtual Reality, Multi-Sensory User Interface, Conceptual Shape Design, Sensory Interaction Mechanism
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 8b09
authors Cicognani, Anna and Maher, Mary Lou
year 1997
title Design Speech Acts. "How To Do Things with Words" in Virtual Communities
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 707-717
summary Cyberspace is language based, and so are Virtual Communities (VCs). We propose that VCs are ideal places to experience and enhance a language for design. Design in a VC can actually be performed using speech acts that in-real-life wouldn't perform any design. We call these acts 'design speech acts'. We present, as a starting point, a list of verbs which can be used in a VC for design and the implications of using these verbs to design cyberspace. We present a methodology for structuring and defining design speech acts, so that a language for design in a VC can be subsequently developed. We are developing a specific environment for a virtual community in which designers can articulate their needs and produce text-based design objects.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id 2354
authors Clayden, A. and Szalapaj, P.
year 1997
title Architecture in Landscape: Integrated CAD Environments for Contextually Situated Design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper explores the future role of a more holistic and integrated approach to the design of architecture in landscape. Many of the design exploration and presentation techniques presently used by particular design professions do not lend themselves to an inherently collaborative design strategy.

Within contemporary digital environments, there are increasing opportunities to explore and evaluate design proposals which integrate both architectural and landscape aspects. The production of integrated design solutions exploring buildings and their surrounding context is now possible through the design development of shared 3-D and 4-D virtual environments, in which buildings no longer float in space.

The scope of landscape design has expanded through the application of techniques such as GIS allowing interpretations that include social, economic and environmental dimensions. In architecture, for example, object-oriented CAD environments now make it feasible to integrate conventional modelling techniques with analytical evaluations such as energy calculations and lighting simulations. These were all ambitions of architects and landscape designers in the 70s when computer power restricted the successful implementation of these ideas. Instead, the commercial trend at that time moved towards isolated specialist design tools in particular areas. Prior to recent innovations in computing, the closely related disciplines of architecture and landscape have been separated through the unnecessary development, in our view, of their own symbolic representations, and the subsequent computer applications. This has led to an unnatural separation between what were once closely related disciplines.

Significant increases in the performance of computers are now making it possible to move on from symbolic representations towards more contextual and meaningful representations. For example, the application of realistic materials textures to CAD-generated building models can then be linked to energy calculations using the chosen materials. It is now possible for a tree to look like a tree, to have leaves and even to be botanicaly identifiable. The building and landscape can be rendered from a common database of digital samples taken from the real world. The complete model may be viewed in a more meaningful way either through stills or animation, or better still, through a total simulation of the lifecycle of the design proposal. The model may also be used to explore environmental/energy considerations and changes in the balance between the building and its context most immediately through the growth simulation of vegetation but also as part of a larger planning model.

The Internet has a key role to play in facilitating this emerging collaborative design process. Design professionals are now able via the net to work on a shared model and to explore and test designs through the development of VRML, JAVA, whiteboarding and video conferencing. The end product may potentially be something that can be more easily viewed by the client/user. The ideas presented in this paper form the basis for the development of a dual course in landscape and architecture. This will create new teaching opportunities for exploring the design of buildings and sites through the shared development of a common computer model.

