CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 556

_id e5d3
authors Hanna, R.
year 1998
title Can IT bridge the Gulf between Science and Architecture?
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 78-86
summary The integration of technology into design work has always been seen as one of the serious problems in design education. In architecture the weak integration between architectural science, a subject based on objective knowledge, and artistic design which is based on tacit knowledge and creativity is a problem that has been debated to great length, and an issue of great importance to both academics and professionals. This paper raises the question: can a proper use of IT, both as a design tool and/or as a performance analysis tool, foster better integration and strengthen design quality? This paper investigates the relationship between Science, Design and Computer Aided Design. It aims to both highlight the problems facing the integration between architectural science and design, and describe a framework within which they can be analysed. The paper critically examines the following: a) The perceived gulf between science and design b) The parallels between hypothesis in design and hypothesis in science c) The basis of architectural design: intuition or research? d) Architectural Science and Computer Aided Design (CAD) and the role they can play into bringing about a marriage between science and design.The paper concludes by developing a conceptual framework that can be used as a vehicle to build a CAD system for use during the design process.
series eCAADe
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/01hanna/index.htm
last changed 1998/09/25 16:08

_id ddss9801
id ddss9801
authors Achten, Henri and Leeuwen, Jos van
year 1998
title A Feature-Based Description Technique for Design Processes: A Case Study
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary In order to develop appropriate tools for decision support in design processes, it is necessary to found them on an understanding of design. Analytical techniques of design processes that have a direct relationship with tool development can enhance design support systems development. The paper focuses on a design support system in the VR-DIS research program. The aim of this research program is to develop insight in the architectural design process and to establish design tools for architectsworking in Virtual Reality. The basic approach for data modelling in VR in this research is based on an extension of the Feature Based Modelling paradigm taken from design in mechanical engineering. The computer model of the design in the system is a Feature-based model. This paper describes design processes in terms of changes in the Feature-based model of the design. For this purpose, a case of a house design is used. Drawings in the conceptual design phase up to the preliminary design phase arestudied. Each state of the drawings is described in terms of a Feature-model. Particular design actions such as creation of spaces, definition of architectural elements, and changes during the design process can be expressed in terms of changes in the Feature-model. Because of the use of Features, the changes can be formalised in the VR-DIS system. The description in terms of Features offers an analytical toolthat leads to a functional brief for design support tools. The paper ends with a discussion of implications and future work.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id e184
authors Popov, V., Popova, L. and De Paoli, G.
year 1998
title Towards an Object-Oriented Language for the Declarative Design of Scenes
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 316-353
summary We propose a prototype “kernel” of an object-oriented language, SOML (Scene Objects Modeling Language), intended to assist in the declarative design of scenes in image synthesis. This language is an attempt to provide the designer with a tool to facilitate the rapid prototyping of 3D scenes. It can also serve as a tool for knowledge acquisition and representation , and for communication and exchange of data with other tools in a design environment. Advantages offered by the implementation of SOML are: (a) from user’s viewpoint: the possibility of declarative description of the initial concept associated with the target scene in terms of properties and constraint vocabulary, the possibility of quantitative and qualitative reasoning on these properties, the modification of the intermediate solutions to different levels of detail, the utilisation of previous solutions; and (b) from the implementation viewpoint: the structuring of the properties and methods in the form of domain knowledge, the optimal solution generation according to heuristic causal-probabilistic criteria, the transformation of the semantic concept description of the scene in generic entry code for a geometrical CSG modeler or for rendering and visualization software, the integration of functionality for parameter generation and modification, the compilation of a scene from components of other final scenes and operations of geometrical transformations acting on groups of scenes. We present the architecture of the object-based implantation of the language and its interpreter, in the unified notation formalism UML. The utilization of the SOML language is illustrated by some examples.
