CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 553

_id ce7a
authors Wojtowicz, Jerzy and Butelski, Kazimier
year 1998
title A Case Study of the Virtual Design Studio in Practice : The Olympic Stadium for Krakow 2006
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 253-261
summary Continually being redeveloped since its inception six years ago, Virtual Design Studio (VDS) represents a new method of practicing and teaching design. This paper focuses on a recent project which used VDS in a professional context: a design competition entry for the 2006 Winter Olympic Games. Separated by six time zones, the authors offer distinctive views of VDS, discussing the creative aspects of long-distance design collaboration using both synchronous and asynchronous modes of communication. The authors consider Information Technology (IT) as a facilitator for design collaboration, and examine in this paper the extent to which this new condition expands the possibilities of creative design work.
series eCAADe
email jw@architecture.ubc.ca, pabutels@cyf-kr.edu.pl
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/21wojtowicz/index.htm
last changed 1998/09/25 16:59

_id a136
authors Blaise, J.Y., Dudek, I. and Drap, P.
year 1998
title Java collaborative interface for architectural simulations A case study on wooden ceilings of Krakow
source International Conference On Conservation - Krakow 2000, 23-24 November 1998, Krakow, Poland
summary Concern for the architectural and urban preservation problems has been considerably increasing in the past decades, and with it the necessity to investigate the consequences and opportunities opened for the conservation discipline by the development of computer-based systems. Architectural interventions on historical edifices or in preserved urban fabric face conservationists and architects with specific problems related to the handling and exchange of a variety of historical documents and representations. The recent development of information technologies offers opportunities to favour a better access to such data, as well as means to represent architectural hypothesis or design. Developing applications for the Internet also introduces a greater capacity to exchange experiences or ideas and to invest on low-cost collaborative working platforms. In the field of the architectural heritage, our research addresses two problems: historical data and documentation of the edifice, methods of representation (knowledge modelling and visualisation) of the edifice. This research is connected with the ARKIW POLONIUM co-operation program that links the MAP-GAMSAU CNRS laboratory (Marseilles, France) and the Institute HAiKZ of Kraków's Faculty of Architecture. The ARKIW programme deals with questions related to the use of information technologies in the recording, protection and studying of the architectural heritage. Case studies are chosen in order to experience and validate a technical platform dedicated to the formalisation and exchange of knowledge related to the architectural heritage (architectural data management, representation and simulation tools, survey methods, ...). A special focus is put on the evolution of the urban fabric and on the simulation of reconstructional hypothesis. Our contribution will introduce current ARKIW internet applications and experiences: The ARPENTEUR architectural survey experiment on Wie¿a Ratuszowa (a photogrammetrical survey based on an architectural model). A Gothic and Renaissance reconstruction of the Ratusz Krakowski using a commercial modelisation and animation software (MAYA). The SOL on line documentation interface for Kraków's Rynek G_ówny. Internet analytical approach in the presentation of morphological informations about Kraków's Kramy Bogate Rynku Krakowskiego. Object-Orientation approach in the modelling of the architectural corpus. The VALIDEUR and HUBLOT Virtual Reality modellers for the simulation and representation of reconstructional hypothesis and corpus analysis.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 8cb9
authors Lee, S., Mitchell, W.J., Naka, R., Morozumi, M. and Yamaguchi, S.
year 1998
title The Kumamoto-Kyoto- MIT Collaborative Project: A Case Study of the Design Studio of the Future
source Proceedings of Collaborative Buildings 1998, Darmstadt, Germany
summary The Department of Architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has conducted a series of experimental design studios, as part of a larger ongoing research endeavour called The Design Studio of the Future, an interdisciplinary effort focusing on geographically distributed computer-mediated design and work group collaboration issues. A recent exploration was a collaborative design project joining geographically dispersed design students, faculty, researchers, and practitioners from Kumamoto University, Kyoto Institute of Technology, and MIT to examine the nature of computer networked collaborative environments and advanced computer-aided design technologies to support architectural education and practice. This paper will describe this project, which provided the students and faculty members with practical experience in the use of emerging technologies for collaboration, design, and communication in both the day-to-day activities of distributed groupwork as well as in the more formalized reviews.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 7e80
authors Yee, S. (et al.)
