CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 520

_id 873a
authors Ng, Edward
year 1997
title An Evaluative Approach to Architectural Visualization
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 449-463
summary In the forthcoming globalization and virtual almost everything, we are indeed reliving a moment of history when, at the turn of the century, machines replace craftsman in mass-producing goods quicker, cheaper, ‘better’ and faster for the mass market regardless of the appropriateness in using the machine. So much so that the recent proliferation of computer graphics has reached a stage where many are questioning their validity and usefulness in the advancement of architectural discourse. This paper argues that the pedagogy of the use of the new tools should be effective communication in vision and in representation. In short, saying what you do and doing what you say, no more and no less, or to be ‘true’ and ‘honest’. The paper tries to provide a hypothetical framework whereby the rationale of drawing could be more systematically understood and criticised, and it reports ways the framework is introduced in the teaching of design studio. The focus of the experimental studio (Active Studio 1.6 beta) is to enable the substantiation of ideas and feelings through a critical manipulation of medium and techniques. The results are narratives whereby the expression of intention as well as the drawings are both on trial.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 14:19

_id 411c
authors Ataman, Osman and Bermúdez (Ed.)
year 1999
title Media and Design Process [Conference Proceedings]
source ACADIA ‘99 Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-08-X / Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, 353 p.
summary Throughout known architectural history, representation, media and design have been recognized to have a close relationship. This relationship is inseparable; representation being a means for engaging in design thinking and making and this activity requiring media. Interpretations as to what exactly this relationship is or means have been subject to debate, disagreement and change along the ages. Whereas much has been said about the interactions between representation and design, little has been elaborated on the relationship between media and design. Perhaps, it is not until now, surrounded by all kinds of media at the turn of the millennium, as Johnson argues (1997), that we have enough context to be able to see and address the relationship between media and human activities with some degree of perspective.
series ACADIA
email oataman@astro.ocis.temple.edu, bermudez@arch.utah.edu
more http://www.acadia.org
last changed 1999/12/02 07:48

