CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 518

_id a8ff
authors Sanchez, Santiago, Zulueta, Alberto and Barrallo, Javier
year 1997
title CAAD and Historical Buildings: The Importance of the Simulation of the Historical Process
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The majority of the problems that CAAD deals with are located in contemporary buildings. But many other buildings of the historical heritage also need special attentions with their computer design prior to the restoration projects. Generally, in restoration work, hand drawing and artistic criteria have been more usual than work with precision topographic data and accurate technical plans.

But a very rigorous design is not always enough to start restoration work. The real state that presents a historical building could have been modified substantially from its original state due to previous interventions, wars, seismic movements, erosion, biological aggressions or any other historical event.

So, it is necessary to join CAAD tasks with a simulation of the historical process suffered by the building. Historical data and ancient cartography must be the basis of all the CAAD works, and the quality of the computer 3D model can be established comparing it with the original available maps.

This paper explains the CAAD works and the intervention proposals for the restoration of the City Walls of Hondarribia, a small Spanish village placed in the frontier between Spain and France. These Renaissance bastioned walls were partially destroyed throughout many wars with France. The exact knowledge of their original trace and dimensions only is possible comparing the real CAD models with the plans that exist in the Spanish Military Archives since the XVIth. century.

The digital store and index of all the historical information, their comparison with real photographs of the city walls, the creation of photo realistic images with the intervention proposals, and the influence of the structural repairs in the final project will be explained in the CAAD context.

keywords CAAD, Historical Buildings
series eCAADe
email mapbacaj@sa.ehu.es
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/barrallo/sanchez.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 43b8
authors Orth, Maggie
year 1997
title Interface to Architecture: Integrating Technology into the Environment in the Brain Opera
source Proceedings of DIS'97: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1997 pp. 265-275
summary This paper concretely presents the design processes and results of Composer Tod Machover's Brain Opera, an interactive, multi-media, traveling opera. It will present the importance of successful collaboration between artists and scientists at the functional intersection of their research -- design. It will discuss the opposing design strategies necessary for integrating technology into the physical environment at various levels of scale, from architecture to interface. At the level of architecture flexibility in design is stressed. In interface design, the needs for specificity and detail, new materials and manufacturing processes are presented. The paper will demonstrate how the aesthetic goals of the Brain Opera's visual designers, creating an organic, humorous and unexpected technology environment, influenced audience interaction. The conflict between artistic control and interactivity will also be examined through the specific results of acoustic design in the project. The influences of quickly changing technology and funding on the design of the Brain Opera are also revealed. The prominence of the proscenium arch stage in existing music venues and its influence on new media projects is presented. Successful and unsuccessful models for audience participation are also presented. Concrete interface examples are used to counter the notion of intuitive interface design. Finally, the Brain Opera is presented as a design model for an interactive research laboratory.
keywords Design; Environment; Interface; Furniture; Physical Interface; Theater; Sensor; Collaboration; Architecture; Opera
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 8804
authors QaQish, R. and Hanna, R.
year 1997
title A World-wide Questionnaire Survey on the Use of Computers in Architectural Education
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The paper reports on a study which examines the impact on architectural education needs arising from the changes brought about by the implications of CAD teaching/learning (CAI/CAL). The findings reflect the views of fifty-one (51) architecture schools through a world-wide questionnaire survey conducted in mid 1996. The survey was structured to cover four continents represented by seven countries, namely the USA, UK, Israel, Australia, Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands. Structurally the main findings of this study are summarised under five areas, namely: 1) General Information, 2) Program of Study (curriculum) and CAD course, 3) CAD Laboratories: Hardware, Software, 4) Departmental Current and Future Policies, 5) Multi-media and Virtual Reality. Principally, there were three main objectives for using the computers survey. Firstly, to accommodate a prevalent comprehension of CAD integration into the curriculum of architecture schools world wide. Secondly, to identify the main key factors that control the extent of association between CAD and architectural curriculum. Thirdly, to identify common trends of CAD teaching in Architecture schools world-wide and across the seven countries to establish whether there are any association between them. Several variables and factors that were found to have an impact on AE were examined, namely: the response rate, the conventional methods users and the CAD methods users amongst students, CAD course employment in the curriculum, age of CAD employment, the role of CAD in the curriculum, CAD training time in the Curriculum, CAD laboratories/Hardware & Software, computing staff and technicians, department policies, Multi-Media (MM) and Virtual-Reality (VR). The statistical analysis of the study revealed significant findings, one of which indicates that 35% of the total population of students at the surveyed architecture schools are reported as being CAD users. Out of the 51 architecture schools who participated in this survey, 47 have introduced CAD courses into the curriculum. The impact of CAD on the curriculum was noted to be significant in several areas, namely: architectural design, architectural presentation, structural engineering, facilities management, thesis project and urban design. The top five CAD packages found to be most highly used across universities were, namely, AutoCAD (46), 3DStudio (34), Microstation (23), Form Z (17), ArchiCAD (17). The findings of this study suggest some effective and efficient future directions in adopting some form of effective CAD strategies in the curriculum of architecture. The study also serves as an evaluation tool for computing teaching in the design studio and the curriculum.

