CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 496

_id 34b8
authors Batie, D.L.
year 1997
title The incorporation of construction history in architectural history: the HISTCON interactive computer program
source Automation in Construction 6 (4) (1997) pp. 275-285
summary Current teaching methods for architectural history seldom embrace building technology as an essential component of study. Accepting the premise that architectural history is a fundamental component to the overall architectural learning environment, it is argued that the study of construction history will further enhance student knowledge. This hypothesis created an opportunity to investigate how the study of construction history could be incorporated to strengthen present teaching methods. Strategies for teaching architectural history were analyzed with the determination that an incorporation of educational instructional design applications using object-oriented programming and hypermedia provided the optimal solution. This evaluation led to the development of the HISTCON interactive, multimedia educational computer program. Used initially to teach 19th Century iron and steel construction history, the composition of the program provides the mechanism to test the significance of construction history in the study of architectural history. Future development of the program will provide a method to illustrate construction history throughout the history of architecture. The study of architectural history, using a construction oriented methodology, is shown to be positively correlated to increased understanding of architectural components relevant to architectural history and building construction.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 77bc
authors Cohen, S., Elber, G. and Bar-Yehuda, R.
year 1997
title Matching of freeform curves
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29 (5) (1997) pp. 369-378
summary Freeform parametric curves are extensively employed in various fields such as computer graphics, computer vision, robotics, and geometric modeling. While manyapplications exploit and combine univariate freeform entities into more complex forms such as sculptured surfaces, the problem of a fair or even optimal relativeparameterization of freeforms, under some norm, has been rarely considered. In this work, we present a scheme that closely approximates the optimal relativematching between two or even n given freeform curves, under a user's prescribed norm that is based on differential properties of the curves. This matching iscomputed as a reparameterization of n - 1 of the curves that can be applied explicitly using composition. The proposed matching algorithm is completely automaticand has been successfully employed in different applications with several demonstrated herein: metamorphosis of freeform curves with feature preservations, keyframe interpolation for animation, self-intersection free ruled surface construction, and automatic matching of rail curves of blending surfaces.
keywords Dynamic Programming, Tangent/Gauss Map, Feature Recognition, Fairness
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id a106
authors Martelli, T.
year 1997
title Automatic Procedure for the Dimensioning and Arrangement of Space Units of an Architectural Organism
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The application of a Mathematical Programming (M.P.) technique, typical of Operational Research (O. R.), is proposed as a means to cope with the decisional problem of layout dimensioning and arrangement. Within the ambit of O.R., Mathematical Programming. deals with decisional problems of simplest structure: only one decision factor, only one preference function, complete (deterministic) knowledge of the environment in which one operates.

Such a problem, in standard form, presents an objective function Z=f(x), of n variables x, to be minimized and a system of linear equations and/or inequalities, on the same variables, which represent the constraints and which define an admissible area for the solution.

The architectural organism is modelled as an assembly of parallelepiped shaped space entities or units, provided with a certain number of "holes" that permit functional corresponding connection. The pursued intent being optimal assembly.

The model, in its mathematical form, fits a standard Non-Linear M.P. (N.L.P.) problem, since the objective function Z is non-linear and the constraints are represented by inequalities. In its graphic form it reproduces an image of all the space units constituting the organism; moreover it is able to represent these units, in their logical and physical individuality, and their mutual relationship, as well as the ones with the external environment.

keywords Layout Dimensioning, Modelling, Mathematical Programming, Gradient Method
series eCAADe
email bcolajan@mbox.unipa.it
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/martelli/martelli.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 0286
authors Will, Barry F. and Siu-Pan Li , Thomas
year 1997
title Computers for Windows: Interactive Optimization Tools for Architects designing openings in walls (IOTA)
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary Size, shape and disposition of windows in walls has long been an integral expression of style in architecture. As buildings have grown taller the relationships of the windows to the ground plane and to the surrounding environments have become more complex and difficult to predict. Traditionally architects have had to use their own knowledge, experience and feelings in the design of windows. There may be few, if any, scientific bases for their decisions. The difficulty in making good design decisions is compounded because many criteria for window design, such as daylight, sunlight, ventilation, sound, view and privacy have to be considered simultaneously. It is here that computers can help, on the one hand, by providing ‘expert knowledge’ so that architects can consult the cumulative knowledge database before making a decision, whilst on the other hand, evaluations of the decisions taken can be compared with a given standard or with alternative solutions.

