CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 515

_id 536e
authors Bouman, Ole
year 1997
title RealSpace in QuickTimes: architecture and digitization
source Rotterdam: Nai Publishers
summary Time and space, drastically compressed by the computer, have become interchangeable. Time is compressed in that once everything has been reduced to 'bits' of information, it becomes simultaneously accessible. Space is compressed in that once everything has been reduced to 'bits' of information, it can be conveyed from A to B with the speed of light. As a result of digitization, everything is in the here and now. Before very long, the whole world will be on disk. Salvation is but a modem away. The digitization process is often seen in terms of (information) technology. That is to say, one hears a lot of talk about the digital media, about computer hardware, about the modem, mobile phone, dictaphone, remote control, buzzer, data glove and the cable or satellite links in between. Besides, our heads are spinning from the progress made in the field of software, in which multimedia applications, with their integration of text, image and sound, especially attract our attention. But digitization is not just a question of technology, it also involves a cultural reorganization. The question is not just what the cultural implications of digitization will be, but also why our culture should give rise to digitization in the first place. Culture is not simply a function of technology; the reverse is surely also true. Anyone who thinks about cultural implications, is interested in the effects of the computer. And indeed, those effects are overwhelming, providing enough material for endless speculation. The digital paradigm will entail a new image of humankind and a further dilution of the notion of social perfectibility; it will create new notions of time and space, a new concept of cause and effect and of hierarchy, a different sort of public sphere, a new view of matter, and so on. In the process it will indubitably alter our environment. Offices, shopping centres, dockyards, schools, hospitals, prisons, cultural institutions, even the private domain of the home: all the familiar design types will be up for review. Fascinated, we watch how the new wave accelerates the process of social change. The most popular sport nowadays is 'surfing' - because everyone is keen to display their grasp of dirty realism. But there is another way of looking at it: under what sort of circumstances is the process of digitization actually taking place? What conditions do we provide that enable technology to exert the influence it does? This is a perspective that leaves room for individual and collective responsibility. Technology is not some inevitable process sweeping history along in a dynamics of its own. Rather, it is the result of choices we ourselves make and these choices can be debated in a way that is rarely done at present: digitization thanks to or in spite of human culture, that is the question. In addition to the distinction between culture as the cause or the effect of digitization, there are a number of other distinctions that are accentuated by the computer. The best known and most widely reported is the generation gap. It is certainly stretching things a bit to write off everybody over the age of 35, as sometimes happens, but there is no getting around the fact that for a large group of people digitization simply does not exist. Anyone who has been in the bit business for a few years can't help noticing that mum and dad are living in a different place altogether. (But they, at least, still have a sense of place!) In addition to this, it is gradually becoming clear that the age-old distinction between market and individual interests are still relevant in the digital era. On the one hand, the advance of cybernetics is determined by the laws of the marketplace which this capital-intensive industry must satisfy. Increased efficiency, labour productivity and cost-effectiveness play a leading role. The consumer market is chiefly interested in what is 'marketable': info- and edutainment. On the other hand, an increasing number of people are not prepared to wait for what the market has to offer them. They set to work on their own, appropriate networks and software programs, create their own domains in cyberspace, domains that are free from the principle whereby the computer simply reproduces the old world, only faster and better. Here it is possible to create a different world, one that has never existed before. One, in which the Other finds a place. The computer works out a new paradigm for these creative spirits. In all these distinctions, architecture plays a key role. Owing to its many-sidedness, it excludes nothing and no one in advance. It is faced with the prospect of historic changes yet it has also created the preconditions for a digital culture. It is geared to the future, but has had plenty of experience with eternity. Owing to its status as the most expensive of arts, it is bound hand and foot to the laws of the marketplace. Yet it retains its capacity to provide scope for creativity and innovation, a margin of action that is free from standardization and regulation. The aim of RealSpace in QuickTimes is to show that the discipline of designing buildings, cities and landscapes is not only a exemplary illustration of the digital era but that it also provides scope for both collective and individual activity. It is not just architecture's charter that has been changed by the computer, but also its mandate. RealSpace in QuickTimes consists of an exhibition and an essay.
series other
email oleb@xs4all.nl
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cabb
authors Broughton, T., Tan, A. and Coates, P.S.
year 1997
title The Use of Genetic Programming In Exploring 3D Design Worlds - A Report of Two Projects by Msc Students at CECA UEL
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 885-915
summary Genetic algorithms are used to evolve rule systems for a generative process, in one case a shape grammar,which uses the "Dawkins Biomorph" paradigm of user driven choices to perform artificial selection, in the other a CA/Lindenmeyer system using the Hausdorff dimension of the resultant configuration to drive natural selection. (1) Using Genetic Programming in an interactive 3D shape grammar. A report of a generative system combining genetic programming (GP) and 3D shape grammars. The reasoning that backs up the basis for this work depends on the interpretation of design as search In this system, a 3D form is a computer program made up of functions (transformations) & terminals (building blocks). Each program evaluates into a structure. Hence, in this instance a program is synonymous with form. Building blocks of form are platonic solids (box, cylinder, etc.). A Variety of combinations of the simple affine transformations of translation, scaling, rotation together with Boolean operations of union, subtraction and intersection performed on the building blocks generate different configurations of 3D forms. Using to the methodology of genetic programming, an initial population of such programs are randomly generated,subjected to a test for fitness (the eyeball test). Individual programs that have passed the test are selected to be parents for reproducing the next generation of programs via the process of recombination. (2) Using a GA to evolve rule sets to achieve a goal configuration. The aim of these experiments was to build a framework in which a structure's form could be defined by a set of instructions encoded into its genetic make-up. This was achieved by combining a generative rule system commonly used to model biological growth with a genetic algorithm simulating the evolutionary process of selection to evolve an adaptive rule system capable of replicating any preselected 3D shape. The generative modelling technique used is a string rewriting Lindenmayer system the genes of the emergent structures are the production rules of the L-system, and the spatial representation of the structures uses the geometry of iso-spatial dense-packed spheres
series CAAD Futures
email p.s.coates@btinternet.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a9ff
authors Chiou, Shang Chia and Krishnamurti, Ramesh
year 1997
title A Grammar of Taiwanese Temples
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 297-311
summary Many different types of traditional Chinese buildings share quite similar architectural forms. This paper extends a shape grammar for Taiwanese vernacular dwellings (Chiou and Krishnamurti, 1995 a, b, c; 1996) to the traditional temple designs. Our grammar was derived from considerations of the traditional processes of design and construction of Taiwanese vernacular dwellings and from cultural influences. The processes for temple design and construction were similar; consequently, a temple grammar can be derived from this grammar. In this paper, we do so by augmenting the latter with additional rules that take into consideration specific changes to the spatial form that distinguish the traditional temples.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 13:55

