CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 552

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddss9816
id ddss9816
authors Demirel, Füsun
year 1998
title A Research on Housing in Ankara-Turkey
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The subject of this research contains an opinionnaire study and its results obtained from 30 houses in Ankara-TURKEY in which the people have middle and upper middle income so as to identify their favourites and criticsm about housing, regarding to their both houses and environment as well as tomake the definition of ideal houses and environment. Totally 30 subjects of which 21 are female and 9 are male which represent middle and upper middle incomed people. The average age of the subjects whose age range vary between 21 and 70 is 41. In the study, firstly, the opinionnaire questions were prepared and the housing in which the middle and upper middle incomed people live were determined as socio-economic level to be examined. Next permission and time reservation were requested fromthe owner's of housing to implement the study. During the times which have been determined by the subjects, the following procedure has been followed reading of the opinionnaire forms by myself and recording of responses of the subjects exactly, drawing of reliefs and plans of house, taking pictures of outer views and surroundings of housings. Tendencies of users' against various conditions have been transformed into numerical values from 1 to 7 in a scale with 7 column. In the light of above information; Considering the country conditions it was observed that these housing were excessivelylarge and were built for ostentation purposes, not for functional purposes. Usefulness, that is to say, design of house is in the bottom of the criteria list and it is not an important factor to choose the house, form another part of interesting findings of this study. Another significant result has been observed due to users desire about their house. Although the rising of design which was in 6th rank among the reasons to prefer a house was not an effective criteria on users' attitudes merely to have ahouse, this criteria was the 1st rank (87 %) among reasons due to the advantages that were provided for the users with respected to design and functionality as a result of meticulous studies of architects.Users' criticisms on their vicinity have shown variations according to their sexes.As a result of this research that were initiated to define the ideal house and environment concepts; interesting and detailed data about users' tendencies in the scope of both house and settling are available in "Findings" part of this study. Rising of desing criteria which was the 6 th rank amongcriteria's to choose a house, to 1st rank has brought the following conclusion: since the users are not able to act consciously due to the consideration of the properly owing action much more important,the main duty here is performed by the planner. Hence, starting from the assumption that users living in housings are extremely sensitive to their houses and especially environments, provision of public participation via this kind of opinionnaire studies while creating new environments, may contribute to create such environments in which people can live.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id a545
authors Wood, John B. and Chambers, Tom
year 1998
title Value Added Learning: The Cadet Experience
source Computers in Design Studio Teaching [EAAE/eCAADe International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 09523687-7-3] Leuven (Belgium) 13-14 November 1998, pp. 165-172
summary This paper reports on the integration of Information Technology in the Building Design Engineering Studio. It is based on the work carried out by the CADET Unit (CAD Education and Training), which promotes a better understanding of the built environment through an integrated approach to design studio teaching. This is achieved through a dynamic studio environment guided by a Building Design Engineering ethos that adopts a holistic approach to design; recognising that design in engineering, architecture and the visual arts demands an understanding of the challenges of a multidisciplinary approach that acknowledges a broader cultural dimension. There are increasing demands placed on students of architecture and engineering. They require skills in making physical as well as computer models, they must be able to draw in 18th & 19th century conventional media (paper, pen and pencil) as well as CAD and they must be proficient in rendering in full colour both conventionally and in the electronic media including animations. The creative use of the computer at the point of analysis and conceptualisation, as important as technical proficiency, is a necessary part of the design process. In recognition of the demands that we currently make of university students we are exploring two critical responses. In the first case we demonstrate an integrated approach to design studio practice, achieving a value added learning experience in the University Sector, and with a view to the longer term we are exploring the application of a similar design approach within the Secondary School Sector in order to raise the awareness of design at an earlier stage.
series eCAADe
email ccas26@strath.ac.uk
more http://www.eaae.be/
last changed 2000/11/21 08:25