year 1998
title The Kumamoto-Kyoto-MIT Collaborative Project: a case study of the Design Studio of the Future
source N.A. Streiz, S. Konomi, and H. Burkardt (eds), Cooperative Buildings: Interpreting Organization, and Architecture, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 80–93
summary The Department of Architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has conducted a series of experimental design studios, as part of a larger ongoing research endeavour called The Design Studio of the Future, an interdisciplinary effort focusing on geographically distributed computer-mediated design and work group collaboration issues. A recent exploration was a collaborative design project joining geographically dispersed design students, faculty, researchers, and practitioners from Kumamoto University, Kyoto Institute of Technology, and MIT to examine the nature of computer networked collaborative environments and advanced computer-aided design technologies to support architectural education and practice. This paper will describe this project, which provided the students and faculty members with practical experience in the use of emerging technologies for collaboration, design, and communication in both the day-to-day activities of distributed groupwork as well as in the more formalized reviews.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9801
id ddss9801
authors Achten, Henri and Leeuwen, Jos van
year 1998
title A Feature-Based Description Technique for Design Processes: A Case Study
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary In order to develop appropriate tools for decision support in design processes, it is necessary to found them on an understanding of design. Analytical techniques of design processes that have a direct relationship with tool development can enhance design support systems development. The paper focuses on a design support system in the VR-DIS research program. The aim of this research program is to develop insight in the architectural design process and to establish design tools for architectsworking in Virtual Reality. The basic approach for data modelling in VR in this research is based on an extension of the Feature Based Modelling paradigm taken from design in mechanical engineering. The computer model of the design in the system is a Feature-based model. This paper describes design processes in terms of changes in the Feature-based model of the design. For this purpose, a case of a house design is used. Drawings in the conceptual design phase up to the preliminary design phase arestudied. Each state of the drawings is described in terms of a Feature-model. Particular design actions such as creation of spaces, definition of architectural elements, and changes during the design process can be expressed in terms of changes in the Feature-model. Because of the use of Features, the changes can be formalised in the VR-DIS system. The description in terms of Features offers an analytical toolthat leads to a functional brief for design support tools. The paper ends with a discussion of implications and future work.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0f09
authors Ando, H., Kubota, A. and Kiriyama, T.
year 1998
title Study on the collaborative design process over the internet: A case study on VRML 2.0 specification design
source Design Studies 19, pp. 289-308
summary In this paper, we analyze the process of VRML 2.0 (Virtual Reality Modeling Language, Version 2.0) specification design for the deeper understanding of Internet-based collaboration. The VRML design process has the characteristics of being open to the public, geographically distributed, long-term, large-scale, and diverse. First, we examine the overall features of the design process by analyzing the VRML mailing list archive statistically. Secondly, we extract prototyping vocabulary (operational patterns) from the document change log. Thirdly, we analyze the process of proposing and agreeing with the PROTO node in detail. The results of analysis provide us with a guidance for facilitating innovation in the Internet-based collaboration.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id c0e0
authors Campbell, Dace
year 1998
title Architectural Construction Documents on the Web: VRML as a Case Study
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 266-275
summary The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and the World Wide Web (WWW) offer new opportunities to communicate an architect’s design intent throughout the design process. We have investigated the use of VRML in the production and communication of construction documents, the final phase of architectural building design. A prototype, experimental Web site was set up and used to disseminate design data as VRML models and HTML text to the design client, contractor, and fabricators. In this paper, we discuss the way our construction documents were developed in VRML, the issues we faced implementing it, and critical feedback from the users of the Web space/site. We analyze the usefulness of VRML as a communication tool for the design and construction industries. Finally, we discuss technical, social, and legal issues the AEC industry faces as it shifts to embrace widespread use of a “paperless” Web-based communications infrastructure for design documentation.
series ACADIA
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
last changed 1998/12/16 08:42

_id 2de0
authors Dobson, Adrian
year 1998
title Exploring Conceptual Design using CAD Visualisation and Virtual Reality Modelling
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 68-71
summary This paper evaluates the possibilities for the use of computer aided design and desktop virtual reality technologies as tools for architectural composition. An experimental teaching programme involving undergraduate architectural students at the University of Luton, in which aspects of compositional theory are explored through the direct creation of architectural form and space in digital formats is described. In the programme principles of architectural composition, based upon the ordering and organisation of typological architectural elements according to established rules of composition are introduced to the students through the study of recognised works of design theory. CAD and desktop virtual reality are then used to define and manipulate architectural elements, and to make formal and spatial evaluations of the environments created. The paper describes the theoretical context of the work, assesses the suitability of the software used for performing compositional manipulations, and evaluates the qualities of immersion and intuitive feedback which virtual reality based modelling can offer in the design visualisation process. The teaching programme utilises standard software packages, including AutoCAD, and 3D Studio, as well as Superscape VRT, a PC based desktop VR package.