series ACADIA
email popov@giotto.univ-poitiers.fr, popova@giotto.univ-poitiers.fr, depaolig@ere.umontreal.ca
last changed 1998/12/16 07:38

_id ddss9853
id ddss9853
authors Sidjanin, Predrag and Gerhardt, Waltraud
year 1998
title A design tool for analysis and visual quality control of urbanenvironments supported by object databases
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary In the paper, the main concepts about a design tool supported by an object database system will be described. The design tool should improve architectural design with respect to analysis and improving existing and planned urban environments regarding several quality criteria, especially those associated with visual aspects. Preconditions for defining the design tool's purpose are the determination of the "well-situated" urban elements, their impact on cognitive mapping, and the exploitation of thisknowledge on cognitive mapping for the improvement of urban environments. Cognitive mapping is a kind of representation of schematic knowledge that a person has about familiar environments. A cognitive map is stored information or knowledge about the purpose and function of the environment. This leads to the conclusion that an urban environment design which takes of the process of cognitive mapping into consideration, will be experienced by most of the people in the same way. Investigationsof this process result in a theoretical model of elements of urban environments, their relationships and their dependencies. The theoretical platform of the tool is based on design theory, cognitive science andcomputer science. Design theory and cognitive science will be used to develop the theoretical model. This theoretical model together with computer science will be the basis for tool development. The tooluses a schematic representation of urban environment, based partly on Lynch's theory of "urban form". Lynch's theory is crucial for the tool because it explains almost all elements of urban environments. Systematic investigation of urban environments and their characteristics are important for theoretical modeling as well as for the later computational modeling of the tool. The main computational support for the tool will be provided by an object database system, which helps to represent and to handle all the urban elements with their properties and relationships, with their natural semantics. The information represented in the database will be used to analyze urban environments as well as to improve andcontrol their visual quality.
series DDSS
email p.sidjanin@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0272
authors Kokosalakis, Jen
year 1998
title Remote File Sharing for Community-led Local Agenda 21 Sustainability with Internet, Intranets and VideoConferencing
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 116-122
summary This paper considers new opportunities for ease of remote file sharing through the Internet, Intranets and VideoConferencing, as facilitating opportunities for informed consumer intervention and greater accountability of the design. A remote file sharing experiment, [through a VideoConference link], of a 3D CAD estate model, collaboratively developed with a local resident?s association, is discussed. A different example looks at use of the Internet route by a small practice in the North West, developing QuickTime and QuickTimeVirtual Reality files for remote distribution and collaboration. The value of the full building object-orientated, data based model, [incorporating all related data and decisions from conception, client participation, project and facilities and life time management], is seen to offer an excellent vehicle for illustrating, negotiating and recording decisions. New international CAD standards for remote transfer and file sharing bring ease of use into the arena. Associated peripherals for remote file sharing through both Internet and video/teleconferencing, point to a transformation in the way we collaborate in the future. Signs from a broad band of businesses indicate that there is a clear understanding [in some circles] of the potential and the specific orientation of Web targeting, people-networking and dialogue. The key change is that those who understand this, build on the particular opportunity to contact and relate with any community of interest and to develop dialogue in a deeper, closer manner. So, we can see a strange phenomenon that the remoteness can actually bring a closeness of a new kind, as communities explore common interests. The paper considers how this may be the key to involving thousands of residents in a well-recorded dialogue, so bringing improved opportunities for meeting European standards in public accountability and community involvement in the development of Local Agenda 21 sustainability strategies.
series eCAADe
email j.kokosalakis@livjm.ac.uk
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/39kokosalakis/index.htm
last changed 1998/09/25 17:28

_id ddss9802
id ddss9802
authors Akin, O., Aygen, Z., Cumming, M., Donia, M., Sen, R. and Zhang, Y.