_id debf
authors Bertol, D.
year 1997
title Designing Digital Space - An Architect's Guide to Virtual Reality
source John Wiley & Sons, New York
summary The first in-depth book on virtual reality (VR) aimed specifically at architecture and design professionals, Designing Digital Space steers you skillfully through the learning curve of this exciting new technology. Beginning with a historical overview of the evolution of architectural representations, this unique resource explains what VR is, how it is being applied today, and how it promises to revolutionize not only the design process, but the form and function of the built environment itself. Vividly illustrating how VR fits alongside traditional methods of architectural representation, this comprehensive guide prepares you to make optimum practical use of this powerful interactive tool, and embrace the new role of the architect in a virtually designed world. Offers in-depth coverage of the virtual universe-data representation and information management, static and dynamic worlds, tracking and visual display systems, control devices, and more. Examines a wide range of current VR architectural applications, from walkthroughs, simulations, and evaluations to reconstructions and networked environments Includes insightful essays by leading VR developers covering some of today's most innovative projects Integrates VR into the historical framework of architectural development, with detailed sections on the past, present, and future Features a dazzling array of virtual world images and sequential displays Explores the potential impact of digital architecture on the built environment of the future
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2c17
authors Junge, Richard and Liebich, Thomas
year 1997
title Product Data Model for Interoperability in an Distributed Environment
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 571-589
summary This paper belongs to a suite of three interrelated papers. The two others are 'The VEGA Platform' and 'A Dynamic Product Model'. These two companion papers are also based on the VEGA project. The ESPRIT project VEGA (Virtual Enterprises using Groupware tools and distributed Architectures) has the objective to develop IT solutions enabling virtual enterprises, especially in the domain of architectural design and building engineering. VEGA shall give answers to many questions of what is needed for enabling such virtual enterprise from the IT side. The questions range from technologies for networks, communication between distributed applications, control, management of information flow to implementation and model architectures to allow distribution of information in the virtual enterprises. This paper is focused on the product model aspect of VEGA. So far modeling experts have followed a more or less centralized architecture (central or central with 4 satellites'). Is this also the architecture for the envisaged goal? What is the architecture for such a distributed model following the paradigm of modeling the , natural human' way of doing business? What is the architecture enabling most effective the filtering and translation in the communication process. Today there is some experience with 'bulk data' of the document exchange type. What is with incremental information (not data) exchange? Incremental on demand only the really needed information not a whole document. The paper is structured into three parts. First there is description of the modeling history or background. the second a vision of interoperability in an distributed environment from the users coming from architectural design and building engineering view point. Third is a description of work undertaken by the authors in previous project forming the direct basis for the VEGA model. Finally a short description of the VEGA project, especially the VEGA model architecture.
series CAAD Futures
email richard.junge@lrz.tu-muenchen.de
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id ce1b
authors Kvan, Th., Lee, A. and Ho, L.
year 2000
title Anthony Ng Architects Limited: Building Towards a Paperless Future
source Case Study and Teaching Notes number 99/65, 10 pages, distributed by HKU Centre for Asian Business Cases, Harvard Business School Publishing (HBSP) and The European Case Clearing House (ECCH), June 2000
summary In early 1997; Mr. Anthony Ng; managing director of Anthony Ng Architects Ltd.; was keenly looking forward to a high-tech; paperless new office; which would free his designers from paperwork and greatly improve internal and external communication – a vision that he had had for a couple of years. In 1996; he brought on board a friend and expert in Internet technology to help him realise his vision. In July 1997; his company was to move into its new office in Wan Chai. Their plan was to have in place an Intranet and a web-based document management system when they moved into the new office. But he had to be mindful of resulting changes in communication patterns; culture and expectations. Resistance from within his company was also threatening to ruin the grand plan. Several senior executives were fiercely opposed to the proposal and refused to read a document off a computer screen. But Ng knew it was an important initiative to move his practice forward. Once the decision was made there would be no chance to reconsider; given the workload demands of the new HK$12 billion project. And this decision would mark a watershed in the company’s evolution. This case study examines the challenges and implications of employing IT to support an architectural office.
keywords IT In Practice; Professional Practice; Archives
series other
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id 9c32
authors Sariyildiz, Sevil and Schwenk, Mathias
year 1997
title Tools of an Integrated Software Environment for the Architectural Design Process - Concepts, Technologies and Added Value
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 313-328
summary The technological developments in every field of science have an influence on the society and therefore on the design and design process itself. We are forced by the rapid developments in the field of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) to think fundamentally about changes in existing design process as consequence of the influence of this new technology. What will be the way and the method to integrate the new tools in a design process to increase its efficiency and to reach better design results? In this paper we will focus on the three main aspects of using computer tools in an architectural design process. By means of examples we will illustrate our vision concerning the future tools for design developments and their integration into integrated design support systems. We will provide a survey of related problems of the design process and deal with aspects of related disciplines that have to be integrated into the design process.