_id ga9921
id ga9921
authors Coates, P.S. and Hazarika, L.
year 1999
title The use of genetic programming for applications in the field of spatial composition
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Architectural design teaching using computers has been a preoccupation of CECA since 1991. All design tutors provide their students with a set of models and ways to form, and we have explored a set of approaches including cellular automata, genetic programming ,agent based modelling and shape grammars as additional tools with which to explore architectural ( and architectonic) ideas.This paper discusses the use of genetic programming (G.P.) for applications in the field of spatial composition. CECA has been developing the use of Genetic Programming for some time ( see references ) and has covered the evolution of L-Systems production rules( coates 1997, 1999b), and the evolution of generative grammars of form (Coates 1998 1999a). The G.P. was used to generate three-dimensional spatial forms from a set of geometrical structures .The approach uses genetic programming with a Genetic Library (G.Lib) .G.P. provides a way to genetically breed a computer program to solve a problem.G. Lib. enables genetic programming to define potentially useful subroutines dynamically during a run .* Exploring a shape grammar consisting of simple solid primitives and transformations. * Applying a simple fitness function to the solid breeding G.P.* Exploring a shape grammar of composite surface objects. * Developing grammarsfor existing buildings, and creating hybrids. * Exploring the shape grammar of abuilding within a G.P.We will report on new work using a range of different morphologies ( boolean operations, surface operations and grammars of style ) and describe the use of objective functions ( natural selection) and the "eyeball test" ( artificial selection) as ways of controlling and exploring the design spaces thus defined.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 6594
authors Emdanat, Samir S and Vakalo, Emmanuel G.
year 1997
title SHAPE GRAMMARS: AN ASSESSMENT OF THEIR UTILITY IN ARCHITECTURE
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 313-321
summary Shape grammars are generative formalisms that allow spatial computations to be carried out on shapes. This paper examines the assumptions, methodologies, and formalisms underlying shape grammar research in relation to architectural form and its making. The paper first establishes the criteria for evaluating the adequacy of a given generative system. Then, it applies them to the evaluation of the shape grammar formalism. Issues of the representation of style and language, procedural and declarative knowledge representation, as well as, the specificity and generalizability of the formalism will be addressed. The paper argues that, in its present state, shape grammar leaves a great deal to be desired in terms of its descriptive power and generalizability. The paper concludes by exploring some of the desired characteristics for languages of architectural form.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2004/08/16 17:55