‘Expert knowledge’ provision has been made possible by the introduction of hypertext, the advancement of the world wide web and the development of large scale data-storage media. Much of the computer’s value to the architects lies in its ability to assist in the evaluation of a range of performance criteria. Without the help of a computer, architects are faced with impossibly complex arrays of solutions. This paper illustrates an evaluation tool for two factors which are important to the window design. The two factors to be investigated in this paper are sunlighting and views out of windows.

Sunlight is a quantitative factor that can theoretically be assessed by some mathematical formulae provided there is sufficient information for calculation but when total cumulative effects of insolation through the different seasons is required, in addition to yearly figures, a design in real-time evolution requires substantial computing power. Views out of windows are qualitative and subjective. They present difficulties in measurement by the use of conventional mathematical tools. These two fields of impact in window design are explored to demonstrate how computers can be used in assessing various options to produce optimal design solutions. This paper explains the methodologies, theories and principles underlying these evaluation tools. It also illustrates how an evaluation tool can be used as a design tool during the design process.

keywords Sunlight, View, Window Design, Performance Evaluation, Expert Systems, Simulation, Fuzzy LogicExpert Systems, Simulation, Fuzzy Logic
series eCAADe
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/li/li.htm
last changed 2003/03/05 12:14

_id 5fc6
authors Yeh, I.
year 1997
title Application of neural networks to automatic soil pressure balance control for shield tunneling
source Automation in Construction 5 (5) (1997) pp. 421-426
summary In this paper, a shield control system software to balance soil pressure on the shield cutting face is described. This software, which adjusts the speed of the shield jack and the speed of the screw conveyor, is based on a neural network. The basic structure of the control system software consists of a modeling mechanism and a control mechanism. The modeling mechanism of this sytem has a learning function based on a back-propagation neural network to model the mechanism of the soil pressure in the soil room of the shield. The learning function renews the model in accordance with the historical records of shield operation. The control mechanism of this system has a searching function to find the optimal value of the desired speed of the shield jack and the screw conveyor to reach the desired soil pressure. This system has been tested on a tunneling project in Taipei City. The results showed that the control method of this system is very effective as a means of controlling the shield in various start states.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 8030
authors Cheng, F.
year 1997
title Visual simulation techniques on environmental cognition systems.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary Findings of the simulation experiments using simple (inexpensive) simulation set-ups which were conducted by students of the fourth semester studying the course furniture design. They worked on two different examples with an emphasis on communication and orientation systems. Research findings of lightsimulation experiments at the SI with the emphasis on the miniaturization of simulation objects and optimisation of procedures.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email H.H.Giro@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id b3b1
authors Ebrahim, Mostafa Abdel-Bary
year 1997
title Application and evaluation of digital image techniques in close range photogrammetry
source University of Innsbruck
summary Most of the orthomapping techniques that are used in the present are restricted to surfaces that arise from a function of 'ground co- ordinates' z = f (x, y) , so-called 2.5D objects. Some techniques are also restricted to surfaces with kind of smooth shape or even to regular surfaces, but all of them are established to rectify images (although increasingly digitally). A new approach has been established for digital restitution and orthomapping of close range objects of almost any shape and size and with almost no restriction to images or objects. The idea of this approach is an inversion of the photographic technique and is (on the contrary to the 'rectification approach') strictly object oriented. All of the objects are regarded to be describable in their geometrical shape by a number of particular faces that can be regular or irregular but can anyway be created in a CAD environment. The data needed to get this surface can come from any photogrammetric, tachometric or other source with any particular one wants to have for the results. All the details that lie on that surface don't have to be restituted by analog or analytical point measurement but can after that be projected onto this surface from any photo, from any side and with any camera they have been taken. A 'Digital Projector' does the projection of the photos from the same positions and with the same inner orientation as of photographic camera. Using this approach any measurements of any details on the facades can be done easily. No details of the object can be neglected, none can be forgotten, no prior filtering of details has preceded this using. The full information of the original photos is available in the results. The results of the restitution can be presented in many ways. One of them is create orthoimages in any scale. Other results are any perspective or parallel view of the object. Other use of the strict 3D map-covered object for visualization (e.g. in architecture and archaeology application) is possible  
