CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 517

_id 6e9a
authors Mc Cartney, Kevin and Jacobs, Andrew
year 1997
title Testing the Benefits of Animation
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 255-262
summary This paper presents the results of an attempt to empirically test the hypothesis that expanding the range of graphic formats used in architectural communication can lead to an increase in effectiveness. To be specific, the comprehension of users was tested to measure the effectiveness of computer generated animation in comparison with still images. The dynamic functioning of a natural ventilation system was explained to two matched groups of building users. The explanation was presented in an animated video to one group and in still images to the other group. Immediately after viewing the group which viewed the animated version demonstrated a superior comprehension in a multiple-choice questionnaire test.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id b654
authors Sacks, R. and Warszawski, A.
year 1997
title A project model for an automated building system: design and planning phases
source Automation in Construction 7 (1) (1997) pp. 21-34
summary The purpose of an automated building system (ABS) is to automatically generate maximum information and the related documents for the preliminary design, detailed design and construction planning of a building project. The ABS under development, described in this paper, includes features such as: representation of project information by a tri-hierarchical project model, step-by-step progress through predefined design and construction planning stages, use of knowledge-based modules, linkage to various data bases, and implementation of intelligent parametric `templates' of building layouts and work assemblies. The main benefits of the system are the high quality of generated information, and the considerable saving of human input needed for this purpose. The project model for the system is described in the paper and various knowledge modules are defined with respect to their input and output. Interface screens and drawings from a prototypical testing of the system are also presented.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id a58d
authors Cicognani, Anna
year 1997
title On the linguistic nature of Cyberspace and Virtual Communities
source CM Special Journal Issue. Edited by Dave Snowdon, Nottingham: Submitted
summary This paper argues for a linguistic explanation of the nature of Virtual Communities. Virtual Communities develop and grow in electronic space, or 'cyberspace'. Authors such as Benedikt Meyrowitz and Mitchell have theorised about the nature of electronic space whilst Lefebvre, Popper, Hakim Bey (aka Lamborn Wilson) and Kuhn have theorised more generally about the nature of space. Extending this tradition and the works of these authors, this paper presents a language based perspective on the nature of electronic spaces. Behaviour in cyberspace is based on and regulated by hardware, software tools and interfaces. A definition of electronic space cannot be given beyond its linguistic characteristics, which underlie and sustain it. The author believes that the more users and developers understand the relationship between language and cyberspace, the more they will be able to use specific metaphors for dwelling and inhabiting it. In particular, MUDs/MOOs and the Web are interesting places for testing and observing social behaviours and dynamics.
series journal paper
email anna@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id e6f6
authors Haas, Wolfgang R.
year 1997
title ISO/STEP AP225 for the Exchange of 3D CAD-Data and Building Models
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 5(2), pp. 113-122
summary An international standard ISO 10303-225 which enables the exchange of building models is in an advanced stage of development. In this standard building models are represented as aggregations of building elements. The scope and functionality of the standard are described together with a brief overview of the development method of the ISO 10303 family of standards for the exchange of product models. Results of the pilot implementations and -testing are presented. Several scenarios describe the possible usage of this standard. An overview of related standards of the ISO 10303 family is given.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 888f
authors Park, Taeyeol and Miranda, Valerian
year 1997
title Representation of Architectural Concepts in the Study of Precedents: A Concept-Learning System
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 123-129
summary Learning architectural concepts through the study of precedents is a common activity in design studio. Traditionally, an instructor presents a design concept by showing selected examples using slides, photographs, drawings, texts and verbal analyses. This method relies on a linear mode of conveying design knowledge and is time bound. It emphasizes information retention and recall of facts rather than an understanding of information.

However, if information on architectural precedents are represented digitally in a system designed to promote understanding of the material rather than just present facts, then some disadvantages of the traditional method may be overcome and additional advantages may be achieved. This paper describes a computer-assisted lesson system designed to represent architectural concepts related to spatial composition in design by using graphic images and text and reports on its development, implementation and testing. The system relies on many characteristics, such as accessibility, interactivity, flexibility, rapid feedback, etc., which are known to foster effective concept learning. The paper also evaluates the viability and effectiveness of this system from a technological and logistical viewpoint as well as from a concept learning viewpoint, and concludes with a discussion on other potential applications.