series eCAADe
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/13dobson/index.htm
last changed 1998/09/25 16:41

_id 1d83
authors Dodge, M., Doyle, S. and Smith, A.
year 1998
title Visual Communication in Urban Planning and Urban Design
source Working Paper 2; Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis Working Papers; London; June 1998
summary This Case Study documents the current status of visual communication in urban design and planning. Visual communication is examined through discussion of standalone and network media, specifically concentrating on visualisation on the World Wide Web (WWW). First, we examine the use of Solid and Geometric Modelling for visualising urban planning and urban design. This report documents and compares examples of the use of Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) and proprietary WWW based Virtual Reality modelling software. Examples include the modelling of Bath and Glasgow using both VRML 1.0 and 2.0. The use of Virtual Worlds and their role in visualising urban form within multi-user environments is reviewed. The use of Virtual Worlds is developed into a study of the possibilities and limitations of Virtual Internet Design Arena's (ViDA's), an initiative undertaken at the Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London. The use of Virtual Worlds and their development towards ViDA's is seen as one of the most important developments in visual communication for urban planning and urban design since the development plan. Secondly, the role of photorealistic media in the process of communicating plans is examined. The process of creating photorealistic media is documented, and examples of the Virtual Streetscape and Wired Whitehall Virtual Urban Interface System are provided. The conclusion is that, although the use of photo-realistic media on the WWW provides a way to visually communicate planning information, its use is limited. The merging of photorealistic media and solid geometric modelling in the creation of Augmented Reality is reviewed. Augmented Reality is seen to provide an important step forward in the ability quickly and easily to visualise urban planning and urban design information. Third, the role of visual communication of planning data through GIS is examined in terms of desktop, three dimensional, and Internet based GIS. The evolution to Internet GIS is seen as a critical component in the development of virtual cities that will allow urban planners and urban designers to visualise and model the complexity of the built environment in networked virtual reality. Finally, a viewpoint is put forward of the Virtual City, linking Internet GIS with photorealistic multi-user Virtual Worlds. At present there are constraints on how far virtual cities can be developed, but a view is provided on how these networked virtual worlds are developing to aid visual communication in urban planning and urban design.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 50a1
authors Hoffman, Donald
year 1998
title Visual Intelligence
source Norton Publishing, New York
summary After his stroke, Mr. P still had outstanding memory and intelligence. He could still read and talk, and mixed well with the other patients on his ward. His vision was in most respects normal---with one notable exception: He couldn't recognize the faces of people or animals. As he put it himself, "I can see the eyes, nose, and mouth quite clearly, but they just don't add up. They all seem chalked in, like on a blackboard ... I have to tell by the clothes or by the voice whether it is a man or a woman ...The hair may help a lot, or if there is a mustache ... ." Even his own face, seen in a mirror, looked to him strange and unfamiliar. Mr. P had lost a critical aspect of his visual intelligence. We have long known about IQ and rational intelligence. And, due in part to recent advances in neuroscience and psychology, we have begun to appreciate the importance of emotional intelligence. But we are largely ignorant that there is even such a thing as visual intelligence---that is, until it is severely impaired, as in the case of Mr. P, by a stroke or other insult to visual cortex. The culprit in our ignorance is visual intelligence itself. Vision is normally so swift and sure, so dependable and informative, and apparently so effortless that we naturally assume that it is, indeed, effortless. But the swift ease of vision, like the graceful ease of an Olympic ice skater, is deceptive. Behind the graceful ease of the skater are years of rigorous training, and behind the swift ease of vision is an intelligence so great that it occupies nearly half of the brain's cortex. Our visual intelligence richly interacts with, and in many cases precedes and drives, our rational and emotional intelligence. To understand visual intelligence is to understand, in large part, who we are. It is also to understand much about our highly visual culture in which, as the saying goes, image is everything. Consider, for instance, our entertainment. Visual effects lure us into theaters, and propel films like Star Wars and Jurassic Park to record sales. Music videos usher us before surreal visual worlds, and spawn TV stations like MTV and VH-1. Video games swallow kids (and adults) for hours on end, and swell the bottom lines of companies like Sega and Nintendo. Virtual reality, popularized in movies like Disclosure and Lawnmower Man, can immerse us in visual worlds of unprecedented realism, and promises to transform not only entertainment but also architecture, education, manufacturing, and