keywords Digital Image; Digital Projector; Close Range Photogrammetry; Architectural Photogrammetry; 2.5d Objects; Visualization
series thesis:PhD
email ebrahim@acc.aun.eun.eg
more http://www.arcs.ac.at/dissdb/rn027356
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id d2e0
id d2e0
authors Horne M, Hill R, Underwood C
year 1997
title Visualisation of Photovoltaic Clad Buildings
source International Conference on Information Visualisation -IV 97, London, 27-29 August 1997, ISBN 0 8186 8076 8
summary This paper describes a study carried out to investigate the capabilities of computer aided design software for the visualisation of building elevations and detail, with focus on the representation of photovoltaic cells in facade architecture. The development of photovoltaic (PV) technology, converting energy from sunlight into electricity, has resulted in the emergence of PV as a building material. This has generated much debate on the aesthetic implications of PV integrated buildings. PV introduces a particularly complex set of requirements not present in traditional cladding materials. As well as the physical characteristics of the material, there is a need to consider factors such as orientation to the sun, and shadows cast by neighbouring buildings. Architects, engineers, developers, clients and the general public all need to be able to visualise proposed designs, either of new or refurbished buildings. This study investigates both the process and end results of computer visualisation in the context of photovoltaic clad buildings.
keywords Visualisation, PV, CAD evaluation
series other
type normal paper
email m.horne@unn.ac.uk
last changed 2006/06/08 20:54

_id diss_marsh
id diss_marsh
authors Marsh, A.J.
year 1997
title Performance Analysis and Conceptual Design
source School of Architecture and Fine Arts, University of Western Australia
summary A significant amount of the research referred to by Manning has been directed into the development of computer software for building simulation and performance analysis. A wide range of computational tools are now available and see relatively widespread use in both research and commercial applications. The focus of development in this area has long been on the accurate simulation of fundamental physical processes, such as the mechanisms of heat flow though materials, turbulent air movement and the inter-reflection of light. The adequate description of boundary conditions for such calculations usually requires a very detailed mathematical model. This has tended to produce tools with a very engineering-oriented and solution-based approach. Whilst becoming increasingly popular amongst building services engineers, there has been a relatively slow response to this technology amongst architects. There are some areas of the world, particularly the UK and Germany, where the use of such tools on larger projects is routine. However, this is almost exclusively during the latter stages of a project and usually for purposes of plant sizing or final design validation. The original conceptual work, building form and the selection of materials being the result of an aesthetic and intuitive process, sometimes based solely on precedent. There is no argument that an experienced designer is capable of producing an excellent design in this way. However, not all building designers are experienced, and even fewer have a complete understanding of the fundamental physical processes involved in building performance. These processes can be complex and often highly inter-related, often even counter-intuitive. It is the central argument of this thesis that the needs of the building designer are quite different from the needs of the building services engineer, and that existing building design and performance analysis tools poorly serve these needs. It will be argued that the extensive quantitative input requirement in such tools acts to produce a psychological separation between the act of design and the act of analysis. At the conceptual stage, building geometry is fluid and subject to constant change, with solid quantitative information relatively scarce. Having to measure off surface areas or search out the emissivity of a particular material forces the designer to think mathematically at a time when they are thinking intuitively. It is, however, at this intuitive stage that the greatest potential exists for performance efficiencies and environmental economies. The right orientation and fenestration choice can halve the airconditioning requirement. Incorporating passive solar elements and natural ventilation pathways can eliminate it altogether. The building form can even be designed to provide shading using its own fabric, without any need for additional structure or applied shading. It is significantly more difficult and costly to retrofit these features at a later stage in a project’s development. If the role of the design tool is to serve the design process, then a new approach is required to accommodate the conceptual phase. This thesis presents a number of ideas on what that approach may be, accompanied by some example software that demonstrates their implementation.
series thesis:PhD
more http://www.squ1.com/site.html
last changed 2003/11/28 06:33