 

keywords CAD Integration, Employment, Users and Effectiveness
series eCAADe
email r.qaqish@gsa.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/qaqish/qaqish.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 2a63
authors Wrona, S., Miller, D. and Klos, J.
year 1997
title The Systematization of Information in the Computer Aided Architectural Design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary Since the CAD methods were invented, the systematization of information in CAD has been strongly connected to the computerization of architect’s workshop. Nowadays, in 90., this systematization has to the great extent negative consequences. A designer understands the systematization of information through abilities and disabilities of the one, particular graphical aided documentation development system, which he deploys himself. The traditional method of design is clearly opposed to the computerized method. Data bases are seen by architects as a set of information describing particular and unique architectural project and some selected aspects correlated with narrow specialization of designer. Collaboration between participants of design process is still very challenging due to the usage of different tools and different systematization of information. It is necessary to define modern part of information in architectural design. The systematization of information should be a foundation for development of computer systems and not contrary, in this way it will be possible to overcome opposition between traditional and computerized techniques. Architect’s workshop, from the point of view of the informational structure of ongoing information exchange processes, should in greater part relay on the experience of structural analysis used for development of information systems in business. Effective utilization of computer methods requires the extension of collaboration between all the participants of design process, search for active access to distributed data bases (i.e. Internet) and increase of methodological consciousness (the ability to form own design strategies, methods and structures) indispensable for development of modern CAD systems which wouldn’t be limited to a computer graphics.
keywords CAAD, Collaboration, Databases, Information, Systematization, Workshop
series eCAADe
email wrona@arch.pw.edu.pl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/wrona/wrona.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id a35a
authors Arponen, Matti
year 2002
title From 2D Base Map To 3D City Model
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, I.17-I.28
summary Since 1997 Helsinki City Survey Division has proceeded in experimenting and in developing the methods for converting and supplementing current digital 2D base maps in the scale 1:500 to a 3D city model. Actually since 1986 project areas have been produced in 3D for city planning and construction projects, but working with the whole map database started in 1997 because of customer demands and competitive 3D projects. 3D map database needs new data modelling and structures, map update processes need new working orders and the draftsmen need to learn a new profession; the 3D modeller. Laser-scanning and digital photogrammetry have been used in collecting 3D information on the map objects. During the years 1999-2000 laser-scanning experiments covering 45 km2 have been carried out utilizing the Swedish TopEye system. Simultaneous digital photography produces material for orto photo mosaics. These have been applied in mapping out dated map features and in vectorizing 3D buildings manually, semi automatically and automatically. In modelling we use TerraScan, TerraPhoto and TerraModeler sw, which are developed in Finland. The 3D city model project is at the same time partially a software development project. An accuracy and feasibility study was also completed and will be shortly presented. The three scales of 3D models are also presented in this paper. Some new 3D products and some usage of 3D city models in practice will be demonstrated in the actual presentation.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email matti.arponen@hel.fi
more www.udms.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2354
authors Clayden, A. and Szalapaj, P.
year 1997
title Architecture in Landscape: Integrated CAD Environments for Contextually Situated Design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper explores the future role of a more holistic and integrated approach to the design of architecture in landscape. Many of the design exploration and presentation techniques presently used by particular design professions do not lend themselves to an inherently collaborative design strategy.

