CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 512

_id 68b4
authors Tufte, E.
year 1997
title Visual explanations : Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Visual Explanations
source Graphic press, New York
summary As an extension of his observations described in his earlier book, "Envisioning Information", Tuftes third installment of the trilogy turns the discussion to the display of dynamic information. Again, Tufte draws from numerous examples throughout history to illustrate his points. The chapter on Visual and Statistical Thinking contains some of the most poignant arguments in the book, including an engaging visual narrative of the 1854 Cholera Epidemic and a study on the Challenger space-shuttle tragedy. This book may not for everyone, however. It does not contain ready-to-use concepts nor does it present a comprehensive solution for displaying dynamic information. What it does contain, are keen observations and commentary on past attempts at dynamic information display. The relation of each chapter to the next is not readily apparent and is quite precarious in fact. What results, is a book that reads better if each chapter is taken independently. In short, this book will be more rewarding to those willing to spend time to ponder over Tuftes observations. Conversely, the book will appear to have a lack of focus to those in a rush to find solutions.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 88fa
authors Alkhoven, P.
year 1997
title Computer Visualisation as a Tool in Architectural Historical Research
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary The historical city has been represented over time using various ways of drawing, modelling and simulation. Using different kinds of visual information as a basis, computer visualisation techniques are used in this presentation to reconstruct the urban development in the twentieth century of the town of Heusden and other towns. The resulting visualisation provides us with a tool for a better understanding of the dynamics of urban transformation processes, typologies and morphological changes. Though for most of these rather specific research questions the computer images proved adequate and useful, some morphological studies can well be carried out using more traditional techniques.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email patricia.alkhoven@konbib.nl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 4e1c
authors Berdinski, D.
year 1997
title Combining different kinds of perspective images in architectural practice.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary This paper is about combining photo-, video-, endoscope captured images with handmade or computer generated ones. Practically all optical systems are known to produce more or less curved perspective (spherical or cylindrical) which depends of angle-of-view, and a computer as a rule (as handmade) constructs linear perspective images. To combine them on any media correctly, an operator has to be professional painter or designer, because there is no mathematically determined way to combine them. The author's-made demo-computer program is able to generate spherical perspective of simple spatial constructions. It allows to illustrate mathematically and visually the principles of optical curved perspective, laws of their combination with linear ones and helps to feel how to achieve the accordance with natural visual architectural images.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email bvl@icp.ac.ru
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id debf
authors Bertol, D.
year 1997
title Designing Digital Space - An Architect's Guide to Virtual Reality
source John Wiley & Sons, New York
summary The first in-depth book on virtual reality (VR) aimed specifically at architecture and design professionals, Designing Digital Space steers you skillfully through the learning curve of this exciting new technology. Beginning with a historical overview of the evolution of architectural representations, this unique resource explains what VR is, how it is being applied today, and how it promises to revolutionize not only the design process, but the form and function of the built environment itself. Vividly illustrating how VR fits alongside traditional methods of architectural representation, this comprehensive guide prepares you to make optimum practical use of this powerful interactive tool, and embrace the new role of the architect in a virtually designed world. Offers in-depth coverage of the virtual universe-data representation and information management, static and dynamic worlds, tracking and visual display systems, control devices, and more. Examines a wide range of current VR architectural applications, from walkthroughs, simulations, and evaluations to reconstructions and networked environments Includes insightful essays by leading VR developers covering some of today's most innovative projects Integrates VR into the historical framework of architectural development, with detailed sections on the past, present, and future Features a dazzling array of virtual world images and sequential displays Explores the potential impact of digital architecture on the built environment of the future
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0024
authors Breen, J. and Dijk, T. van
year 1997
title Modelling for eye level composition; design media experiments in an educational setting.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary In order to simulate the visual effects of designs at eye level, it is necessary to construct models from which (sequences of) images can be taken. This holds true for both Optical Endoscopy and Computer Aided Visualisation techniques. In what ways can an eye level approach stimulate spatial awareness and create insights into the workings of a design concept? Can Endoscopic methods be used effectively as a creative environment for design decision-making and teamwork and even to stimulate the generation of new design ideas? How should modelmaking be considered if it is to be of use in an ‘impatient’ design process, and how can students be made aware of the opportunities of both direct eye level observations from design models and of the more sophisticated endoscopic imaging techniques? This paper explores the theme of eye level modelling by focusing on a number of formal exercises and educational experiments carried out by the Delft Media group in recent years. An attempt is made to describe and evaluate these experiences, in order to draw conclusions and to signal possible new opportunities for eye level composition for the benefit of both design education and practice...