_id 0de7
authors Müller, Christian
year 1997
title An Advanced Groupware Approach for an Integrated Planning Process in Building Construction
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 475-480
summary Increasing complexity of today's buildings requires a high level of integration in the planning process. Common planning strategies, where individual project partners cooperate mainly to exchange results, are not suitable to jointly develop project goals and objectives. Integrated planning, a more holistic approach to deal with complex problems, is based on a high degree of communication among team members and leads to a goal oriented cooperation. This paper focuses on the application of an advanced groupware approach suitable to support efficiently an integrated design process in construction. First an appropriate planning process model will be presented, which differs from common product model approaches and takes into account the great importance of team- and goal orientation in integrated planning. Then the idea of an open CSCW platform is proposed, which basic structure and containing elements are based on the defined planning model. Appropriate cooperative planning scenarios can then be ad-hoc modeled and configured dynamically on this CSCW platform according to the requirements of the specific project. For the participants of the planning process, the resulting groupware approach represents an integrated computer based working environment. This environment allows a kind of immersion into the project. Finally a prototypical implementation of this approach will be shortly discussed.
series CAAD Futures
email cmueller@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id 77fe
authors Shohet, I.M. and Rosenfeld, Y.
year 1997
title Robotic mapping of building interior--precision analysis
source Automation in Construction 7 (1) (1997) pp. 1-12
summary Autonomous map-making of building interiors is becoming a widely used tool in robotics for various applications. One of the major problems to be dealt with in the development of this tool is the precision of the coordinates obtained in the process of mapping. Previous developments in map-making focused on the empirical examination of the accuracies. This paper presents an analysis of the precision of a map created by a robotic arm of 6 articulated degrees of freedom mounted on a mobile carriage and utilizing a laser beam range-finder for horizontal and vertical rotational scanning. The analysis shows that two parameters are the main factors affecting the precision of the map: (1) orientation of the carriage on which the robot is mounted and (2) distance between the sensor and the walls being scanned. It was found that if the carriage location accuracy is 1 cm, then in order to achieve coordinate precision not worse than 3 cm: (1) the carriage orientation accuracy must be at least 0.1° and (2) the distance between the sensor and the walls being scanned should not exceed 3 m.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id f5f8
id f5f8
authors Goldman, Glen
year 1997
title ARCHITECTURAL GRAPHICS: TRADITIONAL AND DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
source Prentice Hall (ISBN: 0-13-341967)
summary The media used to create architectural drawings are now more varied than ever before. Basic principles of drawing types, from two-dimensional orthographic projections (plans, elevations, etc.) to perspective to axonometrics are media independent. While "what the images are" may be constant, the way in which they are created and modified is, at time, media dependent and therefore variable. Because we can only modify what we create, the way an image or model is created (and therefore the media employed) affects its future uses and possibilities. Architectural Graphics is written from the point of view of today's architects - one who must be comfortable working in a variety of media. A variety of diagrams, photos, and simple drawings combine with well-executed finished samples to illustrate the basic principles of graphic communication, as well as the specific characteristics of both traditional and digital media.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/09/18 17:06