Within contemporary digital environments, there are increasing opportunities to explore and evaluate design proposals which integrate both architectural and landscape aspects. The production of integrated design solutions exploring buildings and their surrounding context is now possible through the design development of shared 3-D and 4-D virtual environments, in which buildings no longer float in space.

The scope of landscape design has expanded through the application of techniques such as GIS allowing interpretations that include social, economic and environmental dimensions. In architecture, for example, object-oriented CAD environments now make it feasible to integrate conventional modelling techniques with analytical evaluations such as energy calculations and lighting simulations. These were all ambitions of architects and landscape designers in the 70s when computer power restricted the successful implementation of these ideas. Instead, the commercial trend at that time moved towards isolated specialist design tools in particular areas. Prior to recent innovations in computing, the closely related disciplines of architecture and landscape have been separated through the unnecessary development, in our view, of their own symbolic representations, and the subsequent computer applications. This has led to an unnatural separation between what were once closely related disciplines.

Significant increases in the performance of computers are now making it possible to move on from symbolic representations towards more contextual and meaningful representations. For example, the application of realistic materials textures to CAD-generated building models can then be linked to energy calculations using the chosen materials. It is now possible for a tree to look like a tree, to have leaves and even to be botanicaly identifiable. The building and landscape can be rendered from a common database of digital samples taken from the real world. The complete model may be viewed in a more meaningful way either through stills or animation, or better still, through a total simulation of the lifecycle of the design proposal. The model may also be used to explore environmental/energy considerations and changes in the balance between the building and its context most immediately through the growth simulation of vegetation but also as part of a larger planning model.

The Internet has a key role to play in facilitating this emerging collaborative design process. Design professionals are now able via the net to work on a shared model and to explore and test designs through the development of VRML, JAVA, whiteboarding and video conferencing. The end product may potentially be something that can be more easily viewed by the client/user. The ideas presented in this paper form the basis for the development of a dual course in landscape and architecture. This will create new teaching opportunities for exploring the design of buildings and sites through the shared development of a common computer model.