_id 041e
authors Hall, Theodore W.
year 1997
title Hand-Eye Coordination in Virtual Reality, Using a Desktop Display, Stereo Glasses and a 3-D Mouse
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 73-82
summary Many virtual-reality displays augment the user’s view of the real world but do not completely mask it out or replace it. Intuitive control and realistic interaction with these displays depend on accurate hand-eye coordination: the projected image of a 3-D cursor in virtual space should align visually with the real position of the 3-D input device that controls it. This paper discusses some of the considerations and presents algorithms for coordinating the physical and virtual worlds.
series CAADRIA
email twhall@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 1999/02/01 11:49

_id c5ff
authors Hellgardt, Michael and Kundu, Sourav
year 1997
title Spatium - A System for the Definition and Design of Shape Grammars
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 83-96
summary It is shown how Augmented Transition Networks (ATN) can be gradually programmed with shape grammar structures. This work is inspired by natural language parsing. Another major reference is the space-between or spatium assumption. An application is given with a simulation of Palladio villas. Then is shown that ATN frames can be encoded in a way that allows their use without specific knowledge of computer modeling. Connections between human and machine learning are touched on.
series CAAD Futures
email michael@hellgar.iaf.nl
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id e82f
authors Howe, A Scott
year 1997
title Designing for Automated Construction
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 83-92
summary The majority of automated construction research and development has been bottom-up, from the construction/engineering side rather than top-down from the design end. In order to optimize the use of automated technology, it is important that design principles based on the technology are considered. This paper seeks to address topics related to designing robotic systems for construction, and developing overall design principles for top-down architect/design applications. The research herein is divided into a theoretical research programme for the purpose of deriving a simple shape grammar and a simulation research programme for understanding component connections and robotic manipulation. The second part of this paper introduces a concept automated construction system designed according to the principles derived from the investigation.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 11:50