keywords Integrated Design Process, Landscape and Architecture, Shared Environmentsenvironments
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id ga9921
id ga9921
authors Coates, P.S. and Hazarika, L.
year 1999
title The use of genetic programming for applications in the field of spatial composition
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Architectural design teaching using computers has been a preoccupation of CECA since 1991. All design tutors provide their students with a set of models and ways to form, and we have explored a set of approaches including cellular automata, genetic programming ,agent based modelling and shape grammars as additional tools with which to explore architectural ( and architectonic) ideas.This paper discusses the use of genetic programming (G.P.) for applications in the field of spatial composition. CECA has been developing the use of Genetic Programming for some time ( see references ) and has covered the evolution of L-Systems production rules( coates 1997, 1999b), and the evolution of generative grammars of form (Coates 1998 1999a). The G.P. was used to generate three-dimensional spatial forms from a set of geometrical structures .The approach uses genetic programming with a Genetic Library (G.Lib) .G.P. provides a way to genetically breed a computer program to solve a problem.G. Lib. enables genetic programming to define potentially useful subroutines dynamically during a run .* Exploring a shape grammar consisting of simple solid primitives and transformations. * Applying a simple fitness function to the solid breeding G.P.* Exploring a shape grammar of composite surface objects. * Developing grammarsfor existing buildings, and creating hybrids. * Exploring the shape grammar of abuilding within a G.P.We will report on new work using a range of different morphologies ( boolean operations, surface operations and grammars of style ) and describe the use of objective functions ( natural selection) and the "eyeball test" ( artificial selection) as ways of controlling and exploring the design spaces thus defined.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 77bc
authors Cohen, S., Elber, G. and Bar-Yehuda, R.
year 1997
title Matching of freeform curves
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29 (5) (1997) pp. 369-378
summary Freeform parametric curves are extensively employed in various fields such as computer graphics, computer vision, robotics, and geometric modeling. While manyapplications exploit and combine univariate freeform entities into more complex forms such as sculptured surfaces, the problem of a fair or even optimal relativeparameterization of freeforms, under some norm, has been rarely considered. In this work, we present a scheme that closely approximates the optimal relativematching between two or even n given freeform curves, under a user's prescribed norm that is based on differential properties of the curves. This matching iscomputed as a reparameterization of n - 1 of the curves that can be applied explicitly using composition. The proposed matching algorithm is completely automaticand has been successfully employed in different applications with several demonstrated herein: metamorphosis of freeform curves with feature preservations, keyframe interpolation for animation, self-intersection free ruled surface construction, and automatic matching of rail curves of blending surfaces.
keywords Dynamic Programming, Tangent/Gauss Map, Feature Recognition, Fairness
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 426f
authors Colajanni, Benedetto and Pellitteri, Giuseppe
year 1997
title Image Recognition: from Syntax to Semantics
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary n a previous paper the authors presented an analyser of simple architectural images. It works at syntactical level inasmuch as it is able to detect the elementary components of the images and to perform on them some analyses regarding their reciprocal position and their combinations.

Here we present a second step of development of the analyser: the implementation of some semantic capabilities. The most elementary level of semantics is the simple recognition of each object present in the architectural image. Which, in turn means attributing to each object the name of the class of similar objects to which the single object is supposed to pertain. While at the syntactical level the pertinence to a class implies the identity of an object to the class prototype, at the semantic level this is not compulsory. Pertaining to the same class, that is having the same architectural meaning, can be objects having approximately the same shape. Consequently in order to detect the pertinence of an object to a class, that is giving it an architectural meaning, two things are necessary: a date base containing the class prototypes to which the recognized objects are to be assigned and a tool able to "measure" the difference of two shapes.

keywords Image Analysis, Semantics
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id fa1d
authors Colley, Tim
year 1997
title Visualizing Information: Internet Guidelines for Distributing Architectural Research
source Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
summary A web site was designed and constructed for the Research + Demonstration Facility (RDF) as a masters thesis project to help educators teach future architects more interactively by using the dynamic medium of the Internet. Students and faculty will learn about evolving architectural research and technology as well as potential consequences of design decisions. Educators will be able to conduct online research, or tele-experiments, in the classroom thus allowing students to learn, in near real-time, the outcome or progress of research on and off campus. This project presents some of the possibilities of how the Internet can enhance re-search information delivery to students and faculty of architecture.
keywords Architectural Research; Internet Guidelines; Web Site Documentation
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2004/06/02 17:12