_id 6433
authors Agranovich-Ponomarieva, E. and Litvinova, A.
year 1998
title The "Real Space - Cyberspace" Paradigm
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 141-145
summary In a chain of "real - perceived - imagined space" the computer reduces to a uniform model of only real and imagined space. It cannot undertake man's function or it cannot build the perception model. However, perception assumes physiological perception, psychological estimation and understanding, and emotional ho-experience. For a person the seizing of space during perception is constructing temporary spatial images and their development. The communicative relations of the person with environment are established during revealing internal and external structural communications and the interior represents the message, unwrapped in space and perceived in time. The real space is formed under influence of the sum of conceptual restrictions. The character of these restrictions depends on a super idea, a type of an initial situation, character of installations and on social-cultural stereotypes of the author. Without this stage transition to real architectural object is impossible. Result of activity of an architect at this stage becomes creation hypothetical cyberspace, with its own peculiarities and laws.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id 0f4c
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1998
title From Real to Cyber Reality
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 11-19
summary Human activity takes place in two planes, at two levels. Practical activity is present in one of the planes, the other level is occupied by purely cognitive activity. When observing sufficiently long sequences of practical and cognitive activities, one notices transitions between them, which prove true the suspicions of their functional relationship. Because on both of these planes of human activity there is always one and the same element present - an informative element - which on the first plane functions as subordinate, and in the other as an independent one, one can search for a common characteristic for both planes. Such common characteristic for both levels of human activity can be perceived in the fact that in both situations the activity of a human is based on CREATION. Human thinking is based on transitions between what is accessible through experience and what is referred to conceptually. The human thought exists only and exclusively in the vertical motion: from the phenomenal level to the structural level direction of abstraction) and from the conceptual level to the empirical level direction of concretisation). All human activity is multilayered or, more precisely, it is an activity within many layers: the sensual one as well as the structural one. The appearance of conceptual thinking has created a qualitatively new type of a situation. This novelty can be easily seen both in the sphere of the practical cognitive activity as well as in the sphere of the pure cognitive activity. In both cases, the cognitive activity of a human is of a "double-decker" character: image and concept. It is necessary to note here that the "image" does not only mean structural, concrete, but also one which is purely visual, abstract, of no physical form. Therefore, the human experience, being the result of the cognitive activity, is being expressed, becoming objective, materialising in two different but compatible ways. Firstly, in the material structures of practical significance - this way the material culture is created. Secondly - in material structures which have no practical meaning but are solely used for expressing the spiritual contents - thus creating the spiritual culture. Humans have developed an extraordinarily strong need for spiritual activity, which is manifested by the material activity, redundant from the point of view of the material needs.
series plCAD
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2003/05/17 08:01

_id ddss9807
id ddss9807
authors Boelen, A.J. and Lugt, Hermen J. van der
year 1998
title Communication of design parameters within groups
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary This paper discusses the facilitation of worldwide concurrent design within the domains involved in environmental planning, urban design and civil engineering. Typical projects in these domains require the collaboration of many experts. Each of these has his reference framework for the taskat hand and for the variables used. The amount of variables makes it impossible for each project participant to take account for all possible impacts of proposed or planned actions. The typical project demands for a concurrent design process that enables all participants to concentrate ontheir domain of expertise. On the other hand the design process should enable them to have insight in the problems, within the domains of other experts. The system should provide a generic environment with the ability to attach domain specific knowledge. By providing this support thesystem integrates knowledge specific to various expert domains.In the PortPlan project within the LWI organization a system is being developed that supports the integration of various reference frameworks involved in environmental planning. We no longer need to develop a common language for the users. The system contains a dynamic set of scalebound reference objects for the domains involved. The system facilitates the communication of object characteristics. It also supports the presentation of these objects, in legends for each participant involved.We achieve the communication between participants using a dynamic legend. We also enable all participants to become informed on the interests of other participants. We achieve the technical communication using the exchange of interventions. We do not exchange results. This leads to alow "network traffic load" and thus enables the system to operate within the current Internet infrastructure. In this paper we present the problem area of concurrent design in environmental planning. We present this describing the background of our project, describing the overall architecture of the system and presenting the first findings of user studies.
keywords Concurrent Design, Interfaces, Legends
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 07c5
authors Burry, Mark
year 1998
title Handcraft and Machine Metaphysics
source Computers in Design Studio Teaching [EAAE/eCAADe International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 09523687-7-3] Leuven (Belgium) 13-14 November 1998, pp. 41-50
summary As the cost of 3D digitisers drops and PC price performance rises, opportunities for hand - computer co-operation improve. Architectural form may now be experimentally moulded or carved using manual techniques in close association with the computer. At any stage the model can be mechanically digitised and translated to a computer database for explorations that go beyond simple physical manipulation. In the virtual environment, the resulting forms can be rationalised using an ordering geometry or further de-rationalised. This potential for debasing intuitive, sensually haptic and responsive handwork through its translation into numerically cogent formulations is risky business. But it may also bring new and unlikely rewards. This paper considers the implications and aesthetics of negotiations between handcraft and consecutive or synchronous computer digitalisation of intentions. Two situations will be discussed and compared. The first is the nature of computer modelling and its representation per se, and the second is the relevance of using handcraft as a sponsor for computer-based manipulation and morphological experimenting.
series eCAADe
email mburry@deakin.edu.au
more http://www.eaae.be/
last changed 2000/11/21 08:11