medicine. As a culture we vote with our time and wallets and, in the case of entertainment, our vote is clear. Just as we enjoy rich literature that stimulates our rational intelligence, or a moving story that engages our emotional intelligence, so we also seek out and enjoy new media that challenge our visual intelligence. Or consider marketing and advertisement, which daily manipulate our buying habits with sophisticated images. Corporations spend millions each year on billboards, packaging, magazine ads, and television commercials. Their images can so powerfully influence our behavior that they sometimes generate controversy---witness the uproar over Joe Camel. If you're out to sell something, understanding visual intelligence is, without question, critical to the design of effective visual marketing. And if you're out to buy something, understanding visual intelligence can help clue you in to what is being done to you as a consumer, and how it's being done. This book is a highly illustrated and accessible introduction to visual intelligence, informed by the latest breakthroughs in vision research. Perhaps the most surprising insight that has emerged from vision research is this: Vision is not merely a matter of passive perception, it is an intelligent process of active construction. What you see is, invariably, what your visual intelligence constructs. Just as scientists intelligently construct useful theories based on experimental evidence, so vision intelligently constructs useful visual worlds based on images at the eyes. The main difference is that the constructions of scientists are done consciously, but those of vision are done, for the most part, unconsciously.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 203b
authors Jabi, Wassim M.
year 1998
title The Role of Artifacts in Collaborative Design
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 271-280
summary With the proliferation of digital technology, a new category of design artifacts, usually described with the term virtual, has emerged. Virtual artifacts have gained further prominence due to the advances made in collaboration software and networking technologies. These technologies have made it easier to communicate design intentions through the transfer and sharing of virtual rather than physical artifacts. This becomes particularly true in the case of long-distance or international collaborative efforts. This paper compares the two major categories of artifacts – the physical and the computer-based – and places them in relationship to an observed collaborative design process. In order to get at their specific roles in collaboration, two case studies were conducted in which designers in academic and professional settings were observed using a methodology which focused on participation in the everydayness of the designer as well as casual discussions, collection of artifacts, note-taking, and detailed descriptions of insightful events. The collected artifacts were then categorized according to the setting in which they were created and the setting in which they were intended to be used. These two attributes could have one of two values, private or public, which yield a matrix of four possible categories. It was observed that artifacts belonging in the same quadrant shared common qualities such as parsimony, completeness, and ambiguity. This paper finds that distinguishing between physical and virtual artifacts according to their material and imagined attributes is neither accurate nor useful. This research illustrates how virtual artifacts can obtain the qualities of their physical counterparts and vice versa. It also demonstrates how a new meta-artifact can emerge from the inclusion and unification of its material and imagined components. In conclusion, the paper calls for a seamless continuity in the representation and management of physical and virtual artifacts as a prerequisite to the success of: (1) computer-supported collaborative design processes, (2) academic instruction dealing with making and artifact building, and (3) executive policies in architectural practice addressing the management of architectural documents.
keywords Collaborative Design Process
series CAADRIA
email wj@writeme.com
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:28

_id 9480
authors Kan, J.W.T., Chow, B.K.M. and Tsou, J.-Y.
year 1999
title Visual Impact Evaluation of Electricity Substation Architecture
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 81-87
summary This paper presents a case study of the application of computer techniques for design communication and visual impact analysis. We were sponsored by China Light & Power Company Ltd. To simulate the design of a proposed electricity substation and its it is setting in a residential neighborhood. During a five-week intensive study, we took nearly one thousand photographs of the existing site. We also created a three-dimensional CAD model of the proposed substation, and produced perspectives from points of view analogous to the photographs. We applied Apple Quicktime VR technology to document the site environment with 360-degree panoramas. We then montaged the computer-generated panoramas with those taken from the real environment. A navigable virtual environment, architectural animation and set of still images were presented to the public in September 1998. The reactions from the regional council members and local residents nearby were recorded to provide evidence to measure the effectiveness of digital architectural design communication.