keywords Integrated Design Process, Landscape and Architecture, Shared Environmentsenvironments
series eCAADe
email a.clayden@sheffield.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/szalapaj/szalapaj.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 8569
authors Kurmann, D., Elte, N. and Engeli, M.
year 1997
title Real-Time Modeling with Architectural Space
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 809-819
summary Space as an architectural theme has been explored in many ways over many centuries; designing the architectural space is a major issue in both architectural education and in the design process. Based on these observations, it follows that computer tools should be available that help architects manipulate and explore space and spatial configurations directly and interactively. Therefore, we have created and extended the computer tool Sculptor. This tool enables the architect to design interactively with the computer, directly in real-time and in three dimensions. We developed the concept of 'space as an element' and integrated it into Sculptor. These combinations of solid and void elements - positive and negative volumes - enable the architect to use the computer already in an early design stage for conceptual design and spatial studies. Similar to solids modeling but much simpler, more intuitive and in real-time this allows the creation of complex spatial compositions in 3D space. Additionally, several concepts, operations and functions are defined inherently. Windows and doors for example are negative volumes that connect other voids inside positive ones. Based on buildings composed with these spaces we developed agents to calculate sound atmosphere and estimate cost, and creatures to test building for fire escape reasons etc. The paper will look at the way to design with space from both an architect's point of view and a computer scientist's. Techniques, possibilities and consequences of this direct void modeling will be explained. It will elaborate on the principle of human machine interaction brought up by our research and used in Sculptor. It will present the possibility to create VRML models directly for the web and show some of the designs done by students using the tool in our CAAD courses.
series CAAD Futures
email kurmann@arch.ethz.ch, elte@arch.ethz.ch, engeli@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id f071
authors Maher, M.L., Cicognani, A. and Simoff, S.J.
year 1997
title An Experimental Study of Computer Mediated Collaborative Design
source International Journal of Design Computing, Key Centre of Design Computing, University of Sydney, Sydney
summary The use of computer technology in design practice is moving towards a distributed resource available to a team of designers. The development of software to support designers has traditionally been based on the assumption that there will be a single person using the software at a time. Recent developments have enabled the feasibility of software for two or more simultaneous users, leading to the possibility of computer mediated collaborative design (CMCD), where the computer plays the role of mediator and design information handler. There is the potential for the computer to play a more active role in collaborative design through enhanced visibility of 3D models and assistance in generating alternative designs and design critiques. With this potential the computer not only mediates the collaborative design process but actively supports the designers. Research in integrated CAD, multimedia and design database systems, virtual design studios, and design protocol studies provide the basis for a formal study of CMCD. We have developed an experimental methodology to study the difference in design semantics documented using computer applications when designing alone as compared to designing collaboratively. This methodology can be applied to study other aspects of CMCD.
series journal paper
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id dd67
authors Paterson, A.M., Dowling, G.R. and Chamberlain, D.A.
year 1997
title Building inspection: can computer vision help?
source Automation in Construction 7 (1) (1997) pp. 13-20
summary Computer vision is forever expanding into new areas, especially in the field of inspection. The work presented here shows how computer vision has the potential to improve the exterior inspection of large buildings. A robot is being developed at City University, London that will perform a number of tests and the initial use of computer vision is to locate the robot thus enabling the position of building defects to be recorded more reliably than at present. A system has been developed that allows the inspector to tag just four points on the building, seen through a camera, to points on a CAD diagram of that building. With that information, a mapping can be found, so that for any new point in the image, and in particular that of the robot, its position on the building can be found. Work has progressed to automate the process such that now the computer uses a number of image processing techniques to extract key features of the building scene. These features are compared and matched to a CAD diagram, from which the mapping between the image and diagram is produced. This then allows the true position of the robot to be found. Results are given for a model building and robot demonstrating the accuracy of the algorithm, together with some results from residential flats, concluding that computer vision can indeed help building inspection.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id diss_ruhl
id diss_ruhl
authors Ruhl, Volker R.
year 1997
title Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing of Complex Shaped Concrete Formwork
source Doctor of Design Thesis, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