_id 765e
authors Mumma, S.A. and Bolin, R.J.
year 1997
title Energy optimized-ventilation constrained variable air volume system control
source Automation in Construction 6 (5-6) (1997) pp. 463-470
summary The analytical energy performance of an advanced energy optimized-ventilation constrained control approach to variable air volume systems was compared to four other controls. The other controls are either currently used or have been proposed in the literature. The advanced control demonstrated its potential to meet the ventilation requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 for every zone of the building with minimal energy consumption. The analytical work was carried out in a single story prototypical commercial building. The building was analyzed in five US cities to provide insight into the impact of climate on the performance of the advanced control. The advanced control consumed less total energy, considerably less in some cities, than the other four controls. The advanced control provides an excellent opportunity to apply to buildings new automation equipment and software never attempted before.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 2dc0
authors Arkin, H. and Paciuk, M.
year 1997
title Evaluating intelligent buildings according to level of service systems integration
source Automation in Construction 6 (5-6) (1997) pp. 471-479
summary The intelligent building is supposed to provide the environment and means for an optimal utilization of the building, according to its designation. This extended function of a building can be achieved only by means of an extensive use of building service systems, such as HVAC; electric power; communication; safety and security; transportation; sanitation, etc. Building intelligence is not related to the sophistication of service systems in a building, but rather to the integration among the various service systems, and between the systems and the building structure. Systems' integration can be accomplished through teamwork planning of the building, starting at the initial design stages of the building. This paper examines some existing buildings claimed to be "intelligent", according to their level of systems' integration.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 8956
authors Charitos, D. and Rutherford, P.
year 1997
title Ways of aiding navigation in VRML worlds
source Proceedings of the Sixth international EuropIA Conference, europia Production
summary This paper suggests ways of enhancing spatial awareness for the operator of a VRML world, in order to augment her performance, in terms of orientation and wayfinding. In essence, it draws from the fields of environmental cognition, architectural and urban design theories, in order to address the problem of designing VRML worlds, so as to aid the operator's spatial awareness. In addition, it explores the possible development of navigation aids for wayfinding, within such virtual environments. The inclusion of these navigation aids will be seen to have a direct bearing upon the spatial awareness of the designed VRML world.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 3e89
authors Pridmore, T.P., Cooper, D. and Taylor, N.
year 1997
title Estimating camera orientation from vanishing point location during sewer surveys
source Automation in Construction 5 (5) (1997) pp. 407-419
summary A method is presented by which camera orientation relative to the pipe axis may be recovered from a single frame of a survey video of a small-bore brick sewer. If it can be fully recovered, the pipe axis provides part of a frame of reference within which 3D descriptions of sewer shape may be expressed. The concept of the vanishing point is introduced and it is shown that the vanishing point position supplies information about the relative orientations of the camera and pipe axes. A method for the automatic detection of vanishing points is presented and used to analyse the camera motion underlying a number of sewer survey videos. The technique might form an active part of a more comprehensive image understanding system recovering pipe shape from survey videos and/or be used as an experimental tool during the design of such a system.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id fb8e
authors Rychter, Zenon
year 1997
title Objectware: from C++ towards CAD++
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 287-297
summary Objectware is software supporting the object-oriented paradigm. Object orientation controls complexity through thinking in natural terms. The approach unifies all stages of complex system development: analysis, design, and programming. It applies to software design, from operating systems to CAD packages, as well as all fields of engineering design, CAD based or not. The paper discusses what next generation CAD, object-oriented CAD or CAD++ will be like by studying the philosophy behind the C++ object-oriented programming language, which most CAD++ software developers use.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4308
authors Salisbury, M., Wong, M., Hughes, J. and Salesin, D.
year 1997
title Orientable Textures for Image Based Pen-and-Ink Illustration
source Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series 1997. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 401-406
summary We've built a system for creating pen-and-ink illustrations that uses three components: darkness, texture, and orientation. Previous systems have used the first two. To allow the user to specify the third one, orientation, we have built an interactive direction field editor in which the user effectively 'paints' directions onto the illustration. The system then automatically creates the illustration at the requested output scale.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 75a8