series CAADRIA
email waitakkan@cuhk.edu.hk, kaming@cuhk.edu.hk, jinyeutsou@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2000/01/13 10:10

_id 0beb
authors Koch, Volker and Russell, Peter
year 2000
title VuuA.Org: The Virtual Upperrhine University of Architecture
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 23-25
summary In 1998, architecture schools in the three nation region of the upper Rhine came together to undertake a joint design studio. With the support of the Center for Entrepeneurship in Colmar, France, the schools worked on the reuse of the Kuenzer Mill situated near Herbolzheim, Germany. The students met jointly three times during the semester and then worked on the project at their home universities usng conventional methods. This project was essential to generating closer ties between the participating students, tutors and institutions and as such, the results were quite positive. So much so, that the organisers decided to repeat the exercise one year later. However, it became clear that although the students had met three times in large groups, the real success of a co-operative design studio would require mechanisms which allow far more intimate interaction among the participants, be they students, teachers or outside experts. The experiences from the Netzentwurf at the Institut für Industrielle Bauproduktion (ifib) showed the potential in a web based studio and the addition of ifib to the three nation group led to the development of the VuuA platform. The first project served to illuminate the the differences in teaching concepts among the partner institutions and their teaching staff as well as problems related to the integration of students from three countries with two languages and four different faculties: landscape architecture, interior design, architecture and urban planning. The project for the Fall of 1999 was the reuse of Fort Kléber in Wolfisheim by Strasbourg, France. The students again met on site to kick off the Semester but were also instructed to continue their cooperation and criticism using the VuuA platform.
keywords Virtual Design Studio, CSCW, International Cooperation, Planning Platform
series eCAADe
email volker.koch@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de, peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
more http://www.vuua.org
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 0453
authors McIntosh, Patricia G.
year 1998
title The Internet as Communication Medium and Online Laboratory For Architecture Research
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 151-157
summary This case study documents the experiences of two courses recently conducted on the Internet. The courses are a sequence of core methods courses offered to post-professional degree architecture students studying in a Computer Aided Design concentration in a Master of Science program. In these courses the students use the Internet as a communication medium and as a research tool using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). The VRML interface in the Web browser serves as an online laboratory and presents new opportunities for communication and for studying distributed computing in a multimedia and multidimensional environment.
series eCAADe
email pgm@cox.net
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/09mcintosh/index.htm
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id fe09
authors Morozumi, Mitsuo and Homma, Riken
year 2001
title A Design Studio Program that Applied Groupware to Stimulate Students’ Interactions - A Case Study of Junior Studio
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 317-322
summary Since 1996, Kumamoto University has repeated several experiments to apply web-based collaborative design techniques to a junior design studio to stimulate students’ interaction in the class and to enhance their design abilities. As it became evident after a two-year experiment that writing web pages and uploading them to a web server was a barrier of communication for students, the authors developed a web-based groupware called GWNotebook, and started using it in 1998. In the fall semester of 2000, the authors tested the groupware in a revised version, and a new program of studio instructions that assumed the use of the groupware. This paper, referring students’ answers to two sets of questionnaire respectively carried out in 1997 and 2000, discusses the effectiveness of groupware and the instruction program.
keywords Design Studio, Groupware, Www, Information Sharing, Design Communication
series eCAADe
email moro@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id ebb2
authors Proctor, George
year 2000
title Reflections on the VDS, Pedagogy, Methods
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15-16
summary After having conducted a Digital Media based design studio at Cal Poly for six years, we have developed a body of experience I feel is worth sharing. When the idea of conducting a studio with the exclusive use of digital tools was implemented at our college, it was still somewhat novel, and only 2 short years after the first VDS- Virtual Design Studio (UBC, UHK et.al.-1993). When we began, most of what we explored required a suspension of disbelief on the part of both the students and faculty reviewers of studio work. In a few short years the notions we examined have become ubiquitous in academic architectural discourse and are expanding into common use in practice. (For background, the digital media component of our curriculum owes much to my time at Harvard GSD [MAUD 1989-91] and the texts of: McCullough/Mitchell 1990, 1994; McCullough 1998; Mitchell 1990,1992,1996; Tufte 1990; Turkel 1995; and Wojtowicz 1993; and others.)