_id aa79
authors Kardos, K.
year 1997
title Laboratorial verification of ideas for urban space compositional design completion
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary The subject-matter of the contribution is presentation of the non-conventional didactical methods application in architectural education and research at the Faculty of Architecture of the Slovak Technical University in Bratislava. It is an application of a laboratorial method of architectural endoscopy based on a model urban space simulation principle and on the acquirement of an electrooptical visual display image information from a recording periscope unit interaction in the real time and the real model space, with the option of spontaneous semantic evaluation of the output on a video-monitor and of a synchronic timing process recording on a magnetoscope. Application of a consequential powerful PC-configuration with creative software enables further digital sequential processing both on the graphical output and for multimedial presentation.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email matumoto@archi.ace.nitech.ac.jp
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 6d59
authors Papamichael, K., LaPorta, J. and Chauvet, H.
year 1997
title Building Design Advisor: automated integration of multiple simulation tools
source Automation in Construction 6 (4) (1997) pp. 341-352
summary The Building Design Advisor (BDA) is a software environment that supports the integrated use of multiple analysis and visualization tools throughout the building design process, from the initial, conceptual and schematic phases to the detailed specification of building components and systems. Based on a comprehensive design theory, the BDA uses an object-oriented representation of the building and its context, and acts as a data manager and process controller to allow building designers to benefit from the capabilities of multiple tools. The BDA provides a graphical user interface that consists of two main elements: the Building Browser and the Decision Desktop. The Browser allows building designers to quickly navigate through the multitude of descriptive and performance parameters addressed by the analysis and visualization tools linked to the BDA. Through the Browser the user can edit the values of input parameters and select any number of input and/or output parameters for display in the Decision Desktop. The Desktop allows building designers to compare multiple design alternatives with respect to multiple descriptive and performance parameters addressed by the tools linked to the BDA. The BDA is implemented as a Windows®-based application for personal computers. Its initial version is linked to a Schematic Graphic Editor (SGE), which allows designers to quickly and easily specify the geometric characteristics of building components and systems. For every object created in the SGE, the BDA activates a Default Value Selector (DVS) mechanism that selects `smart' default values from a Prototypes Database for all non-geometric parameters required as input to the analysis and visualization tools linked to the BDA. In addition to the SGE that is an integral part of its user interface, the initial version of the BDA is linked to a daylight analysis tool, an energy analysis tool, and a multimedia, Web-based Case Studies Database (CSD). The next version of the BDA will be linked to additional analysis tools, such as the DOE-2 (thermal, energy and energy cost) and RADIANCE (day/lighting and rendering) computer programs. Plans for the future include the development of links to cost estimating and environmental impact modules, building rating systems, CAD software and electronic product catalogs.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id e941
authors Sariyildiz, Sevil, Durmisevic, Sanja and Ploco, Jasmina
year 1997
title Pattern Grammar within the Language of Architecture
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 299-311
summary Technology plays an important role in the design and designing process, influencing the architectural expressions and giving an impulse to new developments of architectural language. It has been allways the stimulating push for the generation of new concepts, spaces and technics in architectural design. Especially the developments, in the field of material technology and construction industry. Lately, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) pledge to have an important impact on designing practice as well as a part of the technological developments. In order to widen the application of CAAD in designers realm, it is necessary to interpose new design tools and methods. This means introducing CAAD more as a "designing tool" and making its employment feasible from the very first stages of design process - during the conceptual phase. Pattern Grammars, which we will introduce in this paper is such a method that provides support to designers, architects and urban planners. These patterns, based on complex 3D spatial geometrical polyhedra and polytopes, when generated, have form and structure at the same time. Parallel with geometry creation, aspects such as accessibility, functionality and integrity of a building should be taken in consideration as well. Working with pattern grammar within CAAD environment, enables faster generating of concepts and examination of spatial qualities, offering at the same time higher standards of design flexibility and enormous variety. It also introduces new design approaches to stimulate the innovative ideas concerning the design. This, altogether, represents an added value of CAAD.
keywords CAAD Tools, Pattern Grammar, Substitution Method
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 7b96
authors Schley, M., Buday, R., Sanders, K. and Smith, D. (eds.)
year 1997
title AIA CAD layer guidelines
source Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects Press
summary The power and potential of computer-aided design (CAD) is based on the ability to reuse and share information. This is particularly true in building design and construction, a field that involves extensive information and teamwork between a variety of consultants. CAD provides both a common medium of exchange and a tool for producing the documentation required for construction and management. The key to realizing the potential of CAD is using common organizing principles. In particular, standard organization of files and layers is essential for efficient work and communication. Virtually all CAD systems support the concept of layers. This function allows graphic information to be grouped for display or plotting purposes. Intelligent use of layers can reduce drawing time and improve drawing coordination. By turning selected layers on or off, a variety of different plotted sheets can be produced. The layer is the basic CAD tool for managing visual information. By making it possible to reuse information, layers reduce drawing time and improve coordination. Layers and the new class libraries and object data complement, rather than compete with each other. Using layers to manage the visual aspects of graphic entities, with class libraries and object data to store the non-graphic data, gives architects an efficient way to work in CAD.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ce96
authors Yeung, Chris
year 1997
title A Web-Based VRML Collaborative Design Tool for Architecture Studies
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper describes a system designed to help architecture students in designing three-dimensional objects in a collaborative way. When implementing this system, VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language), Java and Javascript are used. This system uses the World Wide Web, which is getting more and more popular in recent years, as the media to transfer information all over the world.

The system allows many users to view three-dimensional objects, change attributes of the objects, discuss and design at the same time. These users can be located in different parts of the world. Each only needs a computer that is connected to the Internet and a web browser that can display VRML objects to use the system. The computer can be any hardware platform running any Operating System.

The objective of this project is to develop a system that can run on any computer hardware and software platform. Without any limitation on hardware and software platform, people from different parts of the world can work collaboratively to design architectural objects.