_id 40db
authors Chambers, Tom and Wood, John B.
year 1998
title Information Technology in the Building Design Engineering Studio
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 26-30
summary This paper reports on the activities of CADET in the design studio environment and in a variety of community contexts with the objective of developing a strategy for teaching design within the context of design, art, architecture and engineering. It begins with an outline of earlier design projects, in a variety of traditional media and in CAAD at several levels within the Undergraduate programme at the University of Strathclyde together with community organisations. It then outlines a model with a number of strands that explore the principles of visual communication which are fundamental to both the development and communication of design ideas. The report will place these activities in the context of developments in education and the wider sphere of cultural heritage, which ultimately inform understanding and knowledge of our architectural and design heritage. It will highlight and explore some important ideas that inform our judgment of aesthetic forms and refer students to relevant texts and precedents in art, design, engineering and architecture.
series eCAADe
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/29chambers/index.htm
last changed 1998/09/25 17:11

_id fb22
authors Chien, Sheng-Fen
year 1998
title Supporting information navigation in generative design systems
source Camegie Mellon University, School of Architecture
summary Generative design systems make it easier for designers to generate and explore design altematives, but the amount of information generated during a design session can become very large. Intelligent navigation aids are needed to enable designers to access the information with ease. Such aids may improve the usability of generative design systems and encourage their use in architectural practice. This dissertation presents a comprehensive approach to support navigation in generative design systems. This approach takes account of studies related to human spatial cognition, wayfinding in physical environments, and information navigation in electronic media. It contains a general model of design space, basic navigation operations, and principles for designing navigation support. The design space model describes how the space may grow and evolve along predictable dimensions. The basic operations facilitate navigation activities in this multi-dimensional design space. The design principles aim at guiding system developers in creating navigation utilities tailored to the needs of individual design systems. This approach is validated through prototype implementations and limited pilot usability studies. The validity of the design space model and basic navigation operations is examined through the development of a design space navigation framework that encapsulates the model and operations in a software environment and provides the infrastructure and mechanisms for supporting navigation. Three prototype navigation tools are implemented using this framework. These tools are subjected to usability studies. The studies show that these tools are easy to leam and are efficient in assisting designers locating desired information. In summary, it can be demonstrated that through the prototype implementations and usability studies, this approach offers sufficient support for the design and implementation of navigation aids in a generative design system. The research effort is a pioneer study on navigation support in generative design systems. It demonstrates why navigation support is necessary; how to provide the support; and what types of user interaction it can offer. This research contributes to information navigation studies not only in the specific domain of generative design system research, but also in the general field of human-computer interaction.
series thesis:PhD
email schien@mail.ntust.edu.tw
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 032b
authors Cicognani, Anna
year 1998
title A linguistic characterisation of design in text-based virtual worlds
source University of Sydney
summary In this research, it is suggested that design in text-based virtual worlds can be identified as a series of interactions between users and the virtual environment, and that these interactions for design can be approached using a linguistic perspective. The main assumption of this research is that a parallel can be drawn between the performance of design commands, and the one of speech acts in the physical world. Design in text-based virtual environments can then be articulated using a restricted set of speech acts, as design commands. Virtual worlds, represented as spaces, can be constructed following an architectural design metaphor. This metaphor provides a framework for the organisation of virtual entity relationships, and for the choice of words used to design. A linguistic characterisation is presented, by means of design activities, prototypes and scenarios, which derive from the architectural design metaphor. The characterisation of design is then validated by the analysis of an existing text-based virtual world.