authors Achten, Henri H.
year 1997
title Generic representations : an approach for modelling procedural and declarative knowledge of building types in architectural design
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary The building type is a knowledge structure that is recognised as an important element in the architectural design process. For an architect, the type provides information about norms, layout, appearance, etc. of the kind of building that is being designed. Questions that seem unresolved about (computational) approaches to building types are the relationship between the many kinds of instances that are generally recognised as belonging to a particular building type, the way a type can deal with varying briefs (or with mixed use), and how a type can accommodate different sites. Approaches that aim to model building types as data structures of interrelated variables (so-called ‘prototypes’) face problems clarifying these questions. The research work at hand proposes to investigate the role of knowledge associated with building types in the design process. Knowledge of the building type must be represented during the design process. Therefore, it is necessary to find a representation which supports design decisions, supports the changes and transformations of the design during the design process, encompasses knowledge of the design task, and which relates to the way architects design. It is proposed in the research work that graphic representations can be used as a medium to encode knowledge of the building type. This is possible if they consistently encode the things they represent; if their knowledge content can be derived, and if they are versatile enough to support a design process of a building belonging to a type. A graphic representation consists of graphic entities such as vertices, lines, planes, shapes, symbols, etc. Establishing a graphic representation implies making design decisions with respect to these entities. Therefore it is necessary to identify the elements of the graphic representation that play a role in decision making. An approach based on the concept of ‘graphic units’ is developed. A graphic unit is a particular set of graphic entities that has some constant meaning. Examples are: zone, circulation scheme, axial system, and contour. Each graphic unit implies a particular kind of design decision (e.g. functional areas, system of circulation, spatial organisation, and layout of the building). By differentiating between appearance and meaning, it is possible to define the graphic unit relatively shape-independent. If a number of graphic representations have the same graphic units, they deal with the same kind of design decisions. Graphic representations that have such a specifically defined knowledge content are called ‘generic representations.’ An analysis of over 220 graphic representations in the literature on architecture results in 24 graphic units and 50 generic representations. For each generic representation the design decisions are identified. These decisions are informed by the nature of the design task at hand. If the design task is a building belonging to a building type, then knowledge of the building type is required. In a single generic representation knowledge of norms, rules, and principles associated with the building type are used. Therefore, a single generic representation encodes declarative knowledge of the building type. A sequence of generic representations encodes a series of design decisions which are informed by the design task. If the design task is a building type, then procedural knowledge of the building type is used. By means of the graphic unit and generic representation, it is possible to identify a number of relations that determine sequences of generic representations. These relations are: additional graphic units, themes of generic representations, and successive graphic units. Additional graphic units defines subsequent generic representations by adding a new graphic unit. Themes of generic representations defines groups of generic representations that deal with the same kind of design decisions. Successive graphic units defines preconditions for subsequent or previous generic representations. On the basis of themes it is possible to define six general sequences of generic representations. On the basis of additional and successive graphic units it is possible to define sequences of generic representations in themes. On the basis of these sequences, one particular sequence of 23 generic representations is defined. The particular sequence of generic representations structures the decision process of a building type. In order to test this assertion, the particular sequence is applied to the office building type. For each generic representation, it is possible to establish a graphic representation that follows the definition of the graphic units and to apply the required statements from the office building knowledge base. The application results in a sequence of graphic representations that particularises an office building design. Implementation of seven generic representations in a computer aided design system demonstrates the use of generic representations for design support. The set is large enough to provide additional weight to the conclusion that generic representations map declarative and procedural knowledge of the building type.
series thesis:PhD
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
more http://alexandria.tue.nl/extra2/9703788.pdf
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

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