 

keywords Collaborative Design, VRML
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email guyver@arch.hku.hk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/yeung1/present/index.htm
last changed 2008/06/12 19:12

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 75a8
authors Achten, Henri H.
year 1997
title Generic representations : an approach for modelling procedural and declarative knowledge of building types in architectural design
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary The building type is a knowledge structure that is recognised as an important element in the architectural design process. For an architect, the type provides information about norms, layout, appearance, etc. of the kind of building that is being designed. Questions that seem unresolved about (computational) approaches to building types are the relationship between the many kinds of instances that are generally recognised as belonging to a particular building type, the way a type can deal with varying briefs (or with mixed use), and how a type can accommodate different sites. Approaches that aim to model building types as data structures of interrelated variables (so-called ‘prototypes’) face problems clarifying these questions. The research work at hand proposes to investigate the role of knowledge associated with building types in the design process. Knowledge of the building type must be represented during the design process. Therefore, it is necessary to find a representation which supports design decisions, supports the changes and transformations of the design during the design process, encompasses knowledge of the design task, and which relates to the way architects design. It is proposed in the research work that graphic representations can be used as a medium to encode knowledge of the building type. This is possible if they consistently encode the things they represent; if their knowledge content can be derived, and if they are versatile enough to support a design process of a building belonging to a type. A graphic representation consists of graphic entities such as vertices, lines, planes, shapes, symbols, etc. Establishing a graphic representation implies making design decisions with respect to these entities. Therefore it is necessary to identify the elements of the graphic representation that play a role in decision making. An approach based on the concept of ‘graphic units’ is developed. A graphic unit is a particular set of graphic entities that has some constant meaning. Examples are: zone, circulation scheme, axial system, and contour. Each graphic unit implies a particular kind of design decision (e.g. functional areas, system of circulation, spatial organisation, and layout of the building). By differentiating between appearance and meaning, it is possible to define the graphic unit relatively shape-independent. If a number of graphic representations have the same graphic units, they deal with the same kind of design decisions. Graphic representations that have such a specifically defined knowledge content are called ‘generic representations.’ An analysis of over 220 graphic representations in the literature on architecture results in 24 graphic units and 50 generic representations. For each generic representation the design decisions are identified. These decisions are informed by the nature of the design task at hand. If the design task is a building belonging to a building type, then knowledge of the building type is required. In a single generic representation knowledge of norms, rules, and principles associated with the building type are used. Therefore, a single generic representation encodes declarative knowledge of the building type. A sequence of generic representations encodes a series of design decisions which are informed by the design task. If the design task is a building type, then procedural knowledge of the building type is used. By means of the graphic unit and generic representation, it is possible to identify a number of relations that determine sequences of generic representations. These relations are: additional graphic units, themes of generic representations, and successive graphic units. Additional graphic units defines subsequent generic representations by adding a new graphic unit. Themes of generic representations defines groups of generic representations that deal with the same kind of design decisions. Successive graphic units defines preconditions for subsequent or previous generic representations. On the basis of themes it is possible to define six general sequences of generic representations. On the basis of additional and successive graphic units it is possible to define sequences of generic representations in themes. On the basis of these sequences, one particular sequence of 23 generic representations is defined. The particular sequence of generic representations structures the decision process of a building type. In order to test this assertion, the particular sequence is applied to the office building type. For each generic representation, it is possible to establish a graphic representation that follows the definition of the graphic units and to apply the required statements from the office building knowledge base. The application results in a sequence of graphic representations that particularises an office building design. Implementation of seven generic representations in a computer aided design system demonstrates the use of generic representations for design support. The set is large enough to provide additional weight to the conclusion that generic representations map declarative and procedural knowledge of the building type.
series thesis:PhD
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
more http://alexandria.tue.nl/extra2/9703788.pdf
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 730e
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1997
title Implementation of IT and CAD - what can Architect schools do?
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 83-92
summary In Sweden representatives from the Construction industry have put forward a research and development program called: "IT-Bygg 2002 -Implementation". It aims at making IT the vehicle for decreasing the building costs and at the same time getting better quality and efficiency out of the industry. A seminar was held with some of the most experienced researchers, developers and practitioners of CAD in construction in Sweden. The activities were recorded and annotated, analysed and put together afterwards; then presented to the participants to agree on. Co-operation is the key to get to the goals - IT and CAD are just the means to improve it. Co-operation in a phase of implementation is enough problematic without the technical difficulties in using computer programs created by the computer industry primarily for commercial reasons. The suggestion is that cooperation between software companies within Sweden will make a greater market to share than the sum of all individual efforts. In the short term, 2 - 5 years, implementation of CAD and IT will demand a large amount of educational efforts from all actors in the construction process. In the process of today the architect is looked upon as a natural coordinator of the design phase. In the integrated process the architect's methods and knowledge are central and must be spread to other categories of actors - what a challenge! At least in Sweden the number of researchers and educators in CAAD is easily counted. How do we make the most of it?
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id d35f
authors Akin, O.
year 1997
title Researching Descriptive Models of Design
source Automation in Construction 7 (2-3) (1998) pp. 97-100
summary This special double issue is a result of the international symposium and workshop on „Descriptive Models of Design“ wich was held during July 1-5, 1996, at Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey. The primary goal of the symposium was to promote greater understanding and to develop recommendations for funding policy and practices in the area of descriptive models of design.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id a93b
authors Anders, Peter
year 1997
title Cybrids: Integrating Cognitive and Physical Space in Architecture
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 17-34
summary People regularly use non-physical, cognitive spaces to navigate and think. These spaces are important to architects in the design and planning of physical buildings. Cognitive spaces inform design - often underlying principles of architectural composition. They include zones of privacy, territory and the space of memory and visual thought. They let us to map our environment, model or plan projects, even imagine places like Heaven or Hell.

