CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 101 to 120 of 437

_id 29
authors Nozica, G., Grizas, E. and Potenzoni, A.
year 1998
title Diagnostico del Patrimonio Cultural Ambiental Urbano de un ¡rea de la Ciudad de San Juan Usando la Tecnologia Sig (Diagnostico of the Urban Cultural Patrimony in an area of the City of San Juan Using SGI Tecnology)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 226-231
summary This paper includes some of the results obtained by "The Assessment of San Juan City Environmental Cultural Heritage - A methodology development based on G.I.S. technology" project team. Various criteria and methodologies used for an urban sector diagnosis are analysed based on D.F. Sarmiento Native Home National Historical Monument. Although the above mentioned GIS technology was applied together with the data base generated by the SICAT (Survey Data System), it was necessary to incorporate other data which were not considered by such a base. Consequently, a new system called Heritage Data System (HDS) was designed. The methodological contribution improved the GIS quality of detecting multiple relations among the sector under study cultural goods, such as: eleven environmental historical elements, two designated national historical monuments, one designated national historical site, historical buildings, urban districts, trees and facilities and allowed to define what was called "The Protected Environmental Historical Area".
series SIGRADI
email grnozica@farqui.unsj.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id 59
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1998
title Geometric Modeling intThe Simulation of Fire - Smoke Spread in Buildings
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 438-445
summary Since the performance simulation of buildings, such as fire/smoke spread, energy loss/gain, acoustics, etc. greatly rely on building geometry, the way the physical environment is modeled can substantially effect the reliability of the predictions made by such simulations. Most computer models that simulate fire and smoke spread in buildings limit the computer representation of the building to simpler geometries and define rooms as rectangular spaces or as spaces with uniform crossections. Such a definition does not account for the variety of building elements that can exist in a building such as large overhangs, half height walls, etc. Existing simulations are typically developed as mathematical models and use the principles of thermodynamics to represent the spread of the elements of fire through space over a given time period. For example, in zone models each room is defined as a two tier space with heat and smoke exchange between lower and upper tiers as the fire progresses. On the other hand, field models divide the space into small contiguous units where thermodynamic state of each unit is calculated as the simulated fire progresses. Dynamic processes such as fire and smoke spread must recognize both intangible (i.e. voids) and tangible (i.e. solids such as walls, balconies, ceiling, etc.) architectural entities. This paper explores the potential of solid modeling techniques in generating geometric definitions for both solid and void architectural entities that can interact With mathematical models of fire/smoke spread in buildings. The implications of cellular spatial partitioning techniques for zone or field models of fire/smoke spread are investigated, and the methods of creating cellular decomposftion models for architectural spaces as well as for spatial boundaries such as walls are explored. The size of each cellular partition, i.e. the resolution of the partition, and the material and heat transfer attributes of each cell were found to be very critical in modeling the spread fire through voids as well as through solids in a building.
series SIGRADI
email ozel@asu.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id 0aa0
authors P_onecki, L., Trampczynski, W. and Cendrowicz, J.
year 1998
title A concept of digital control system to assist the operator of hydraulic excavators
source Automation in Construction 7 (5) (1998) pp. 401-411
summary A concept of digital control system to assist the operators of hydraulic excavators is presented and discussed. Then, control system based on described ideas was mounted on a special numerically controlled stand, equipped with D/A and A/D converters, where small hydraulic backhoe excavator K-111 fixtures were used. Experimental results shows that it fulfils all described requirements and can be used as the machine operator assist. It enables for precision tool guidance, automatic repetition of realized movements, realization of specific tool trajectories (including energetically optimal paths) and automatic improvement or optimization of realized paths. Tool trajectories can also be prescribed using the setting model, making excavator the machine of teleoperator class. Presented system can be used as a basis for real machine control system.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 41
authors Peh, Calvin and Noble, Douglas
year 1998
title The Design of Computer Working and Teaching Environments
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 310-315
summary It is undeniable that the computer has affected every aspect of our lives. Many people work with computers on a daily basis, from writing e-mail or simply browsing the internet to hours of serious modeling and drafting for those in the architecture field. As we spend more time working with computers, research into improving computer teaching and working environments becomes more important. For those working in an architecture office, it almost certain that a major part of the day will be spent in front of a computer drafting. This research provides a preliminary set of guidelines that can be applied in the design of computer working/teaching environments. The on-going research is focussed in creating facilities geared toward user comfort and productivity and improving teaching environments. It covers issues regarding the position and orientation of the room, lighting aspect (including natural and artificial light), acoustics, user visual comfort, psychrometric conditions, furnishings, and the adaptability of the space for future changes. The project includes analysis of existing examples of computer-lecture rooms, noting the problems and suggesting improvements.
series SIGRADI
email dnoble@usc.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id 47
authors Pimentel, Diego and Mendez, Ricardo
year 1998
title Incorporacion de Nuevos Soportes Tecnologicos en la EnseÒanza del DiseÒo Grafico (Introduction of New Tecnologies of Supports in the Teaching of Graphic Design)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 350-357
summary Development of a methodological strategy for the inclusion of new communication digital media to the Design course pedagogical process. How to introduce to the Graphic Design degree learning an strategy that includes the new communication technological support. Development of a practical exercise with real implementation in a last generation media. Institutional FADU Website design. From pre-impression to the pixel.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id 58f6
authors Pinet, Céline
year 1998
title Acadia’s Browser: A Virtual Studio, and Much More
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 24-25
summary Once upon a time, in a land far, far away... Oh come on, the Netherlands isn’t that far away. Anyone familiar with the Internet knows how it can make distances become irrelevant. The site reviewed today did just that by projecting me into someone else’s classroom, across the ocean, through a virtual studio. What more - this is only one part of the site. It also contains many juicy digital drawings and explores a variety of architectural subjects.
series ACADIA
email celine_pinet@westvalley.edu
last changed 2002/12/15 15:37