keywords ICT design Tools, Architectural Design, Materialisation, Tool Integration, Integrated Design Support Systems
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 75a8
authors Achten, Henri H.
year 1997
title Generic representations : an approach for modelling procedural and declarative knowledge of building types in architectural design
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary The building type is a knowledge structure that is recognised as an important element in the architectural design process. For an architect, the type provides information about norms, layout, appearance, etc. of the kind of building that is being designed. Questions that seem unresolved about (computational) approaches to building types are the relationship between the many kinds of instances that are generally recognised as belonging to a particular building type, the way a type can deal with varying briefs (or with mixed use), and how a type can accommodate different sites. Approaches that aim to model building types as data structures of interrelated variables (so-called ‘prototypes’) face problems clarifying these questions. The research work at hand proposes to investigate the role of knowledge associated with building types in the design process. Knowledge of the building type must be represented during the design process. Therefore, it is necessary to find a representation which supports design decisions, supports the changes and transformations of the design during the design process, encompasses knowledge of the design task, and which relates to the way architects design. It is proposed in the research work that graphic representations can be used as a medium to encode knowledge of the building type. This is possible if they consistently encode the things they represent; if their knowledge content can be derived, and if they are versatile enough to support a design process of a building belonging to a type. A graphic representation consists of graphic entities such as vertices, lines, planes, shapes, symbols, etc. Establishing a graphic representation implies making design decisions with respect to these entities. Therefore it is necessary to identify the elements of the graphic representation that play a role in decision making. An approach based on the concept of ‘graphic units’ is developed. A graphic unit is a particular set of graphic entities that has some constant meaning. Examples are: zone, circulation scheme, axial system, and contour. Each graphic unit implies a particular kind of design decision (e.g. functional areas, system of circulation, spatial organisation, and layout of the building). By differentiating between appearance and meaning, it is possible to define the graphic unit relatively shape-independent. If a number of graphic representations have the same graphic units, they deal with the same kind of design decisions. Graphic representations that have such a specifically defined knowledge content are called ‘generic representations.’ An analysis of over 220 graphic representations in the literature on architecture results in 24 graphic units and 50 generic representations. For each generic representation the design decisions are identified. These decisions are informed by the nature of the design task at hand. If the design task is a building belonging to a building type, then knowledge of the building type is required. In a single generic representation knowledge of norms, rules, and principles associated with the building type are used. Therefore, a single generic representation encodes declarative knowledge of the building type. A sequence of generic representations encodes a series of design decisions which are informed by the design task. If the design task is a building type, then procedural knowledge of the building type is used. By means of the graphic unit and generic representation, it is possible to identify a number of relations that determine sequences of generic representations. These relations are: additional graphic units, themes of generic representations, and successive graphic units. Additional graphic units defines subsequent generic representations by adding a new graphic unit. Themes of generic representations defines groups of generic representations that deal with the same kind of design decisions. Successive graphic units defines preconditions for subsequent or previous generic representations. On the basis of themes it is possible to define six general sequences of generic representations. On the basis of additional and successive graphic units it is possible to define sequences of generic representations in themes. On the basis of these sequences, one particular sequence of 23 generic representations is defined. The particular sequence of generic representations structures the decision process of a building type. In order to test this assertion, the particular sequence is applied to the office building type. For each generic representation, it is possible to establish a graphic representation that follows the definition of the graphic units and to apply the required statements from the office building knowledge base. The application results in a sequence of graphic representations that particularises an office building design. Implementation of seven generic representations in a computer aided design system demonstrates the use of generic representations for design support. The set is large enough to provide additional weight to the conclusion that generic representations map declarative and procedural knowledge of the building type.
series thesis:PhD
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
more http://alexandria.tue.nl/extra2/9703788.pdf
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id a93b
authors Anders, Peter
year 1997
title Cybrids: Integrating Cognitive and Physical Space in Architecture
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 17-34
summary People regularly use non-physical, cognitive spaces to navigate and think. These spaces are important to architects in the design and planning of physical buildings. Cognitive spaces inform design - often underlying principles of architectural composition. They include zones of privacy, territory and the space of memory and visual thought. They let us to map our environment, model or plan projects, even imagine places like Heaven or Hell.