keywords Virtual Reality; Human-Computer Interaction; Computer-Aided Design; Programming Languages (Electronic Computers); Semantics; Programming Languages (Electronic Computers); Design
series thesis:PhD
email anna@arch.su.edu.au
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ddss9815
id ddss9815
authors Cutler, Lorraine M.
year 1998
title Prototypical Laboratory Design to Support Learning and Teaching
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary Collaboration between designers and scientists is an unusual combination to undertake the prototypical design of a teaching laboratory funded by Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The zoologists are developing a cooperative learning and interactive teaching pedagogy to make learningscience a process of critical inquiry and discovery. The industrial and interior designers are paying attention to the design issues of function and environmental support for teaching and doing the work required in a three-hour, hands-on beginning science learning space. Using both qualitative andquantitative research methods, the designers are able to determine a framework for making design decisions in prototypical beginning science environments. This framework is being developed as a guideline for designing similar environments at other institutions of higher learning. Videotape analysis precedes the research to uncover the underlying problems of the existing space and to formulate the questions for the research. Elements of a case study and an evaluative study integratewith the design process to form the basis of an intensive investigation of design issues for a beginning science teaching laboratory. Using two pretests as a baseline, the posttest data evaluates the success orfailure of the prototypical design. Both the pretests and the posttest evaluate the physical attributes of the old and new learning environment related to a beginning laboratory course in Zoology at Arizona State University.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 1de5
authors Darken, R.P., Allard, T. and Achille, L.B.
year 1998
title Spatial Orientation and Wayfinding in Large Scale Virtual Spaces
source Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7 (2), pp. 101-107
summary Just as the Pathfinder used the lake and the oak tree to reconstruct his environment, so do we structure our environment with streets and houses, landmarks and guiding principles to aid spatial orientation and wayfinding. The basic process of navigation-extracting information, forming mental representations, and using that representation for route planning and moving about-transcends the physical elements of the environment itself. In practice, we use whatever the environment gives us to solve navigation problems as they arise, in the process, continually refining and updating our internal model of the external environment. Although the virtual environments we speak of may be vastly different in their appearance from the Pathfinder's world, the principles underlying spatial orientation and wayfinding in large-scale virtual spaces have many commonalities.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 66c9
authors Daru, Roel
year 1998
title Architectural Bitmanship : Towards New Experiments in Architectural Education
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 44-60
summary Crafts and craftmanship are about internalised skilled activities, practiced by individuals. According to the particular tools, materials and know-how used in history, it is possible to make distinctions and shows common roots between physical craftmanship, penmanship, draughtsmanship and (in our information age) digital craftsmanship. Every era develops its own crafts and demands its own system of education and pedagogical experiments to achieve the necessary skills. After retelling a very compressed history of all sorts of skills with their accompanying educational experiments in architecture, this paper suggest new experiments needed and required for the nascent era of digital craftsmanship
series eCAADe
email mdaru@IAEhv.nl
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/15daru/index.htm
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 0c54
authors Datta, Sambit and Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1998
title Reducing Semantic Distance in Generative Systems: A Massing Example
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 164-171
summary Generative design formalisms utilise discrete, constructive steps to encode strategies for formal change. In physical design media, the pervasive metaphor for doing design is the direct and continuous manipulation of the developing form. The goal of our investigation is to develop mixed initiative approaches to design exploration. In this paper, we address how constrained manipulation in generative systems can support both discrete and continuous modes of interaction. Massing is a common strategy for processing conceptual notions about three dimensional form. We use massing models of tenth century temple cellas as an example to illustrate an environment for constrained manipulation.

series ACADIA
email sdatta@arch.adelaide.edu.au, rw@arch.adelaide.edu.au
last changed 1998/12/16 07:41