Cyberspace is an electronic extension of this cognitive space. Designers of virtual environments already know the power these spaces have on the imagination. Computers are no longer just tools for projecting buildings. They change the very substance of design. Cyberspace is itself a subject for design. With computers architects can design space both for physical and non-physical media. A conscious integration of cognitive and physical space in architecture can affect construction and maintenance costs, and the impact on natural and urban environments.

This paper is about the convergence of physical and electronic space and its potential effects on architecture. The first part of the paper will define cognitive space and its relationship to cyberspace. The second part will relate cyberspace to the production of architecture. Finally, a recent project done at the University of Michigan Graduate School of Architecture will illustrate the integration of physical and cyberspaces.

series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0c91
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1997
title Computer - Tool vs. Medium
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary We have arrived an important juncture in the history of computing in our profession: This history is long enough to reveal clear trends in the use of computing, but not long to institutionalize them. As computers peremate every area of architecture - from design and construction documents to project administration and site supervision - can “virtual practice” be far behind? In the old days, there were basically two ways of architects working. Under stress. Or under lots more stress. Over time, someone forwarded the radical motion that the job could be easier, you could actually get more work done. Architects still have been looking for ways to produce more work in less time. They need a more productive work environment. The ideal environment would integrate man and machine (computer) in total harmony. As more and more architects and firms invest more and more time, money, and effort into particular ways of using computers, these practices will become resistant to change. Now is the time to decide if computing is developing the way we think it should. Enabled and vastly accelerated by technology, and driven by imperatives for cost efficiency, flexibility, and responsiveness, work in the design sector is changing in every respect. It is stands to reason that architects must change too - on every level - not only by expanding the scope of their design concerns, but by altering design process. Very often we can read, that the recent new technologies, the availability of computers and software, imply that use of CAAD software in design office is growing enormously and computers really have changed the production of contract documents in architectural offices.
keywords Computers, CAAD, Cyberreal, Design, Interactive, Medium, Sketches, Tools, Virtual Reality
series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/asan/asanowic.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8ec9
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 1997
title Incompatible Pencil - Chance for Changing in Design Process
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 93-101
summary The existing Caad systems limit designers creativity by constraining them to work with prototypes provided by the system's knowledge base. Most think of computers as drafting machines and consider CAAD models as merely proposals for future buildings. But this kind of thinking (computers as simple drafting machines) seems to be a way without future. New media demands new process and new process demands new media. We have to give some thougt to impact of CAAD on the design process and in which part of it CAAD can add new value. In this paper there will be considered two ways of using of computers. First - creation of architectural form in an architect's mind and projects visualisation with using renderings, animation and virtual reality. In the second part - computer techniques are investigated as a medium of creation. Unlike a conventional drawing the design object within computer has a life of its own. In computer space design and the final product are one. Computer creates environments for new kind of design activities. In fact, many dimensions of meaning in cyberspace have led to a cyberreal architecture that is sure to have dramatic consequences for the profession.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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