series ACADIA
email tp3@georgetown.edu
last changed 2003/05/10 03:32

_id diss_ruhl
id diss_ruhl
authors Ruhl, Volker R.
year 1997
title Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing of Complex Shaped Concrete Formwork
source Doctor of Design Thesis, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
summary The research presented in this thesis challenges the appropriateness of existing, conventional forming practices in the building construction industry--both in situ or in prefabrication--for building concrete "freeforms," as they are characterized by impracticality and limitations in achieved geometric/formal quality. The author's theory proposes the application of alternative, non-traditional construction methods derived from the integration of information technology, in the form of Computer-Aided Design (CAD), Engineering (CAE) and Manufacturing (CAM), into the concrete tooling and placing process. This concept relies on a descriptive shape model of a physically non-existent building element which serves as a central database containing all the geometric data necessary to completely and accurately inform design development activities as well as the construction process. For this purpose, the thesis orients itself on existing, functioning models in manufacturing engineering and explores the broad spectrum of computer-aided manufacturing techniques applied in this industry. A two-phase, combined method study is applied to support the theory. Part I introduces the phenomenon of "complexity" in the architectural field, defines the goal of the thesis research and gives examples of complex shape. It also presents the two analyzed technologies: concrete tooling and automation technology. For both, it establishes terminology, classifications, gives insight into the state-of-the-art, and describes limitations. For concrete tooling it develops a set of quality criteria. Part II develops a theory in the form of a series of proposed "non-traditional" forming processes and concepts that are derived through a synthesis of state-of-the-art automation with current concrete forming and placing techniques, and describes them in varying depth, in both text and graphics, on the basis of their geometric versatility and their appropriateness for the proposed task. Emphasis is given to the newly emerging and most promising Solid Freeform Fabrication processes, and within this area, to laser-curing technology. The feasibility of using computer-aided formwork design, and computer-aided formwork fabrication in today's standard building practices is evaluated for this particular technology on the basis of case-studies. Performance in the categories of process, material, product, lead time and economy is analyzed over the complete tooling cycle and is compared to the performance of existing, conventional forming systems for steel, wood, plywood veneer and glassfiber reinforced plastic; value s added to the construction process and/or to the formwork product through information technology are pointed out and become part of the evaluation. For this purpose, an analytical framework was developed for testing the performance of various Solid Freeform Fabrication processes as well as the "sensitivity," or the impact of various influencing processes and/or product parameters on lead time and economy. This tool allows us to make various suggestions for optimization as well as to formulate recommendations and guidelines for the implementation of this technology. The primary objective of this research is to offer architects and engineers unprecedented independence from planar, orthogonal building geometry, in the realization of design ideas and/or design requirements for concrete structures and/or their components. The interplay between process-oriented design and innovative implementation technology may ultimately lead to an architecture conceived on a different level of complexity, with an extended form-vocabulary and of high quality.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id 4eea
authors Sook Lee, Y. and Kyung Shin, H.
year 1997
title Development and visualization of interior space models for university professor's office.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [3rd EAEA-Conference Proceedings]
summary When visualization is required in academic area, the sound mundane realism ideally defined through scientific research is a requirement to make the testing of the visualized model worthy. Spatial model development is an essential part in every space type. Without space standards, architecture can not be existed. Lack of space standards causes some confusion, delay of decision, and trials and errors in building practice. This research deals with university professor's office space model. Currently in Korea, university building construction has been increased because of rapidly growing quantitative and qualitative needs for better education. There has been a wide range of size preference of the office space. Because of Korea's limited land availability, deliberate consideration in suggesting the minimum space standards without sacrificing the function is needed. This is especially important since professors traditionally have been highly respected from society, thereby rather authoritative with strong territoriality and privacy need and relatively sensitive to space size. Thus, presenting the 3D visual models to convince professors that the models accommodate their needs is important as well as the search process for ideal space models. The aim of the project was to develop a set of interior space models for university professor's office. To achieve the goal, 3 research projects and 1 design simulation project were implemented. Objectives of the 4 projects were 1) to identify the most popular office space conditions that is architectural characteristics, 2) to identify the most popular office space use type, 3) to identify user needs for spatial improvement, 4) to develop and suggest interior design alternatives systematically and present them in 3 dimentional computer simulation. This simulated images will be a basis of scaled model construction for endoscopy research and of full scale modelling in the future.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email YUN2256@chollian.dacom.co.kr
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 8ec9
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 1997
title Incompatible Pencil - Chance for Changing in Design Process
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 93-101
summary The existing Caad systems limit designers creativity by constraining them to work with prototypes provided by the system's knowledge base. Most think of computers as drafting machines and consider CAAD models as merely proposals for future buildings. But this kind of thinking (computers as simple drafting machines) seems to be a way without future. New media demands new process and new process demands new media. We have to give some thougt to impact of CAAD on the design process and in which part of it CAAD can add new value. In this paper there will be considered two ways of using of computers. First - creation of architectural form in an architect's mind and projects visualisation with using renderings, animation and virtual reality. In the second part - computer techniques are investigated as a medium of creation. Unlike a conventional drawing the design object within computer has a life of its own. In computer space design and the final product are one. Computer creates environments for new kind of design activities. In fact, many dimensions of meaning in cyberspace have led to a cyberreal architecture that is sure to have dramatic consequences for the profession.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id eb53
authors Asanowicz, K. and Bartnicka, M.
year 1997
title Computer analysis of visual perception - endoscopy without endoscope
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary This paper presents a method of using computer animation techniques in order to solve problems of visual pollution of city environment. It is our observation that human-inducted degradation of city environmental results from well - intentioned but inappropriate preservation actions by uninformed designers and local administration. Very often, a local municipality administration permits to build bad-fitting surroundings houses. It is usually connected with lack of visual information's about housing areas of a city, its features and characteristics. The CAMUS system (Computer Aided Management of Urban Structure) is being created at the Faculty of Architecture of Bialystok Technical University. One of its integral parts is VIA - Visual Impact of Architecture. The basic element of this system is a geometrical model of the housing areas of Bialystok. This model can be enhanced using rendering packages as they create the basis to check our perception of a given area. An inspiration of this approach was the digital endoscopy presented by J. Breen and M. Stellingwerff at the 2nd EAEA Conferences in Vienna. We are presenting the possibilities of using simple computer programs for analysis of spatial model. This contribution presents those factors of computer presentation which can demonstrate that computers achieve such effects as endoscope and often their use be much more efficient and effective.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email mmm@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 4b46
authors Brady, Darlene A.
year 1997
title The Mind's Eye: Movement and Time in Architecture
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 85-93
summary Le Corbusier notes in Vers Une Architecture that, because we look at the creation of architecture with eyes which are 5'-6" from the ground, it is imperative to "deal with aims which the eye can appreciate, and intentions which take into account architectural elements." (Le Corbusier 1927) Architecture is a three-dimensional entity that we experience as much through movement as repose. Therefore, it is essential that the computer technology used to design architecture enables the consideration of both aspects of this experience. This paper presents several ways in which animation is used to enhance the design process.