_id 123c
authors Coomans, M.K.D. and Timmermans, H.J.P.
year 1997
title Towards a Taxonomy of Virtual Reality User Interfaces
source Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV97), pp. 17-29
summary Virtual reality based user interfaces (VRUIs) are expected to bring about a revolution in computing. VR can potentially communicate large amounts of data in an easily understandable format. VR looks very promising, but it is still a very new interface technology for which very little application oriented knowledge is available. As a basis for such a future VRUI design theory, a taxonomy of VRUIs is required. A general model of human computer communication is formulated. This model constitutes a frame for the integration of partial taxonomies of human computer interaction that are found in the literature. The whole model constitutes a general user interface taxonomy. The field of VRUIs is described and delimited with respect to this taxonomy.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 4983
authors Cutting-Decelle, A.-F., Dubois, A.-M. and Fernandez, I.
year 1997
title Management and Integration of Product Information in Construction: Reality and Future Trends
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 5(2), pp. 19-46
summary For many years numerous efforts have been spent on the development of standardized approaches for modelling industrial information. During this period stand-alone software tools have been developed in most industries including the Building and Construction sector : Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools, technical software such as software development for energy analysis, project management systems, product databases etc. As this set of computer tools became more and more heterogeneous, the need for communication tools has emerged to enable data to be exchanged between them. Standardising data exchange then becomes a logical step in the improvement of the information management during the whole construction process. The aim of this paper is to put forward the state-of-the art in the domain of product model approaches and standards developments : ISO 10303 STEP, ISO 13584 P-LIB and ISO 15531 MANDATE. We will give a global overview of the existing applications in the construction sector, both in terms of product, or process models, most of them provided by either national or European projects.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id fd8b
authors Czernuszenko, M., Pape, D., Sandin, D., DeFanti, T., Dawe, G. and Brown, M.
year 1997
title The ImmersaDesk and Infinity Wall projection-based virtual reality displays
source Computer Graphics, 31(2): 46-49, May
summary Virtual reality (VR) can be defined as interactive computer graphics that provides viewer-centered perspective, large field of view and stereo. Head-mounted displays (HMDs) and BOOMs™ achieve these features with small display screens which move with the viewer, close to the viewer's eyes. Projection-based displays, supply these characteristics by placing large, fixed screens more distant from the viewer. The Electronic Visualization Laboratory (EVL) of the University of Illinois at Chicago has specialized in projection-based VR systems. EVL's projection-based VR display, the CAVE™ premiered at the SIGGRAPH 92 conference.In this article we present two new, CAVE-derived, projection-based VR displays developed at EVL: the ImmersaDesk™ and the Infinity Wall™, a VR version of the PowerWall. We describe the different requirements which led to their design, and compare these systems to other VR devices.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 40d7
authors Dalyrmple, Michael and Gerzso, Michael
year 1998
title Executable Drawings: The Computation of Digital Architecture
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 172-187
summary Architectural designs are principally represented by drawings. Usually, each drawing corresponds to one design or aspects of one design. On the other hand, one executable drawing corresponds to a set of designs. These drawings are the same as conventional drawings except that they have computer code or programs embedded in them. A specific design is the result of the computer executing the code in a drawing for a particular set of parameter values. If the parameters are changed, a new design or design variation is produced. With executable drawings, a CAD system is also a program editor. A designer not only designs by drawing but also programming. It fuses two activities: the first, drawing, is basic in architectural practice; and the second, progamming, or specifying the relation of outputs from inputs, is basic in computer system development. A consequence of executable drawings is that architectural form is represented by graphical entities (lines or shapes) as well as computer code or programs. This type of architecture we call digital architecture. Two simple examples are presented: first, the design of a building in terms of an executable drawing of the architects, Sangallo the Younger and Michelangelo, and second, a description of an object oriented implementation of a preliminary prototype of an executable drawing system written in 1997 which computes a simple office layout.
series ACADIA
last changed 1998/12/16 07:42