series ACADIA
email georger@cybertects.com
last changed 2002/12/15 15:37

_id ecaade03_059_29_russel
id ecaade03_059_29_russel
authors Russell, P., Stachelhaus, T. and Elger, D.
year 2003
title CSNCW: Computer Supported Non-Cooperative Work Barriers to Successful Virtual Design Studios
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 59-66
summary The paper describes a design studio jointly undertaken by four Universities. With respect given to the groundbreaking work carried out by [Wojtowicz and Butelski (1998)] and [Donath et al 1999] and some of the problems described therein, the majority of the Studio partners had all had positive, if not exemplary experiences with co-operative studio projects carried out over the internet. The positive experience and development of concepts have been well documented in numerous publications over the last 5 years. A platform developed by one of the partners for this type of collaboration is in its third generation and has had well over 1000 students from 12 different universities in over 40 Projects. With this amount of experience, the four partners entered into the joint studio project with high expectations and little fear of failure. This experimental aspect of the studio, combined with the “well trodden” path of previous virtual design studios, lent an air of exploration to an otherwise well-worn format. Everything looked good, or so we thought. This is not to say that previous experiments were without tribulations, but the problems encountered earlier were usually spread over the studio partners and thus, the levels and distribution of frustration were more or less balanced. This raised a (theoretically) well-founded expectation of success. In execution, it was quite the opposite. In this case, the difficulties tended to be concentrated towards one or two of the partners. The partners spoke the same language, but came from different sets of goals, and hence, interpreted the agreements to suit their goals. This was not done maliciously, however the results were devastating to the project and most importantly, the student groups. The differing pedagogical methods of the various institutes played a strong role in steering the design critique at each school. Alongside these difficulties, the flexibility (or lack thereof) of each university’s calendar as well as national and university level holidays led to additional problems in coordination. And of course, (as if this was all not enough), the technical infrastructure, local capabilities and willingness to tackle technological problems were heterogeneous (to put it lightly).
keywords CSCW: Virtual Design Studio; Mistakes in Pedagogy
series eCAADe
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
more http://caad.arch.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id e031
authors Stannard, Sandy
year 1998
title Computers in Design Exploring Light and Time
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 26-35
summary Computers have helped bring architectural education to a digital crossroads. This new tool is effecting architectural education on numerous levels, from the simplest word processing of research papers to more complex interactive modeling. This casestudy paper will focus on the new and changing role of the computer in the design studio. In this case, the approach to integrating the computer into the studio revolves around its application simply as another tool for a designer’s use. Clearly, the use of computers in design studios is not a new development. However, as the computer’s use in design education is not yet widespread, a dialogue about methods of application is valuable for design educators. The intent behind computer use in this case was not to replace traditional design methods but to complement and enhance them. In this spirit, this case study focuses on the use of computers to investigate two aspects of design that are challenging to model: light and time. In the studios to be examined here, students were required to explore their designs with both traditional tools (sketches on trace, physical study models as well as final finish models, etc.) and with newer digital tools (lighting simulation programs, threedimensional modeling programs, and animation). Students worked in teams in most cases. The computer was used both as a design tool as well as a representational tool, with varying degrees of success, depending on the student’s expertise, comfort using the computer as a design tool and access to appropriate hardware and software. In the first studio case study, the “new” medium of the computer was a perfect complement for the focus of the studio, entitled “Space and Light.” In addition to utilizing large scale physical models traditionally used for lighting design, three-dimensional computer models using Lightscape enriched the design results. Both sets of tools were vital for the design processes of the studio assignments. In the second studio case study, a traditional fourth year studio was required to use the computer to explore the dimension of time in their designs, which in this case translated into animation modeling. Integrating the computer into the design studio promises to be a complex task. As these examples will illustrate, the advantages and the disadvantages require continual balancing. Philosophical disagreement, potential discomfort, or a general lack of knowledge of digital tools may inhibit design educators from testing the potential of these ever-changing tools. Despite the challenges, this case study reveals the educational value of continued experimental use of digital tools in the design studio.

series ACADIA
email sstan@uidaho.edu
last changed 1998/12/16 07:29

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