year 1998
title Computational Specification of Building Requirements in theEarly Stages of Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary We have been exploring computational techniques to help building designers to specify design requirements during the early stages of design. In the past, little has been accomplished in this area either in terms of innovative computational technologies or the improvement of design performance.The prospect of improving design productivity and creating a seamless process between requirements specification and formal design are our primary motivations. This research has been conducted as partof a larger project entitled SEED (Software Environment to Support Early Phases in Building Design). SEED features an open-ended modular architecture, where each module provides support for a design activity that takes place in early design stages. Each module is supported by a database to store and retrieve information, as well as a user interface to support the interaction with designers. The module described in this paper, SEED-Pro (the architectural programming module of SEED), is a workingprototype for building design requirements specification. It can be used by other modules in SEED or by design systems in other domains, such as mechanical engineering, civil engineering, industrial designand electrical engineering. Our approach to SEED-Pro is divided into two phases: core, and support functionalities. The core functionalities operate in an interactive mode relying on a case-based approach to retrieve and adapt complex specification records to the problem at hand. The supportfunctionalities include the case-base, the data-base, and the standards processing environment for building specification tasks. Our findings indicate that SEED-Pro: (1) is a tool that structures the unstructured domain of design requirements; (2) enables the integration of design requirements with the rest of the design process, (3) leads to the creation of complex case-bases and (4) enables the observation of their performance in the context of real world design problems.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id de62
authors Eriksson, Joakim
year 1998
title Planning of Environments for People with Physical Disabilities Using Computer Aided Design
source Lund Institute of Technology, School of Architecture
summary In the area of environment adaptations for people with physical disabilities, it is of vital importance that the design is optimized considering the human-environment interactions. All involved persons in such a planning process must be given sufficient support in understanding the information, so that everyone can participate actively. There is an apparent risk that discussions will be kept between experts, due to difficulties in understanding the complex and technical adaptation issues. This thesis investigates the use of computer-based tools for planning/designing environments for physically disabled people. A software prototype, and a method to use such a tool in the planning process, was developed and evaluated, based on the findings from six case studies of real planning situations. The case studies indicated that although such a tool would support the design, as well as the dialog between the participants, a certain level of technical and economical efficiency must be obtained. To facilitate the professional planner's work, an important issue is to maintain a large library of 3D objects. With the latest prototype implementation, it was found that such a planning tool can be produced, even when using consumer-oriented computers. One previous critical factor, interactive manipulation of 3D objects, can now be achieved if utilizing modern graphic cards with 3D acceleration. A usability test was performed to evaluate the prototype's basic operations, involving two groups of future users: five occupational therapist students, and four persons with major physical impairments. It was found that although the usability was satisfactory for the basic tasks, several items needed to be improved or added in future versions. It is important with an integrated support for manikins, in order to evaluate, e.g., wheelchair accessibility, reach ability, positioning of handrails, etc. This thesis reviews and compiles published anthropometrical and biomechanical data into a uniform segment-by-segment structure, in order to aid the design and modifications of manikins. The compilation was implemented as a spreadsheet document. An MRI investigation of the neck-shoulder region was performed on 20 healthy Scandinavian, female volunteers, measuring various musculoskeletal properties. These measurements can be used for further refinements of manikin specifications and biomechanical models.
keywords Rehabilitation; Disability; Adaptation; Participatory Planning; Design Tool; 3D Graphics; Computer Aided Design; Virtual Reality; Manikin; Anthropometry; Biomechanics; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cervical Spine Kinematics
series thesis:PhD
email joakim.eriksson@design.lth.se
more http://www.lub.lu.se/cgi-bin/show_diss.pl?db=global&fname=tec_250.html
last changed 2003/02/26 08:21

_id 4942
authors Gardner, Brian M.
year 1998
title The Grid Sketcher: An AutoCAD Based Tool for Conceptual Design Processes
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 222-237
summary Sketching with pencil and paper is reminiscent of the varied, rich, and loosely defined formal processes associated with conceptual design. Architects actively engage such creative paradigms in their exploration and development of conceptual design solutions. The Grid Sketcher, as a conceptual sketching tool, presents one possible computer implementation for enhancing and supporting these processes. It effectively demonstrates the facility with which current technology and the computing environment can enhance and simulate sketching intents and expectations. One pervasive and troubling undercurrent, however, is the conceptual barrier between the variable processes of human thought and those indigenous to computing. Typically with respect to design, the position taken is that the two are virtually void of any fundamental commonality. A designer’s thoughts are intuitive, at times irrational, and rarely follow consistently identifiable patterns. Conversely, computing requires predictability in just these endeavors. Computing is strictly an algorithmic process while thought is not always so predictable. Given these dichotomous relationships, the computing environment, as commonly defined, cannot reasonably expect to mimic the typically human domain of creative design. In this context, this thesis accentuates the computer’s role as a form generator as opposed to a form evaluator. The computer, under the influence of certain contextual parameters can, however, provide the designer with a rich and elegant set of forms that respond through algorithmics to the designer’s creative intents. The software presented in this thesis is written in AutoLISP and exploits AutoCAD’s capacious 3D environment. Designs and productions respond to a bounded framework where user selected parametric variables of size, scale, proportion, and proximity, all which reflect contextual issues, determine the characteristics of a unit form. Designer selected growth algorithms then arbitrate the spatial relationships between the unit forms and their propagation through the developing design. While the Sketcher implements only the GRID as an organizational discipline, many other paradigms are possible. Within this grid structure a robust set of editing features, supported by the computer’s inherent speed, allows the designer to analyze successive productions while refining ever more complex solutions. Through creative manipulation of these algorithmic structures ideas eventually coalesce to formalize images that represent a given design problem’s solution set.