_id 8b38
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen and Gross, Mark D.
year 1998
title The Sundance Lab- "Design Systems of the Future"
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 8-10
summary The last thirty years have seen the development of powerful new tools for architects and planners: CAD, 3D modeling, digital imaging, geographic information systems, and real time animated walkthroughs. That’s just the beginning. Based on our experience with CAD tools, analysis of design practice, and an understanding of computer hardware and software, we’re out to invent the next generation of tools. We think architects should be shakers and makers, not just consumers, of computer aided design. We started the Sundance Lab (for Computing in Design and Planning) in 1993 with a few people and machines. We’ve grown to more than a dozen people (mostly undergraduate students) and a diverse interdisciplinary array of projects. We’ve worked with architects and planners, anthropologists, civil engineers, geographers, computer scientists, and electrical engineers. Our work is about the built environment: its physical form and various information involved in making and inhabiting places. We cover a wide range of topics – from design information management to virtual space, from sketch recognition to design rationale capture, to communication between designer and computer. All start from the position that design is a knowledge based and information rich activity. Explicit representations of design information (knowledge, rationale, and rules) enables us to engage in more intelligent dialogues about design. The following describes some of our projects under various rubrics.
series ACADIA
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 1d83
authors Dodge, M., Doyle, S. and Smith, A.
year 1998
title Visual Communication in Urban Planning and Urban Design
source Working Paper 2; Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis Working Papers; London; June 1998
summary This Case Study documents the current status of visual communication in urban design and planning. Visual communication is examined through discussion of standalone and network media, specifically concentrating on visualisation on the World Wide Web (WWW). First, we examine the use of Solid and Geometric Modelling for visualising urban planning and urban design. This report documents and compares examples of the use of Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) and proprietary WWW based Virtual Reality modelling software. Examples include the modelling of Bath and Glasgow using both VRML 1.0 and 2.0. The use of Virtual Worlds and their role in visualising urban form within multi-user environments is reviewed. The use of Virtual Worlds is developed into a study of the possibilities and limitations of Virtual Internet Design Arena's (ViDA's), an initiative undertaken at the Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London. The use of Virtual Worlds and their development towards ViDA's is seen as one of the most important developments in visual communication for urban planning and urban design since the development plan. Secondly, the role of photorealistic media in the process of communicating plans is examined. The process of creating photorealistic media is documented, and examples of the Virtual Streetscape and Wired Whitehall Virtual Urban Interface System are provided. The conclusion is that, although the use of photo-realistic media on the WWW provides a way to visually communicate planning information, its use is limited. The merging of photorealistic media and solid geometric modelling in the creation of Augmented Reality is reviewed. Augmented Reality is seen to provide an important step forward in the ability quickly and easily to visualise urban planning and urban design information. Third, the role of visual communication of planning data through GIS is examined in terms of desktop, three dimensional, and Internet based GIS. The evolution to Internet GIS is seen as a critical component in the development of virtual cities that will allow urban planners and urban designers to visualise and model the complexity of the built environment in networked virtual reality. Finally, a viewpoint is put forward of the Virtual City, linking Internet GIS with photorealistic multi-user Virtual Worlds. At present there are constraints on how far virtual cities can be developed, but a view is provided on how these networked virtual worlds are developing to aid visual communication in urban planning and urban design.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 2d75
authors Entous, Marc
year 1998
title Developments in 3D Scanning and Digitizing: New Strategies for an Evolving Design Process
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 212-220
summary The computer is now a widely accepted tool in architecture as a production and business tool. Acceptance of digital technology as a design aid has been much slower, but continuing developments in ease of use, capabilities, and lower costs are encouraging the use of three-dimensional design modeling. As the demand for 3D design computing grows, peripheral digital technologies are also developing and being integrated. This paper describes on-going research into how current and near-future developments in three-dimensional scanning and digitizing technology that have the potential to substantially change processes of architectural design. Scanners, or digitizers, assist in transforming physical objects and models into digital representations. The capabilities of 3D scanners in architectural design have only begun to be explored. Existing and emerging 3D scanning technologies are briefly described followed by a discussion of sample existing, new, and potential uses of these capabilities as a design tool. An experiment is conducted to contrast the differences between stylus-based and laser-based digitizers in an architectural design environment.