series ACADIA
email architexture@earthlink.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cbe5
authors Burry, Mark
year 1997
title The Cost and Value of Animation for Architectural Designers
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 135-144
summary As computers laboratories or studios in architecture schools provide greater access to fast machines and sophisticated software, the opportunity for computer aided animation increases I dimension. Previously the domain of the most enthusiastic, it has now become a relatively simple task to move from 3D to 4D. If the impediments to a common access to these new possibilities (for architects) are no longer a matter of the cost and availability of hardware and media, what measures the extent to which we can value the contribution of animation to studio-based design? This paper reports on our progress in establishing some practical and theoretical benchmarks comparing the cost with the value of computer aided (or mediated) animation.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 2354
authors Clayden, A. and Szalapaj, P.
year 1997
title Architecture in Landscape: Integrated CAD Environments for Contextually Situated Design
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary This paper explores the future role of a more holistic and integrated approach to the design of architecture in landscape. Many of the design exploration and presentation techniques presently used by particular design professions do not lend themselves to an inherently collaborative design strategy.

Within contemporary digital environments, there are increasing opportunities to explore and evaluate design proposals which integrate both architectural and landscape aspects. The production of integrated design solutions exploring buildings and their surrounding context is now possible through the design development of shared 3-D and 4-D virtual environments, in which buildings no longer float in space.

The scope of landscape design has expanded through the application of techniques such as GIS allowing interpretations that include social, economic and environmental dimensions. In architecture, for example, object-oriented CAD environments now make it feasible to integrate conventional modelling techniques with analytical evaluations such as energy calculations and lighting simulations. These were all ambitions of architects and landscape designers in the 70s when computer power restricted the successful implementation of these ideas. Instead, the commercial trend at that time moved towards isolated specialist design tools in particular areas. Prior to recent innovations in computing, the closely related disciplines of architecture and landscape have been separated through the unnecessary development, in our view, of their own symbolic representations, and the subsequent computer applications. This has led to an unnatural separation between what were once closely related disciplines.