series ACADIA
email jvcarch@mcione.com
last changed 1998/12/16 08:41

_id ddss9808
id ddss9808
authors Boelen, A.J.
year 1998
title Pattern Matching for Decision Support
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary In this paper is discussed how we can use pattern matching techniques in combination with object orientation to support decision makers in arranging offices and industrial and commercial facilities in existing urban areas. The method used is based on the findings of a Ph.D. project almost finishedwhen writing this. The tool under development is specifically useful for rehabilitation of deteriorated industrial or commercial areas.I consider such an area already occupied and surrounded with all kinds of urban objects and connected to all kinds of infrastructure. I can describe this area in available objects and facilities. Furthermore we can describe the areas capacity left within the infrastructure, the capacity in forexample work force or clients and the available band width in noise or pollution. By describing the area in terms of availability of capacity to absorb or produce flows of people, goods, energy and information we sketch the room available for certain types of industrial or commercial facilities. I developed a technique to describe industrial and commercial facilities in such a way that we enable the match between these and the characteristics of an area available. Pattern matching techniquesenable the system to generate best matches between available areas, locations and facilities. This model can be adapted in several object oriented geographical information systems and be integrated with other information systems that for example calculate the pollution of certain kinds of facilities. The rules to match with are partly based on objective, measurable data like available capacity on the electricity network and needed electrical power for certain facilities. Other matching rules are based on political norms on for example acceptable pollution levels and suggested pollution of facilities. The paper presents the problem area of industrial area rehabilitation, describes the architecture of the modeling technique and presents the first findings of implementation studies.
keywords Pattern matching, Object GIS, Urban object modeling, Facility planning
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 6433
authors Agranovich-Ponomarieva, E. and Litvinova, A.
year 1998
title The "Real Space - Cyberspace" Paradigm
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 141-145
summary In a chain of "real - perceived - imagined space" the computer reduces to a uniform model of only real and imagined space. It cannot undertake man's function or it cannot build the perception model. However, perception assumes physiological perception, psychological estimation and understanding, and emotional ho-experience. For a person the seizing of space during perception is constructing temporary spatial images and their development. The communicative relations of the person with environment are established during revealing internal and external structural communications and the interior represents the message, unwrapped in space and perceived in time. The real space is formed under influence of the sum of conceptual restrictions. The character of these restrictions depends on a super idea, a type of an initial situation, character of installations and on social-cultural stereotypes of the author. Without this stage transition to real architectural object is impossible. Result of activity of an architect at this stage becomes creation hypothetical cyberspace, with its own peculiarities and laws.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id ddss9824
id ddss9824
authors Halin, G., Bignon, J.C.,Benali, K. and Godart, C.
year 1998
title Cooperation models in co-design: application to architectural design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary This paper focuses on cooperation concepts necessary for managing concurrent engineering. It reports on a research work being done in a project which establishes a connection between computer sciences, architecture, and telecommunications research1. Simple electronic cooperation paradigms (also called generic cooperation bricks) are found by analysing the current usage of human cooperation in the domainof AEC design environments. We introduce the principles of a middleware to build easily cooperative applications to assist cooperative design. In this approach, the design actors choose cooperation forms by instancing adapted generic cooperation bricks.