Cyberspace is an electronic extension of this cognitive space. Designers of virtual environments already know the power these spaces have on the imagination. Computers are no longer just tools for projecting buildings. They change the very substance of design. Cyberspace is itself a subject for design. With computers architects can design space both for physical and non-physical media. A conscious integration of cognitive and physical space in architecture can affect construction and maintenance costs, and the impact on natural and urban environments.

This paper is about the convergence of physical and electronic space and its potential effects on architecture. The first part of the paper will define cognitive space and its relationship to cyberspace. The second part will relate cyberspace to the production of architecture. Finally, a recent project done at the University of Michigan Graduate School of Architecture will illustrate the integration of physical and cyberspaces.

series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id a726
authors Belblidia, S. and Perrin, J.P.
year 1997
title Level-of-Detail Visualization of Architectural Models
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 831-836
summary The work presented in this paper aims to use level-of-detail representation in realizing interactive walkthroughs or ignoring useless details in large architectural models. In order to choose the right representation of a model, we have to evaluate the error committed when using a simplified version instead of the full description of an object. This error depends on the object deformation during the simplification process but also on the importance of this object in the current viewing conditions. This "visible" error is used with different visualization strategies to find the model representation which satisfies either a quality criterion or a cost condition.
series CAAD Futures
email belblid@crai.archi.fr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0992
authors Belibani, R. and Gadola, A.
year 1997
title On Digital Architecture
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary One of the main aims of this research was to highlight the influence of computer as a designing tool. Their wide acceptance as drawing tools might occult the importance of their role in architectural design. We will try to apprehend, with the help of synthetic images, that computers mark a historic step forward in drawing and representation, as well as a major progress in the understanding of creative processes.

Together these features offer a broader horizon to architectural design. New source of inspiration can be found in virtual reality that makes visible what does not really exist, permitting design to suggest itself with its primordial image. We mean a kind of architectural imprint, where the first three-dimensional lines suggest in some way the designer with their shape, and encourage the definition process.

Through the visualisation of some images, it is possible to show the modifications of language and style, to examine the transformation modalities of the design process and to propose an essay of the new methods to communicate architecture.

series eCAADe
email rbelibani@axrma.uniroma1.it
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/belibani/belibani.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4e1c
authors Berdinski, D.
year 1997
title Combining different kinds of perspective images in architectural practice.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary This paper is about combining photo-, video-, endoscope captured images with handmade or computer generated ones. Practically all optical systems are known to produce more or less curved perspective (spherical or cylindrical) which depends of angle-of-view, and a computer as a rule (as handmade) constructs linear perspective images. To combine them on any media correctly, an operator has to be professional painter or designer, because there is no mathematically determined way to combine them. The author's-made demo-computer program is able to generate spherical perspective of simple spatial constructions. It allows to illustrate mathematically and visually the principles of optical curved perspective, laws of their combination with linear ones and helps to feel how to achieve the accordance with natural visual architectural images.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email bvl@icp.ac.ru
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 2b38
authors Bradford, J., Wong, R. and Yeung, C.S.K.
year 1997
title Hierarchical Decomposition of Architectural Computer Models
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 197-203
summary Architectural models can be represented in a hierarchy of complexity. Higher level or more complex architecture structures are then designed by repetitively instantiating libraries of building blocks. The advantages are that the object can be achieved in modular fashion and any modification to the definition of a building block can be easily propagated to all higher level objects using the block. Unfortunately, many existing representations of architectural models are monolithic instead of hierarchical and modular, thus, making the reuse of models very difficult and inefficient. This paper describes a research project on developing a tool to decompose a monolithic architectural model into elementary building blocks and then create a hierarchy in the model representation. The tool provides a graphical interface for the visualization of a model and a cutting plane. An associated algorithm will then automatically detach parts of the model into building blocks depending on where the user is applying the cutting plane. Studies will also be made on dividing more complex models employing spherical and NURBS surfaces.
series CAADRIA
email bradford@hkuxa.hku.hk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4b46
authors Brady, Darlene A.
year 1997
title The Mind's Eye: Movement and Time in Architecture
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 85-93
summary Le Corbusier notes in Vers Une Architecture that, because we look at the creation of architecture with eyes which are 5'-6" from the ground, it is imperative to "deal with aims which the eye can appreciate, and intentions which take into account architectural elements." (Le Corbusier 1927) Architecture is a three-dimensional entity that we experience as much through movement as repose. Therefore, it is essential that the computer technology used to design architecture enables the consideration of both aspects of this experience. This paper presents several ways in which animation is used to enhance the design process.