summary The research presented in this thesis challenges the appropriateness of existing, conventional forming practices in the building construction industry--both in situ or in prefabrication--for building concrete "freeforms," as they are characterized by impracticality and limitations in achieved geometric/formal quality. The author's theory proposes the application of alternative, non-traditional construction methods derived from the integration of information technology, in the form of Computer-Aided Design (CAD), Engineering (CAE) and Manufacturing (CAM), into the concrete tooling and placing process. This concept relies on a descriptive shape model of a physically non-existent building element which serves as a central database containing all the geometric data necessary to completely and accurately inform design development activities as well as the construction process. For this purpose, the thesis orients itself on existing, functioning models in manufacturing engineering and explores the broad spectrum of computer-aided manufacturing techniques applied in this industry. A two-phase, combined method study is applied to support the theory. Part I introduces the phenomenon of "complexity" in the architectural field, defines the goal of the thesis research and gives examples of complex shape. It also presents the two analyzed technologies: concrete tooling and automation technology. For both, it establishes terminology, classifications, gives insight into the state-of-the-art, and describes limitations. For concrete tooling it develops a set of quality criteria. Part II develops a theory in the form of a series of proposed "non-traditional" forming processes and concepts that are derived through a synthesis of state-of-the-art automation with current concrete forming and placing techniques, and describes them in varying depth, in both text and graphics, on the basis of their geometric versatility and their appropriateness for the proposed task. Emphasis is given to the newly emerging and most promising Solid Freeform Fabrication processes, and within this area, to laser-curing technology. The feasibility of using computer-aided formwork design, and computer-aided formwork fabrication in today's standard building practices is evaluated for this particular technology on the basis of case-studies. Performance in the categories of process, material, product, lead time and economy is analyzed over the complete tooling cycle and is compared to the performance of existing, conventional forming systems for steel, wood, plywood veneer and glassfiber reinforced plastic; value s added to the construction process and/or to the formwork product through information technology are pointed out and become part of the evaluation. For this purpose, an analytical framework was developed for testing the performance of various Solid Freeform Fabrication processes as well as the "sensitivity," or the impact of various influencing processes and/or product parameters on lead time and economy. This tool allows us to make various suggestions for optimization as well as to formulate recommendations and guidelines for the implementation of this technology. The primary objective of this research is to offer architects and engineers unprecedented independence from planar, orthogonal building geometry, in the realization of design ideas and/or design requirements for concrete structures and/or their components. The interplay between process-oriented design and innovative implementation technology may ultimately lead to an architecture conceived on a different level of complexity, with an extended form-vocabulary and of high quality.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id 9
authors Stipech, Alfredo
year 1998
title Un Nuevo Horizonte Arquitectonico, Productivo e Intelectual (A New Architectural, Productive and Intelectual Horizon)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 76-83
summary This work presents the pedagogical experience of a Design Workshop that investigated the impact of the digital and analogic means on the architectonic design process This work was based on the research of Dr. Arch. Julio BermÝdez who also directed this workshop in 1997. This class was part of the Training Program organized by the "Centro de Informatica y Diseho" (CID) at the "Universidad Nacional del Litoral" FADU (Facultad de Arquitectura Diseho y Urbanismo) Santa Fe, Argentina and made possible by the ongoing International Program of Academic Exchange between the FADU and the (University of Utah Graduate School of Architecture (IPAE Project NO 4). The experimental studio utilized an architectural problem to study the procedural, technical, interpretative and theoretical issues associated with the relationship of contemporary media and design process. The pedagogical vehicle was a program that expresses in itself the meeting or collision between two cultures competing for dominance at the end of the millennium: the immemorial material culture (corporeal, tectonic) and the new and everyday more influent virtual culture (information, nets, media, simulation). The premise for the design process, communication and criticism was the constant migration between the digital and analog representation systems. Within this theoretical-practical context semantic aspects containing different representation modalities were used such as physical and electronic models along with systematic and sensitive drawings (manuals, pixels and with CAD). Hybrid interfaces took a leading role in the process since they allowed the communication between analog and digital media through the creative and technical interaction between scanner, video and computer. This architectural and media context generated an intense pedagogic environment fostering the development of creativity and a critical attitude while allowing concrete breakthroughs in the teaching process and format design. Our work reflects on these results showing examples of stud-go works and providing a final evaluation of this unique experience in Argentina.
series SIGRADI
email arqasoc@satlink.com
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id 3509
authors Bourdakis, V. and Day, A.
year 1997
title The VRML Model of the City of Bath
source Proceedings of the Sixth International EuroplA Conference, europia Productions
summary The aim of this research project is to utilise VRML models in urban planning in order to provide easy-to-use visualisation tools that will allow non-experts to understand the implications of proposed changes to their city. In this paper, issues related to the construction and use of large urban models are discussed based on the authors' experience constructing the Bath computer model. Problems faced during the creation, translation and final adaptation of the original CAD model are presented, the solutions devised are demonstrated and suggestions regarding the management of similar projects are given.
series other
email V.Bourdakis@prd.uth.gr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c1ad
authors Cheng, Nancy Yen-wen
year 1997
title Teaching CAD with Language Learning Methods
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 173-188
summary By looking at computer aided design as design communication we can use pedagogical methods from the well-developed discipline of language learning. Language learning breaks down a complex field into attainable steps, showing how learning strategies and attitudes can enhance mastery. Balancing the linguistic emphases of organizational analysis, communicative intent and contextual application can address different learning styles. Guiding students in learning approaches from language study will equip them to deal with constantly changing technology.