Significant increases in the performance of computers are now making it possible to move on from symbolic representations towards more contextual and meaningful representations. For example, the application of realistic materials textures to CAD-generated building models can then be linked to energy calculations using the chosen materials. It is now possible for a tree to look like a tree, to have leaves and even to be botanicaly identifiable. The building and landscape can be rendered from a common database of digital samples taken from the real world. The complete model may be viewed in a more meaningful way either through stills or animation, or better still, through a total simulation of the lifecycle of the design proposal. The model may also be used to explore environmental/energy considerations and changes in the balance between the building and its context most immediately through the growth simulation of vegetation but also as part of a larger planning model.

The Internet has a key role to play in facilitating this emerging collaborative design process. Design professionals are now able via the net to work on a shared model and to explore and test designs through the development of VRML, JAVA, whiteboarding and video conferencing. The end product may potentially be something that can be more easily viewed by the client/user. The ideas presented in this paper form the basis for the development of a dual course in landscape and architecture. This will create new teaching opportunities for exploring the design of buildings and sites through the shared development of a common computer model.

keywords Integrated Design Process, Landscape and Architecture, Shared Environmentsenvironments
series eCAADe
email a.clayden@sheffield.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/szalapaj/szalapaj.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 77bc
authors Cohen, S., Elber, G. and Bar-Yehuda, R.
year 1997
title Matching of freeform curves
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29 (5) (1997) pp. 369-378
summary Freeform parametric curves are extensively employed in various fields such as computer graphics, computer vision, robotics, and geometric modeling. While manyapplications exploit and combine univariate freeform entities into more complex forms such as sculptured surfaces, the problem of a fair or even optimal relativeparameterization of freeforms, under some norm, has been rarely considered. In this work, we present a scheme that closely approximates the optimal relativematching between two or even n given freeform curves, under a user's prescribed norm that is based on differential properties of the curves. This matching iscomputed as a reparameterization of n - 1 of the curves that can be applied explicitly using composition. The proposed matching algorithm is completely automaticand has been successfully employed in different applications with several demonstrated herein: metamorphosis of freeform curves with feature preservations, keyframe interpolation for animation, self-intersection free ruled surface construction, and automatic matching of rail curves of blending surfaces.
keywords Dynamic Programming, Tangent/Gauss Map, Feature Recognition, Fairness
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id d4b1
authors Egglib, L., Ching-yaob, H., Brüderlinb, B. and Elbera, G.
year 1997
title Inferring 3D models from freehand sketches and constraints
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29 (2) (1997) pp. 101-112
summary This paper describes `Quick-sketch', a 2D and 3D modelling tool for pen-based computers. Users of this system define a model by simple pen strokes, drawn directlyon the screen of a pen-based PC. Exact shapes and geometric relationships are interpreted from the sketch. The system can also be used to sketch 3D solid objects andB-spline surfaces. These objects may be refined by defining 2D and 3D geometric constraints. A novel graph-based constraint solver is used to establish the geometricrelationships, or to maintain them when manipulating the objects interactively. The approach presented here is a first step towards a conceptual design system.Quick-sketch can be used as a hand sketching front-end to more sophisticated modelling, rendering or animation systems.
keywords Geometric Constraints, Conceptual Design, Free-Hand Sketch Interpretation
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 1f0c
authors Fukai, D.
year 1997
title PCIS: a piece-based construction information system on the world wide web
source Automation in Construction 6 (4) (1997) pp. 287-298
summary This paper describes a piece-based construction information system organized as a hypergraphic virtual environment on the World Wide Web. An array of cubes on the site's animated splash-page acts as a directory to a collection of data-theaters that give this information its virtual form. A mouse click on one of these cubes leads to an orthographic model of the object to be constructed. This model is an index to a database of scaled drawings, animations, and specifications. The index is hypergraphic because a click on the image of one of the pieces of the model leads to a data page that provides information about that piece in the context of its assembly. Panels surround the index to act as an interface to projections of the pieces of the object. These projections include elevations, plans, slices, and dimensioned details. A click on the elevation-panel leads to information on finishes, framing, and construction of each face of the object. From above, the plan-panel shows roofing, framing, floor plan, foundation layout, excavation, and utilities as an animation of the construction process. There are also animated slice-panels that cut through the object to give heights and materials. A click on one of these panels leads to two-dimensional drawings and details of the actual construction. The orthographic index morphs to a framed VR environment where the model can be turned and viewed in perspective. A click on one of the pieces of the model in this information the VR environment leads to specifications and manufacturing information about the materials of its construction. The user accesses this information through a tool-palette to communicate with design team members. In this way, the team can coordinate the document's development, review progress, and make changes to the information system. This breaks the notion of a construction document as an object-of-exchange and suggests the use of the computer as a medium of communication that facilitates the design and construction process.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id b3f6
authors Goodwin, G.
year 1997
title Software and hardware summary
source Automation in Construction 6 (1) (1997) pp. 29-31
summary With the rate of change accelerating in both technological development and in the spread of global markets, very few cost cutting businesses will survive in a value added marketplace. Information sharing over networks has a lot to offer the Industry by way of eliminating delays from the construction process and inventory from the Supply Chain. The most significant change by 2005 will be in networking and communications. Discovering design flaws at the design stage rather than when the building is in use must be very attractive to clients of the Construction Industry. Construction firms must have some sort of IT Strategy or clear view of how to exploit IT to support their businesses. Large companies need to act as coaches and mentors to smaller ones. The Industry cannot maximise its IT benefits unless all the players participate.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 02e4
authors Groh, Paul H.
year 1997
title Computer Visualization as a Tool for the Conceptual Understanding of Architecture
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 243-248
summary A good piece of architecture contains many levels of interrelated complexity. Understanding these levels and their interrelationship is critical to the understanding of a building to both architects and non-architects alike. A building's form, function, structure, materials, and details all relate to and impact one another. By selectively dissecting and taking apart buildings through their representations, one can carefully examine and understand the interrelationship of these building components.