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 2e5a
authors Matsumoto, N. and Seta, S.
year 1997
title A history and application of visual simulation in which perceptual behaviour movement is measured.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [3rd EAEA-Conference Proceedings]
summary For our research on perception and judgment, we have developed a new visual simulation system based on the previous system. Here, we report on the development history of our system and on the current research employing it. In 1975, the first visual simulation system was introduced, witch comprised a fiberscope and small-scale models. By manipulating the fiberscope's handles, the subject was able to view the models at eye level. When the pen-size CCD TV camera came out, we immediately embraced it, incorporating it into a computer controlled visual simulation system in 1988. It comprises four elements: operation input, drive control, model shooting, and presentation. This system was easy to operate, and the subject gained an omnidirectional, eye-level image as though walking through the model. In 1995, we began developing a new visual system. We wanted to relate the scale model image directly to perceptual behavior, to make natural background images, and to record human feelings in a non-verbal method. Restructuring the above four elements to meet our equirements and adding two more (background shooting and emotion spectrum analysis), we inally completed the new simulation system in 1996. We are employing this system in streetscape research. Using the emotion spectrum system, we are able to record brain waves. Quantifying the visual effects through these waves, we are analyzing the relation between visual effects and physical elements. Thus, we are presented with a new aspect to study: the relationship between brain waves and changes in the physical environment. We will be studying the relation of brain waves in our sequential analysis of the streetscape.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email matumoto@archi.ace.nitech.ac.jp
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ab5b
authors Seta, S., Kohno, T. and Matsumoto, N.
year 1997
title A visual simulation system using scale models and computer graphics
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [3rd EAEA-Conference Proceedings]
summary It is very important to simulate the landscape when planning large scale buildings, such as skyscrapers and high-rise condominiums, and high-level visual simulation is anticipated in Japan. A landscape simulator using scale models which we have developed is useful to obtain eye-level images. Computer graphics is also useful to obtain eye-level images because of the high quality. This paper reports on a visual simulation system using a new image composition technique to combine the scenery of scale models recorded by the simulator with computer graphics images. The video images of scale models are obtained an eye-level images from a small CCD video camera controlled by a personal computer. The background images including the sky and clouds are created as CG images. A real-time image composition technique has been developed by means of a video editing system to combine the video images of scale models with the CG images. We show the potential of this hybrid simulation method as a useful technique for visual simulation.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email s-seta@alpha-web.or.jp
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0ec6
authors Shih, Naai Jung
year 1997
title Image Morphing for Architectural Visual Studies
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 397-406
summary The purpose of this paper is to suggest and demonstrate how image interpolation, as a tool, can facilitate architectural illustration of design content and process. This study emphasizes a design-oriented image transition process that is distinguished by two types of morphing: process and source. A morp model is presented with components of input, function, output and constraints. Based on a model’s definition, a matrix is used to illustrate the relationship between the two source images by referring to origin, reference plan, configuration, time, etc. Morphing contents emphasizes changes of pixel, outline (2D or 3D), and order. Possible applications in architectural visual studies include morphology study, comparison building renovation before and after, dynamic adjustment, quantitative measurement, dynamic image simulation, and model and image combination.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 14:14

_id 4eea
authors Sook Lee, Y. and Kyung Shin, H.
year 1997
title Development and visualization of interior space models for university professor's office.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [3rd EAEA-Conference Proceedings]
summary When visualization is required in academic area, the sound mundane realism ideally defined through scientific research is a requirement to make the testing of the visualized model worthy. Spatial model development is an essential part in every space type. Without space standards, architecture can not be existed. Lack of space standards causes some confusion, delay of decision, and trials and errors in building practice. This research deals with university professor's office space model. Currently in Korea, university building construction has been increased because of rapidly growing quantitative and qualitative needs for better education. There has been a wide range of size preference of the office space. Because of Korea's limited land availability, deliberate consideration in suggesting the minimum space standards without sacrificing the function is needed. This is especially important since professors traditionally have been highly respected from society, thereby rather authoritative with strong territoriality and privacy need and relatively sensitive to space size. Thus, presenting the 3D visual models to convince professors that the models accommodate their needs is important as well as the search process for ideal space models. The aim of the project was to develop a set of interior space models for university professor's office. To achieve the goal, 3 research projects and 1 design simulation project were implemented. Objectives of the 4 projects were 1) to identify the most popular office space conditions that is architectural characteristics, 2) to identify the most popular office space use type, 3) to identify user needs for spatial improvement, 4) to develop and suggest interior design alternatives systematically and present them in 3 dimentional computer simulation. This simulated images will be a basis of scaled model construction for endoscopy research and of full scale modelling in the future.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email YUN2256@chollian.dacom.co.kr
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 07ae
authors Sook Lee, Y. and Mi Lee, S.