From overall curriculum planning to specific exercises, language study provides a model for building a learner-centered education. Educating students about the learning process, such as the variety of metacognitive, cognitive and social/affective strategies can improve learning. At an introductory level, providing a conceptual framework and enhancing resource-finding, brainstorming and coping abilities can lead to threshold competence. Using kit-of-parts problems helps students to focus on technique and content in successive steps, with mimetic and generative work appealing to different learning styles.

Practicing learning strategies on realistic projects hones the ability to connect concepts to actual situations, drawing on resource-usage, task management, and problem management skills. Including collaborative aspects in these projects provides the motivation of a real audience and while linking academic study to practical concerns. Examples from architectural education illustrate how the approach can be implemented.

series ACADIA
email nywc@darkwing.uoregon.edu
last changed 1998/12/31 12:41

_id 0bc0
authors Kellett, R., Brown, G.Z., Dietrich, K., Girling, C., Duncan, J., Larsen, K. and Hendrickson, E.
year 1997
title THE ELEMENTS OF DESIGN INFORMATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN NEIGHBORHOOD-SCALE PLANNING
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 295-304
summary Neighborhood scale planning and design in many communities has been evolving from a rule-based process of prescriptive codes and regulation toward a principle- and performance-based process of negotiated priorities and agreements. Much of this negotiation takes place in highly focused and interactive workshop or 'charrette' settings, the best of which are characterized by a fluid and lively exchange of ideas, images and agendas among a diverse mix of citizens, land owners, developers, consultants and public officials. Crucial to the quality and effectiveness of the exchange are techniques and tools that facilitate a greater degree of understanding, communication and collaboration among these participants.

Digital media have a significant and strategic role to play toward this end. Of particular value are representational strategies that help disentangle issues, clarify alternatives and evaluate consequences of very complex and often emotional issues of land use, planning and design. This paper reports on the ELEMENTS OF NEIGHBORHOOD, a prototype 'electronic notebook' (relational database) tool developed to bring design information and example 'to the table' of a public workshop. Elements are examples of the building blocks of neighborhood (open spaces, housing, commercial, industrial, civic and network land uses) derived from built examples, and illustrated with graphic, narrative and numeric representations relevant to planning, design, energy, environmental and economic performance. Quantitative data associated with the elements can be linked to Geographic Information based maps and spreadsheet based-evaluation models.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
email kellett@interchange.ubc.ca
last changed 2006/03/15 21:35

_id 0de7
authors Müller, Christian
year 1997
title An Advanced Groupware Approach for an Integrated Planning Process in Building Construction
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 475-480
summary Increasing complexity of today's buildings requires a high level of integration in the planning process. Common planning strategies, where individual project partners cooperate mainly to exchange results, are not suitable to jointly develop project goals and objectives. Integrated planning, a more holistic approach to deal with complex problems, is based on a high degree of communication among team members and leads to a goal oriented cooperation. This paper focuses on the application of an advanced groupware approach suitable to support efficiently an integrated design process in construction. First an appropriate planning process model will be presented, which differs from common product model approaches and takes into account the great importance of team- and goal orientation in integrated planning. Then the idea of an open CSCW platform is proposed, which basic structure and containing elements are based on the defined planning model. Appropriate cooperative planning scenarios can then be ad-hoc modeled and configured dynamically on this CSCW platform according to the requirements of the specific project. For the participants of the planning process, the resulting groupware approach represents an integrated computer based working environment. This environment allows a kind of immersion into the project. Finally a prototypical implementation of this approach will be shortly discussed.
series CAAD Futures
email cmueller@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id ab09
authors Qaqish, Ra’ed and Hanna, Raid
year 1997
title The Impact of CAL Strategies on CAD
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 475-489
summary This paper reports on a two fold study, which examines the impact of CAL on CAD and architectural education, and evaluates the overall effectiveness and efficiency of CAD teaching and strategies in the curriculum of architecture. The study also examined the need for a framework within which the creation of a module for applying CAL in CAD to support the curriculum of architecture can be structured and assessed. The main concern of the study was to explore the range and balance of computer assisted activities in the design studio, and the interpretation of the various roles of the CAD tutor and his/her involvement in delivering these activities. In delivering these activities two criteria, namely: teaching methods and CAD integration (which are interchangeable and yet play different roles), can have a distinct effect on the implementation of CAL in the design studio. The case study evaluated and investigated the CAL the AEC course as part of the 3rd year design studio at Mackintosh School of Architecture, to determine to what extent the AEC learning events were effective in advocating new strategies in CAD. The methods of this investigation consisted of classroom observations and administrating questionnaires. Variables such as the group and gender differences/participation, the tutor’s confidence, level of administration and strategies to help with technical problems and motivations, also the task-related activities, tangibility of the learning materials, and the minutes of lesson have been examined. The global rating of the CAL events in CAD lessons, the CAL organisation and sequence, the level of students’ confidence, the rate of students’ interest, the mode of classroom, the level of learner performance and the relationship between CAL and the overall curriculum have also been empirically examined and their interdependent relationships explored. The findings of this study may help in establishing future directions in adopting some form of effective CAL strategies in CAD. The study also serves as an evaluation tool for computing teaching in the design studio. Furthermore, the checklist used in this case study may also be used in evaluating the different courses in CAD in the curriculum of architectural schools.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 14:21