With the recent introduction of computer graphics, much attention has been given to the representation of architecture. Floor plans and elevations have remained relatively unchanged, while digital animation and photorealistic renderings have become exciting new means of representation. A problem with the majority of this work and especially photorealistic rendering is that it represents the building as a image and concentrates on how a building looks as opposed to how it works. Often times this "look" is artificial, expressing the incapacity of programs (or their users) to represent the complexities of materials, lighting, and perspective. By using digital representation in a descriptive, less realistic way, one can explore the rich complexities and interrelationships of architecture. Instead of representing architecture as a finished product, it is possible to represent the ideas and concepts of the project.

series ACADIA
email 105137.1054@compuserve.com
last changed 1998/12/31 12:43

_id c01c
authors Holtz, W. Bradley
year 1997
title CAD Rating Guide : A Tool for The Evaluation of Computer-Aided Design Systems, Including Fem, Gis, and Animation Systems : A Comprehensive Comparison
source PennWell Publications
summary A Tool for The Evaluation of Computer-Aided Design Systems, Including Fem, GIS, and Animation Systems
series other
last changed 2003/06/03 10:27

_id 742e
authors Hsieh, T.
year 1997
title The economic implications of subcontracting practice on building prefabrication
source Automation in Construction 6 (3) (1997) pp. 163-174
summary Pressured by labor shortage, quality requirements and tight construction schedules, building constructors are seeking innovative technology to tackle these unfriendly conditions while achieving the targeted profit. For the past decades, technologies related to building prefabrication are being incorporated into conventional construction methods for producing more favorable results. When building prefabrication method is adopted, the organization of the construction team, particularly related to the subcontracting practice, is also subject to change. This paper examines the impact of such changes due to the adoption of building prefabrication technology. This paper first reviews the subcontracting practices in the construction industry. Then, a conceptual economic model of the contractor-subcontractor relationship is developed and is used to explore the economic implications of prefabrication to the subcontracting practice. In the section that follows, a summary discussion on the cost structure and risk sharing nature of building prefabrication is provided. The major conclusion in this research is that the general contractor can not maximize its benefit by conventional subcontracting practice, since the basic elements of the contractor-subcontractor relationship are changed. Based on the analysis and the case study in this paper, it is inferred that in order to achieve maximum benefits through prefabrication, vertically integrating or internalizing the prefabrication subcontractor into the general contractor's organization is preferable.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

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