year 1997
title Analysis of mental maps for ideal apartments to develop and simulate an innovative residential interior space.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [3rd EAEA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Even though results of applied research have been ideally expected to be read and used by practitioners, written suggestions have been less persuasive especially, in visual field such as environmental design, architecture, and interior design. Therefore, visualization of space has been frequently considered as an ideal alternative way of suggestions and an effective method to disseminate research results and help decision makers. In order to make the visualized target space very solid and mundane, scientific research process to define the characteristics of the space should be precedent. This presentation consists of two parts : first research part ; second design and simulation part. The purpose of the research was to identify the ideal residential interior characteristics on the basis of people's mental maps for ideal apartments. To achieve this goal, quantitative content analysis was used using an existing data set of floor plans drawn by housewives. 2,215 floorplans were randomly selected among 3,012 floorplans collected through nation-wide housing design competition for ideal residential apartments. 213 selected variables were used to analyze the floorplans. Major contents were the presentational characteristics of mental maps and the characteristics of design preference such as layout, composition, furnishing etc. As a result, current and future possible trends of ideal residence were identified. On the basis of the result, design guidelines were generated. An interior spatial model for small size unit using CAD was developed according to the guidelines. To present it in more effective way, computer simulated images were made using 3DS. This paper is expected to generate the comparison of various methods for presenting research results such as written documents, drawings, simulated images, small scaled model for endoscopy and full scale modeling.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email YUN2256@chollian.dacom.co.kr
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id a93b
authors Anders, Peter
year 1997
title Cybrids: Integrating Cognitive and Physical Space in Architecture
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 17-34
summary People regularly use non-physical, cognitive spaces to navigate and think. These spaces are important to architects in the design and planning of physical buildings. Cognitive spaces inform design - often underlying principles of architectural composition. They include zones of privacy, territory and the space of memory and visual thought. They let us to map our environment, model or plan projects, even imagine places like Heaven or Hell.

Cyberspace is an electronic extension of this cognitive space. Designers of virtual environments already know the power these spaces have on the imagination. Computers are no longer just tools for projecting buildings. They change the very substance of design. Cyberspace is itself a subject for design. With computers architects can design space both for physical and non-physical media. A conscious integration of cognitive and physical space in architecture can affect construction and maintenance costs, and the impact on natural and urban environments.

This paper is about the convergence of physical and electronic space and its potential effects on architecture. The first part of the paper will define cognitive space and its relationship to cyberspace. The second part will relate cyberspace to the production of architecture. Finally, a recent project done at the University of Michigan Graduate School of Architecture will illustrate the integration of physical and cyberspaces.

series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id eb53
authors Asanowicz, K. and Bartnicka, M.
year 1997
title Computer analysis of visual perception - endoscopy without endoscope
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary This paper presents a method of using computer animation techniques in order to solve problems of visual pollution of city environment. It is our observation that human-inducted degradation of city environmental results from well - intentioned but inappropriate preservation actions by uninformed designers and local administration. Very often, a local municipality administration permits to build bad-fitting surroundings houses. It is usually connected with lack of visual information's about housing areas of a city, its features and characteristics. The CAMUS system (Computer Aided Management of Urban Structure) is being created at the Faculty of Architecture of Bialystok Technical University. One of its integral parts is VIA - Visual Impact of Architecture. The basic element of this system is a geometrical model of the housing areas of Bialystok. This model can be enhanced using rendering packages as they create the basis to check our perception of a given area. An inspiration of this approach was the digital endoscopy presented by J. Breen and M. Stellingwerff at the 2nd EAEA Conferences in Vienna. We are presenting the possibilities of using simple computer programs for analysis of spatial model. This contribution presents those factors of computer presentation which can demonstrate that computers achieve such effects as endoscope and often their use be much more efficient and effective.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email mmm@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 20
authors Cabezas, M., Mariano, C., MĚtolo, S., MuŇoz, P., Oliva, S. and Ortiz, M.