_id b8a4
authors Dani, Tushar H and Gadh, Rajit
year 1997
title Creation of concept shape designs via a virtual reality interface
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29 (8) (1997) pp. 555-563
summary This paper describes an approach for creating concept shape designs in a virtual reality environment--COVIRDS (COnceptual VIRtual Design System. Conceptdesign refers to the ab initio design of a product or part. In concept design, the product details such as shape features and exact dimensions are not rigidly definedand the designer has some freedom in determining the shape and dimensions of the product. Current CAD require the designer to specify shape and dimensions tocreate CAD models of products even though these are probably not necessary at the concept development stage. COVIRDS overcomes these drawbacks by providing abi-modal voice and hand-tracking based user interface to the VR-based CAD modeling environment. This interface allows rapid concept design creation withoutrequiring time consuming shape description and the tedious specifications of exact dimensions.
keywords Concept Shape Design, Virtual Reality Interfaces, Geometric Modeling
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 6112
authors Daru, Roel and Snijder, H.P.S.
year 1997
title GACAAD or AVOCAAD? CAAD and Genetic Algorithms for an Evolutionary Design Paradigm
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 145-161
summary One of the dominant paradigms in architecture is about its creation: it is done by human designers supported by tools like sketching, drawing or modelling and evaluation tools. The Darwinistic paradigm demands a paradigmatic switch from drawing, modelling and evaluation to the breeding of forms with a much more integrated generation and selecting process embedded in the computer machinery. This means a paradigm switch from a designer as the performer of (sketch, draw or modelling) work to a machine driven creation and selection process of forms with the designer as the supervisor, fully entitled to steer the process in some preferred directions. The designer creates by establishing the evolutionary rules and making choices among the architectural creatures emerging in rapid fire modethrough the synthesis performed by the machine. Natural selection is a Metaphor: in fact the designer plays Nature (or God). The creatures allowed to flourish are not adequate according to laws of Nature, but to the judgement of the designer (or to the designing team).
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 20ff
id 20ff
authors Derix, Christian
year 2004
title Building a Synthetic Cognizer
source Design Computation Cognition conference 2004, MIT
summary Understanding ‘space’ as a structured and dynamic system can provide us with insight into the central concept in the architectural discourse that so far has proven to withstand theoretical framing (McLuhan 1964). The basis for this theoretical assumption is that space is not a void left by solid matter but instead an emergent quality of action and interaction between individuals and groups with a physical environment (Hillier 1996). In this way it can be described as a parallel distributed system, a self-organising entity. Extrapolating from Luhmann’s theory of social systems (Luhmann 1984), a spatial system is autonomous from its progenitors, people, but remains intangible to a human observer due to its abstract nature and therefore has to be analysed by computed entities, synthetic cognisers, with the capacity to perceive. This poster shows an attempt to use another complex system, a distributed connected algorithm based on Kohonen’s self-organising feature maps – SOM (Kohonen 1997), as a “perceptual aid” for creating geometric mappings of these spatial systems that will shed light on our understanding of space by not representing space through our usual mechanics but by constructing artificial spatial cognisers with abilities to make spatial representations of their own. This allows us to be shown novel representations that can help us to see new differences and similarities in spatial configurations.
keywords architectural design, neural networks, cognition, representation
series other
type poster
last changed 2012/09/17 19:13