series DDSS
email halin@crai.archi.fr
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 4e6b
authors Kavakli, Manolya
year 1998
title An IT-based Strategy For Design Education: Knowledge Engineering
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 101-109
summary University education is considered to be a "knowledge industry" in a knowledge society. In this paper we describe education as the knowledge transfer from one intelligent system to another, and draw upon the experience in Artificial Intelligence in order to apply it as an active knowledge acquisition strategy for the use of Human Intelligence. In current educational strategies, too often students are treated as passive recipients of knowledge unlike their counterparts (knowledge engineers) in Artificial Intelligence. In design education, we should be concerned with providing students the ability to extract the acquired knowledge from their teachers. In this paper, we put six hypotheses and prove each of them by discussing the methodology of Knowledge Acquisition to improve the process of design education. For an active learning strategy in Knowledge Acquisition, we turn to the wealth of experience made in Knowledge Engineering. In our analogy, we consider students to be Knowledge Engineers, designers to be Knowledge Based Systems, teachers to be the domain experts, and the learning process to equal the Knowledge Acquisition process in Expert System development. Thus, we suggest the use of Knowledge Engineering methods in the acquisition of design knowledge to build a knowledge base. A well-defined knowledge base represented in a Knowledge Based System can serve as a reasoning mechanism for the design actions that are unteachable in characteristics.
series eCAADe
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/16kavakli/index.htm
last changed 1998/09/25 16:45

_id ddss9834
id ddss9834
authors Kovács, László Béla and Kotsis, István
year 1998
title Basic Concepts and Prototypes of a Land Usage Design and Decision Support System
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary This paper presents the basic ideas of a computer system for supporting urban design and decisions on land use. We argue, that the high complexity of urban design - inherent in the its large number of interdependent views and aspects - seems to justify a flexible support system capable of reasoning and conceptual modelling. Such a system may be prohibitively resource demanding unless we are able to build it up from smaller and larger modules of different types and functionality and which canbe created basically in an incremental way without a complete plan in advance. Two prototypes concerning urban designs and a small flexible design rule interpreter/handler is presented for free standing buildings.
series DDSS
email klbzyx@diku.dk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 446f
authors Mcintyre, B. and Feiner, S.
year 1998
title A Distributed 3D Graphics Library
source SIGGRAPH 98 Conference Proceedings, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 1998, ACM SIGGRAPH
summary We present Repo-3D, a general-purpose, object-oriented library for developing distributed, interactive 3D graphics applications across a range of heterogeneous workstations. Repo-3D is designed to make it easy for programmers to rapidly build prototypes using a familiar multi-threaded, object-oriented programming paradigm. All data sharing of both graphical and non-graphical data is done via general-purpose remote and replicated objects, presenting the illusion of a single distributed shared memory. Graphical objects are directly distributed, circumventing the "duplicate database" problem and allowing programmers to focus on the application details. Repo-3D is embedded in Repo, an interpreted, lexically-scoped, distributed programming language, allowing entire applications to be rapidly prototyped. We discuss Repo-3D's design, and introduce the notion of local variations to the graphical objects, which allow local changes to be applied to shared graphical structures. Local variations are needed to support transient local changes, such as highlighting, and responsive local editing operations. Finally, we discuss how our approach could be applied using other programming languages, such as Java.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 48db
authors Proctor, George
year 2001
title CADD Curriculum - The Issue of Visual Acuity
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 192-200
summary Design educators attempt to train the eyes and minds of students to see and comprehend the world around them with the intention of preparing those students to become good designers, critical thinkers and ultimately responsible architects. Over the last eight years we have been developing the digital media curriculum of our architecture program with these fundamental values. We have built digital media use and instruction on the foundation of our program which has historically been based in physical model making. Digital modeling has gradually replaced the capacity of physical models as an analytical and thinking tool, and as a communication and presentation device. The first year of our program provides a foundation and introduction to 2d and 3d design and composition, the second year explores larger buildings and history, the third year explores building systems and structure through design studies of public buildings, fourth year explores urbanism, theory and technology through topic studios and, during the fifth year students complete a capstone project. Digital media and CADD have and are being synchronized with the existing NAAB accredited regimen while also allowing for alternative career options for students. Given our location in the Los Angeles region, many