series ACADIA
email architexture@earthlink.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4b42
authors Burry, Mark
year 1997
title Narrowing the Gap Between CAAD and Computer Programming: A Re-Examination of the Relationship Between Architects as Computer-Based Designers and Software Engineers, Authors of the CAAD Environment
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 491-498
summary As the interfaces between computer users and computer programs become more friendly, the gap between the architect as designer and the software engineer as strategist increases: the designer is even less inclined to relate to the internal workings of the computer program. One intention of the friendly interface is to allow greater access to relatively sophisticated programs for people to whom the computer is not a natural ally. But with tailor-made software comes the paradox of unintended perspective use. This paper discusses the need for design architects to learn basic programming skills in a contemporary context in order to avoid being inadvertently restricted by a software apparent flexibility. An undergraduate course that sets out to familiarise students with the new possibilities is presented here in detail.
series CAADRIA
email mburry@deakin.edu.au
last changed 1999/02/01 14:22

_id 20
authors Cabezas, M., Mariano, C., MÌtolo, S., MuÒoz, P., Oliva, S. and Ortiz, M.
year 1998
title Aportes a la EnseÒanza de la ComunicaciÛn Visual (Contributions to the Teaching of Visual Communication)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 168-173
summary Going back to the proposal for the incorporation of multimid oriented towards the study of visual communication in 1st year of Architecture and Industrial Design which was presented on the 1st Seminary of Digital Graph that was held in 1997, in the FAU of UBA,it is being developed an educative programme of hypermedial character. Referring to Monge System development, it is though for the students so that they can consul and have a first contact with theoretical concepts. Through direct experience, starting from the studentís pre-existence of a lineal path from general to specific, proposing transversal perspective to start in depth conceptual contents according. Completing the traditional view of drawing by enlarging the iconicity and comprehension of a complex topic like geometry of the space.
series SIGRADI
email mariadc@copetel.com.ar, mirortiz@mdp.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 80f7
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2001
title Knowledge-based System to Support Architectural Design - Intelligent objects, project net-constraints, collaborative work
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 80-85
summary The architectural design business is marked by a progressive increase in operators all cooperating towards the realization of building structures and complex infrastructures (Jenckes, 1997). This type of design implies the simultaneous activity of specialists in different fields, often working a considerable distance apart, on increasingly distributed design studies. Collaborative Architectural Design comprises a vast field of studies that embraces also these sectors and problems. To mention but a few: communication among operators in the building and design sector; design process system logic architecture; conceptual structure of the building organism; building component representation; conflict identification and management; sharing of knowledge; and also, user interface; global evaluation of solutions adopted; IT definition of objects; inter-object communication (in the IT sense). The point of view of the research is that of the designers of the architectural artefact (Simon, 1996); its focus consists of the relations among the various design operators and among the latter and the information exchanged: the Building Objects. Its primary research goal is thus the conceptual structure of the building organism for the purpose of managing conflicts and developing possible methods of resolving them.
keywords Keywords. Collaborative Design, Architectural And Building Knowledge, Distributed Knowledge Bases, Information Management, Multidisciplinarity
series eCAADe
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id ed09
authors Chang, Teng Wen and Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1997
title Efficient Design Spaces of Non-Manifold Solids
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 335-344
summary One widely accepted metaphor in design research is search or, equivalently, exploration which likens design to intelligent movement through a possibly infinite space of alternatives. In this metaphor, designers search design spaces, explore possibilities, discover new designs, and recall and adapt existing designs. We give the name design space explorers to computer programs that support exploration. This paper describes an efficient representation of states comprising three-dimensional non-manifold solid models and of design spaces made from such states.
series CAADRIA
email rob_woodbury@sfu.ca
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

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