_id 243c
authors Yezioro, Abraham and Shaviv, Edna
year 1997
title A KB CAAD System for the Pre-Conceptual Design of Bio-Climatic and Low Energy Buildings
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 317-330
summary This work discusses the structure of knowledge base CAAD systems for the design of solar and low energy buildings, along with the presentation of the different knowledge bases required for such systems. The general discussion is followed by presenting a KBCAAD system PASYS, that was developed as a tool for determining thermal comfort design strategies in the pre-conceptual design stage. PASYS is based on a knowledge base which stores the existing information concerning thermal comfort rules of thumb and accurate procedural calculations, which facilitates defining thermal comfort design strategies that suite best the local climatic conditions and the specific constrains of the design problem at hand.
series CAAD Futures
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id 8ec9
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 1997
title Incompatible Pencil - Chance for Changing in Design Process
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 93-101
summary The existing Caad systems limit designers creativity by constraining them to work with prototypes provided by the system's knowledge base. Most think of computers as drafting machines and consider CAAD models as merely proposals for future buildings. But this kind of thinking (computers as simple drafting machines) seems to be a way without future. New media demands new process and new process demands new media. We have to give some thougt to impact of CAAD on the design process and in which part of it CAAD can add new value. In this paper there will be considered two ways of using of computers. First - creation of architectural form in an architect's mind and projects visualisation with using renderings, animation and virtual reality. In the second part - computer techniques are investigated as a medium of creation. Unlike a conventional drawing the design object within computer has a life of its own. In computer space design and the final product are one. Computer creates environments for new kind of design activities. In fact, many dimensions of meaning in cyberspace have led to a cyberreal architecture that is sure to have dramatic consequences for the profession.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 411c
authors Ataman, Osman and Bermúdez (Ed.)
year 1999
title Media and Design Process [Conference Proceedings]
source ACADIA ‘99 Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-08-X / Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, 353 p.
summary Throughout known architectural history, representation, media and design have been recognized to have a close relationship. This relationship is inseparable; representation being a means for engaging in design thinking and making and this activity requiring media. Interpretations as to what exactly this relationship is or means have been subject to debate, disagreement and change along the ages. Whereas much has been said about the interactions between representation and design, little has been elaborated on the relationship between media and design. Perhaps, it is not until now, surrounded by all kinds of media at the turn of the millennium, as Johnson argues (1997), that we have enough context to be able to see and address the relationship between media and human activities with some degree of perspective.
series ACADIA
email oataman@astro.ocis.temple.edu, bermudez@arch.utah.edu
more http://www.acadia.org
last changed 1999/12/02 07:48

_id 58f4
authors Barequet, G. and Kumar, S.
year 1997
title Repairing CAD models
source Proceedings of IEEE Visualizationí97, pp. 363-370
summary We describe an algorithm for repairing polyhedral CAD models that have errors in their B-REP. Errors like cracks, degeneracies, duplication, holes and overlaps are usually introduced in solid models due to imprecise arithmetic, model transformations, designer's fault, programming bugs, etc. Such errors often hamper further processing like finite element analysis, radiosity computation and rapid prototyping. Our fault-repair algorithm converts an unordered collection of polygons to a shared-vertex representation to help eliminate errors. This is done by choosing, for each polygon edge, the most appropriate edge to unify it with. The two edges are then geometrically merged into one, by moving vertices. At the end of this process, each polygon edge is either coincident with another or is a boundary edge for a polygonal hole or a dangling wall and may be appropriately repaired. Finally, in order to allow user- inspection of the automatic corrections, we produce a visualization of the repair and let the user mark the corrections that conflict with the original design intent. A second iteration of the correction algorithm then produces a repair that is commensurate with the intent. Thus, by involving the users in a feedback loop, we are able to refine the correction to their satisfaction.
series other
email barequet@cs.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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