students with a strong background in digital media have gone on to jobs in video game design and the movie industry. Clearly there is much a student of architecture must learn to attain a level of professional competency. A capacity to think visually is one of those skills and is arguably a skill that distinguishes members of the visual arts (including Architecture) from other disciplines. From a web search of information posted by the American Academy of Opthamology, Visual Acuity is defined as an ability to discriminate fine details when looking at something and is often measured with the Snellen Eye Chart (the 20/20 eye test). In the context of this paper visual acuity refers to a subject’s capacity to discriminate useful abstractions in a visual field for the purposes of Visual Thinking- problem solving through seeing (Arnheim, 1969, Laseau 1980, Hoffman 1998). The growing use of digital media and the expanding ability to assemble design ideas and images through point-and-click methods makes the cultivation and development of visual skills all the more important to today’s crop of young architects. The advent of digital media also brings into question the traditional, static 2d methods used to build visual skills in a design education instead of promoting active 3d methods for teaching, learning and developing visual skills. Interactive digital movies provide an excellent platform for promoting visual acuity, and correlating the innate mechanisms of visual perception with the abstractions and notational systems used in professional discourse. In the context of this paper, pedagogy for building visual acuity is being considered with regard to perception of the real world, for example the visual survey of an environment, a site or a street scene and how that visual survey works in conjunction with practice.
keywords Curriculum, Seeing, Abstracting, Notation
series eCAADe
email grproctor@csupomona.edu
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ddss9845
id ddss9845
authors Reymen, Isabelle M.M.J.
year 1998
title Design in Architecture, Software Engineering and Mechanical EngineeringA comparative study
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The awareness about the gap between general design theory and design practice is increasing. Design practice is not really served with the results of current design theory. To build a bridge between theory and practice, design researchers should know what is really going on in practice. To explore design practice and to find the most important characteristics of design situations, I have chosen an empirical approach based on case studies in which design projects in different disciplines are compared. In each case study, an individual designer is interviewed and the design documents are analysed. The results in this article are based on two architectural projects, two software-engineering projects and two mechanical-engineering projects. The cross-case analysis has resulted indescriptions of design situations in these disciplines. A preliminary design frame to describe design situations in different disciplines has been derived. Based on similarities and differences in the descriptions, conclusions concerning design theory, design education and design practice are given. The most important conclusions are the following. First, designers are often not aware of their design process, but focus mainly on the product. Second, software designers more often than architects andmechanical engineers use methods to structure their overall design process.
series DDSS
email isabelle@win.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9857
id ddss9857
authors Terzidis, Kostas
year 1998
title Proposal for a Virtual 3D World Map
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The development of a VRML scheme of a 3D world is proposed. The objective is to provide a prototype framework for Internet client-users toa) Learn how to "plug-in" their own 3D models,b) View and interact with the models using existing communication software on PC-based hardware, andc) Search for other models on the basis of geographical locations.The framework utilizes multiple levels of detail, data abstraction, interaction with HTML format, and build-in code animation. A case study is implemented to provide an example of a four level (territorycity- block-building) hierarchy for creating, visualizing, and searching.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9803
id ddss9803
authors Arentze, T., Borgers, A. and Timmermans, H.
year 1998
title Extending spatial DSS with spatial choice models of multipurpose shopping trip behaviour
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary Spatial choice or interaction models have been widely used in spatial DSS or customised GIS for analysing the impacts of retail location plans. The models typically used, however, do not account for spatial agglomeration effects on spatial choice behaviour. This study develops a model system for analysing the impacts of retail plans based on a choice model of multipurpose behaviour developed in earlier work. The model system is implemented in the spatial DSS called Location Planner. An empirical study demonstrates the empirical estimation and use of the model for analysing the impacts of an expansion of floor space in the major shopping centre of a middle-sized city in The Netherlands. The results indicate that agglomeration effects as predicted by the model can have substantial impacts on the performance of retail systems. Therefore, it is argued that when incorporated in a spatial DSS, the more complex models have the potential to improve the use of these systems for impact analysis.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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