CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures
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From overall curriculum planning to specific exercises, language
study provides a model for building a learner-centered education.
Educating students about the learning process, such as the variety
of metacognitive, cognitive and social/affective strategies can
improve learning. At an introductory level, providing a conceptual
framework and enhancing resource-finding, brainstorming and
coping abilities can lead to threshold competence. Using
kit-of-parts problems helps students to focus on technique and
content in successive steps, with mimetic and generative work
appealing to different learning styles.
Practicing learning strategies on realistic projects hones the ability to connect concepts to actual situations,
drawing on resource-usage, task management, and problem management skills. Including collaborative
aspects in these projects provides the motivation of a real audience and while linking academic study to
practical concerns. Examples from architectural education illustrate how the approach can be implemented.
Within contemporary digital environments, there are increasing
opportunities to explore and evaluate design proposals which integrate
both architectural and landscape aspects. The production of integrated
design solutions exploring buildings and their surrounding context is now
possible through the design development of shared 3-D and 4-D virtual
environments, in which buildings no longer float in space.
The scope of landscape design has expanded through the application of
techniques such as GIS allowing interpretations that include social,
economic and environmental dimensions. In architecture, for example,
object-oriented CAD environments now make it feasible to integrate
conventional modelling techniques with analytical evaluations such as
energy calculations and lighting simulations. These were all ambitions of
architects and landscape designers in the 70s when computer power
restricted the successful implementation of these ideas. Instead, the
commercial trend at that time moved towards isolated specialist design
tools in particular areas. Prior to recent innovations in computing, the
closely related disciplines of architecture and landscape have been
separated through the unnecessary development, in our view, of their
own symbolic representations, and the subsequent computer
applications. This has led to an unnatural separation between what were
once closely related disciplines.
Significant increases in the performance of computers are now making it
possible to move on from symbolic representations towards more
contextual and meaningful representations. For example, the application
of realistic materials textures to CAD-generated building models can then
be linked to energy calculations using the chosen materials. It is now
possible for a tree to look like a tree, to have leaves and even to be
botanicaly identifiable. The building and landscape can be rendered from
a common database of digital samples taken from the real world. The
complete model may be viewed in a more meaningful way either through
stills or animation, or better still, through a total simulation of the lifecycle
of the design proposal. The model may also be used to explore
environmental/energy considerations and changes in the balance
between the building and its context most immediately through the growth
simulation of vegetation but also as part of a larger planning model.
The Internet has a key role to play in facilitating this emerging
collaborative design process. Design professionals are now able via the
net to work on a shared model and to explore and test designs through the
development of VRML, JAVA, whiteboarding and video conferencing. The
end product may potentially be something that can be more easily viewed
by the client/user. The ideas presented in this paper form the basis for the
development of a dual course in landscape and architecture. This will
create new teaching opportunities for exploring the design of buildings
and sites through the shared development of a common computer model.
Digital media have a significant and strategic role to play toward this end. Of particular value
are representational strategies that help disentangle issues, clarify alternatives and evaluate
consequences of very complex and often emotional issues of land use, planning and design.
This paper reports on the ELEMENTS OF NEIGHBORHOOD, a prototype 'electronic
notebook' (relational database) tool developed to bring design information and example 'to
the table' of a public workshop. Elements are examples of the building blocks of
neighborhood (open spaces, housing, commercial, industrial, civic and network land uses)
derived from built examples, and illustrated with graphic, narrative and numeric
representations relevant to planning, design, energy, environmental and economic
performance. Quantitative data associated with the elements can be linked to Geographic
Information based maps and spreadsheet based-evaluation models.
A programme of research is in progress to provide a computer-aided learning tool for students of
architecture so that they become familiar with the process of structural design, and examine the effects
of the decisions they make at the initial stages of design on the structure of the building. It is also
educative to observe how the architectural design of a building may be influenced by its structural
arrangement. It is intended that the user acquire a general understanding of how steel structures
In Sweden representatives from the construction and building management
industry have put forward a research and development program called: "IT-Bygg#2
2002 - Implementation". It aims at making IT the vehicle for decreasing the building
costs and at the same time getting better quality and efficiency out of the industry.
The presented strategy is based on a seminar with some of the most experienced
researchers, developers and practitioners of CAD in Sweden. The activities were
recorded and annotated, analyzed and put together afterwards.
The proposal in brief is that object oriented distributed CAD is to be used in the long
perspective. It will need to be based on international standards such as STEP and it
will take at least another 5 years to get established.
Meanwhile something temporary has to be used. Pragmatically a "de facto
standard" on formats has to be accepted and implemented. To support new users of
IT all software in use in the country will be analyzed, described and published for a
national platform for IT-communication within the construction industry.
Finally the question is discussed "How can architect schools then contribute to IT
being implemented within the housing sector at a regional or national level?" Some
ideas are presented: Creating the good example, better support for the customer,
sharing the holistic concept of the project with all actors, taking part in an integrated
education process and international collaboration like AVOCAAD and ECAADE.
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