series ACADIA
email entous@usc.edu
last changed 1998/12/16 08:40

_id de62
authors Eriksson, Joakim
year 1998
title Planning of Environments for People with Physical Disabilities Using Computer Aided Design
source Lund Institute of Technology, School of Architecture
summary In the area of environment adaptations for people with physical disabilities, it is of vital importance that the design is optimized considering the human-environment interactions. All involved persons in such a planning process must be given sufficient support in understanding the information, so that everyone can participate actively. There is an apparent risk that discussions will be kept between experts, due to difficulties in understanding the complex and technical adaptation issues. This thesis investigates the use of computer-based tools for planning/designing environments for physically disabled people. A software prototype, and a method to use such a tool in the planning process, was developed and evaluated, based on the findings from six case studies of real planning situations. The case studies indicated that although such a tool would support the design, as well as the dialog between the participants, a certain level of technical and economical efficiency must be obtained. To facilitate the professional planner's work, an important issue is to maintain a large library of 3D objects. With the latest prototype implementation, it was found that such a planning tool can be produced, even when using consumer-oriented computers. One previous critical factor, interactive manipulation of 3D objects, can now be achieved if utilizing modern graphic cards with 3D acceleration. A usability test was performed to evaluate the prototype's basic operations, involving two groups of future users: five occupational therapist students, and four persons with major physical impairments. It was found that although the usability was satisfactory for the basic tasks, several items needed to be improved or added in future versions. It is important with an integrated support for manikins, in order to evaluate, e.g., wheelchair accessibility, reach ability, positioning of handrails, etc. This thesis reviews and compiles published anthropometrical and biomechanical data into a uniform segment-by-segment structure, in order to aid the design and modifications of manikins. The compilation was implemented as a spreadsheet document. An MRI investigation of the neck-shoulder region was performed on 20 healthy Scandinavian, female volunteers, measuring various musculoskeletal properties. These measurements can be used for further refinements of manikin specifications and biomechanical models.
keywords Rehabilitation; Disability; Adaptation; Participatory Planning; Design Tool; 3D Graphics; Computer Aided Design; Virtual Reality; Manikin; Anthropometry; Biomechanics; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cervical Spine Kinematics
series thesis:PhD
email joakim.eriksson@design.lth.se
more http://www.lub.lu.se/cgi-bin/show_diss.pl?db=global&fname=tec_250.html
last changed 2003/02/26 08:21

_id a114
authors Faucher, Didier and Nivet, Marie-Laure
year 1998
title Playing with Design Intent: Integration of Physical and Urban Constraints in CAD
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 118-137
summary Our work deals with the exploration of a universe of forms that satisfy some design intents. That is, we substitute a “generate and test” approach for a declarative approach in which an object is created from its properties. In this paper we present an original method that takes into account design intents relative to sunlight, visibility and urban regulation. First of all we study how current CAD tools have considered these properties until now. Our conclusion is that the classical design / simulation / analysis process does not suit design practices, especially in the early stages. We think that an improved CAD system should offer the architect the option of manipulating abstract information such as design intents. We define an intent as a conceptual expression of constraints having an influence on the project. For instance, a visual intent will be stated with no reference to vision geometry: “ from this place, I want to see the front of the new building”. We show how to represent each of these constraints with a 3D volume associated to some characteristics. If some solutions exist, we are sure that they are included in these volumes. For physical phenomena we compute the volume geometry using the principles of inverse simulation. In the case of urban regulation we apply deduction rules. Design intents are solved by means of geometrical entities that represent openings or obstructions in the project. Computing constraint volumes is a way of guiding the architect in his exploration of solutions. Constraint volumes are new spaces that can restore the link between form and phenomenon in a CAD tool. Our approach offers the designer the possibility of manipulating design intents.

series ACADIA
email didier.faucher@cerma.archi.fr
last changed 2003/04/28 12:12

_id ddss9820
id ddss9820
authors Fukui, H.
year 1998
title An Example of Visualization for Urban Economic Scenery andUrban Modeling using GIS
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary This paper presents a zone-based urban model to forecast population distribution and land use transition. A GIS model has been suggested for urban economic scenery forecasting by using data related to an urban environment like Tokyo in Japan. The model has structural simplicity, visibility and applicability of policy analysis.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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