_id cebb
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen and Gross, Mark D.
year 1997
title Tools for Visual and Spatial Analysis of CAD Models - Implementing Computer Tools as a Means to Thinking about Architecture
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 189-202
summary The paper describes a suite of spatial analysis programs to support architectural design. Building these computational tools not only supports the task of spatial analysis for designers but it also helps us think about the spatial perception. We argue that building design software is an important vehicle for understanding architecture, using our efforts to build various visual and spatial analysis tools as examples.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 2a5e
authors Does, J. van der and Giró, H.
year 1997
title Design communication and image processing
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary In the proceedings of the first EAEA conference, 1993, I mentioned our first study focused on refining endoscopic video images of a detailed architectural model and drawings. The study was based on work with 900 subjects, of which 200 were professional architects. It has led to a number of technical improvements. In the second study we compared computer-aided design techniques with two techniques from the first study, endoscopic video recordings and coloured and black and white elevations and perspective drawings. Four different groups of 50 subjects took part in this research. We found that computer images are invariably judged to be of moderate value, while drawings yielded consistently high scores. Endoscopic video recordings of the scale model received high scores as far as emotional response is concerned, and moderate scores when the participants were questioned on the actual content of the recordings.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 2a09
authors Donath, Judith Stefania
year 1997
title Inhabiting the virtual city : the design of social environments for electronic communities
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Program in Media Arts & Sciences
summary The goal of this work is to develop an approach to the design of on-line social environments. My thesis is that, in order to foster the development of vibrant and viable online communities, the environment - i.e. the technical infrastructure and user interface - must provide the means to communicate social cues and information: the participants must be able to perceive the social patterns of activity and affiliation and the community must be able to evolve a fluid and subtle cultural vocabulary. The theoretical foundation for the research is drawn from traditional studies of society and culture and from observations of contemporary on-line systems. Starting with an analysis of the fundamental differences between real and virtual societies - most notably, the presence and absence of the body - the first section examines the ways social cues are communicated in the real world, discusses the limits imposed on on-line communities due to their mediated and bodiless nature, and explores directions that virtual societies can take that are impossible for physical ones. These ideas form the basis for the main part of the thesis, a design platform for creating sociable virtual environments. The focus of the discussion is on the analysis of a set of implemented design experiments that explore three areas of the platform: the visual representations of social phenomena, the role of information spaces as contexts for communication, and the presentation of self in the virtual world.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6b4a
authors Ekholm, Anders and Fridqvist Sverker
year 1997
title Concepts of Space in Computer Based Product Modelling and Design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The everyday understanding of space may be self-evident and unproblematic. However, as soon as we are asked for a formal definition, e.g. in the context of building classification or product modelling, the concept of space is subject of controversy and misunderstanding. To some, space is the emptiness in which things are embedded, i.e. something immaterial. To others, space has no separate existence but is a property of the material world. Still, according to both views, space can be experienced. In this paper we analyse some influential work within building classification and building product modelling and criticise these for applying a concept of space without factual reference. We explore the ontological foundations for the concept of space, and conclude that space is an aspect view on things; depending on the view, it may be seen both as a property of things and as a thing in itself. Finally we show how construction space can be represented as an object in a conceptual schema for computer based space information.
keywords Space, Building, Construction, Classification, Product Modelling, Aspect Model, Spatial Modelling, CAD
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 837b
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2000
title Using the World Wide Web as a Communication and Presentation Forum for Students of Architecture
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 61-64
summary Since 1997, the Institute for Industrial Building Production (ifib) has been carrying out upper level design studios under the framework of the Netzentwurf or Net-Studio. The Netzentwurf is categorized as a virtual design studio in that the environment for presentation, criticism and communication is web based. This allows lessons learned from research into Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) to be adapted to the special conditions indigenous to the architectural design studio. Indeed, an aim of the Netzentwurf is the creation and evolution of a design studio planing platform. In the Winter semester 1999-2000, ifib again carried out two Netzentwurf studios. involving approximately 30 students from the Faculty of Architecture, University of Karlsruhe. The projects differed from previous net studios in that both studios encompassed an inter-university character in addition to the established framework of the Netzentwurf. The first project, the re-use of Fort Kleber in Wolfisheim by Strasbourg, was carried out as part of the Virtual Upperrhine University of Architecture (VuuA) involving over 140 students from various disciplines in six institutions from five universities in France, Switzerland and Germany. The second project, entitled "Future, Inc.", involved the design of an office building for a scenario 20 years hence. This project was carried out in parallel with the Technical University Cottbus using the same methodology and program for two separate building sites.
keywords Virtual Design Studios, Architectural Graphics, Presentation Techniques
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 6594
authors Emdanat, Samir S and Vakalo, Emmanuel G.
year 1997
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 313-321
summary Shape grammars are generative formalisms that allow spatial computations to be carried out on shapes. This paper examines the assumptions, methodologies, and formalisms underlying shape grammar research in relation to architectural form and its making. The paper first establishes the criteria for evaluating the adequacy of a given generative system. Then, it applies them to the evaluation of the shape grammar formalism. Issues of the representation of style and language, procedural and declarative knowledge representation, as well as, the specificity and generalizability of the formalism will be addressed. The paper argues that, in its present state, shape grammar leaves a great deal to be desired in terms of its descriptive power and generalizability. The paper concludes by exploring some of the desired characteristics for languages of architectural form.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2004/08/16 17:55

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