year 1998
title Aportes a la EnseŇanza de la ComunicaciŰn Visual (Contributions to the Teaching of Visual Communication)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 168-173
summary Going back to the proposal for the incorporation of multimid oriented towards the study of visual communication in 1st year of Architecture and Industrial Design which was presented on the 1st Seminary of Digital Graph that was held in 1997, in the FAU of UBA,it is being developed an educative programme of hypermedial character. Referring to Monge System development, it is though for the students so that they can consul and have a first contact with theoretical concepts. Through direct experience, starting from the studentís pre-existence of a lineal path from general to specific, proposing transversal perspective to start in depth conceptual contents according. Completing the traditional view of drawing by enlarging the iconicity and comprehension of a complex topic like geometry of the space.
series SIGRADI
email mariadc@copetel.com.ar, mirortiz@mdp.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 8030
authors Cheng, F.
year 1997
title Visual simulation techniques on environmental cognition systems.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary Findings of the simulation experiments using simple (inexpensive) simulation set-ups which were conducted by students of the fourth semester studying the course furniture design. They worked on two different examples with an emphasis on communication and orientation systems. Research findings of lightsimulation experiments at the SI with the emphasis on the miniaturization of simulation objects and optimisation of procedures.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email H.H.Giro@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id d869
authors Chu, C.-C., Dani, T.H. and Gadh, R.
year 1997
title Multi-sensory user interface for a virtual-reality-based computer-aided design system
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 29 (10) (1997) pp. 709-725
summary The generation of geometric shapes called `geometric concept designs' via the multi-sensory user interface of a virtual reality (VR) based system motivates the currentresearch. In this new VR-based system, geometric designs can be more effectively inputted into the computer in a physically intuitive way. The interaction mechanism issimilar to the way in which industrial designers sit and discuss concept design shapes across a table from each other, prior to making a final decision about the productdetails. By using different sensory modalities, such as voice, hand motions and gestures, product designers can convey design ideas through the VR-basedcomputer-aided design (CAD) system. In this scenario, the multi-sensory interface between human and computer plays a central role with respect to usability, usefulnessand accuracy. The current paper focuses on determining the requirements for the multi-sensory user interface and assessing the applications of different input and outputmechanisms in the virtual environment (VE). In order to evaluate this multi-sensory user interface, this paper formulates the typical activities in product shape design intoa set of requirements for the VR-CAD system. On the basis of these requirements, we interviewed typical CAD users about the effectiveness of using different sensoryinput and output interaction mechanisms such as visual, auditory and tactile. According to the results of these investigations, a nodal network of design activity thatdefines the multi-sensory user interface of the VR-CAD system is determined in the current research. The VR-CAD system is still being developed. However, voicecommand input, hand motion input, three-dimensional visual output and auditory output have been successfully integrated into the current system. Moreover, severalmechanical parts have been successfully created through the VR interface. Once designers use the VR-CAD system that we are currently developing, the interfacerequirements determined in the current paper may be verified or refined. The objectives of the current research are to expand the frontiers of product design and establisha new paradigm for the VR-based conceptual shape design system.
keywords Virtual Reality, Multi-Sensory User Interface, Conceptual Shape Design, Sensory Interaction Mechanism
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 666e
authors Compagnon, R.
year 1997
title The Radiance simulation software in the architecture teaching context
source Proceedings of the 2nd Florence International conference for Teachers of Architecture. Firenze
summary Two methods of introducing the radiance lighting and daylighting simulation software to architecture students in a relatively short time are presented. The production of visual teaching materialusing the same software is also discussed.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 4864
authors Daru, R. and Venemans, P.
year 1997
title Goal compliant visual simulation; towards effective and selective methods and techniques of visualisation and simulation.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary Visualisation, simulation and communication were always intimately interconnected. Visualisations and simulations impersonate existing or virtual realities. Without those tools it is arduous to communicate mental depictions about virtual objects and events. A communication model is presented to contribute to a better theoretical foundation of the meaning and relevance of simulations of different types.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email mdaru@iaehv.nl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

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