_id e184
authors Popov, V., Popova, L. and De Paoli, G.
year 1998
title Towards an Object-Oriented Language for the Declarative Design of Scenes
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 316-353
summary We propose a prototype “kernel” of an object-oriented language, SOML (Scene Objects Modeling Language), intended to assist in the declarative design of scenes in image synthesis. This language is an attempt to provide the designer with a tool to facilitate the rapid prototyping of 3D scenes. It can also serve as a tool for knowledge acquisition and representation , and for communication and exchange of data with other tools in a design environment. Advantages offered by the implementation of SOML are: (a) from user’s viewpoint: the possibility of declarative description of the initial concept associated with the target scene in terms of properties and constraint vocabulary, the possibility of quantitative and qualitative reasoning on these properties, the modification of the intermediate solutions to different levels of detail, the utilisation of previous solutions; and (b) from the implementation viewpoint: the structuring of the properties and methods in the form of domain knowledge, the optimal solution generation according to heuristic causal-probabilistic criteria, the transformation of the semantic concept description of the scene in generic entry code for a geometrical CSG modeler or for rendering and visualization software, the integration of functionality for parameter generation and modification, the compilation of a scene from components of other final scenes and operations of geometrical transformations acting on groups of scenes. We present the architecture of the object-based implantation of the language and its interpreter, in the unified notation formalism UML. The utilization of the SOML language is illustrated by some examples.
series ACADIA
email popov@giotto.univ-poitiers.fr, popova@giotto.univ-poitiers.fr, depaolig@ere.umontreal.ca
last changed 1998/12/16 07:38

_id 40
authors Prieto, Carlos and Serrentino, Roberto
year 1998
title Configuraciones Urbanas Recursivas (Recursive Urban Configurations)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 300-309
summary A method to develop skills using digital techniques in architectural and design fields is proposed. Recursive procedures in successive cycles of abstraction are used applied for the urban layout design process. Each configurational cycle (master plan, urban modules, buildings, habitational units) is separated and exaggerated to face the process with pedagogical goals. Urban factors that conform the city are identified in order to classify repetitive urban problems. A patch of the city, in which a master plan is developed, is isolated and is submitted the measurable tests related to the Architectural and Design projecting process, enfatizating the following aspects., its systemic structures, its geometry and its growing. Alometric concepts and growing form analogies are used as scale control method in transformations and in recursive cycles. Based in two potentially recursive theories, fractals and tessellation's theories, a pedagogic procedure oriented to the use of tessellations is proposed using CAD systems tools.
series SIGRADI
email labsist@herrera.unt.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ebb2
authors Proctor, George
year 2000
title Reflections on the VDS, Pedagogy, Methods
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15-16
summary After having conducted a Digital Media based design studio at Cal Poly for six years, we have developed a body of experience I feel is worth sharing. When the idea of conducting a studio with the exclusive use of digital tools was implemented at our college, it was still somewhat novel, and only 2 short years after the first VDS- Virtual Design Studio (UBC, UHK et.al.-1993). When we began, most of what we explored required a suspension of disbelief on the part of both the students and faculty reviewers of studio work. In a few short years the notions we examined have become ubiquitous in academic architectural discourse and are expanding into common use in practice. (For background, the digital media component of our curriculum owes much to my time at Harvard GSD [MAUD 1989-91] and the texts of: McCullough/Mitchell 1990, 1994; McCullough 1998; Mitchell 1990,1992,1996; Tufte 1990; Turkel 1995; and Wojtowicz 1993; and others.)
series ACADIA
email georger@cybertects.com
last changed 2002/12/15 15:37

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 11
authors Rodriguez Barros, Diana and Bund, Elizabeth
year 1998
title Integración Informatica del Proceso Proyectual Taller de Diseno Experimental (Digital Integration of the Design Process in an Experimental Design Studio)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 94-105
summary The linear logic of project process is being replaced by alternative proceedings, used simultaneously. Today this option repertory signify that the architect must assume in a conscious attitude both critical reflection and free creativity. The necessity of experimental work arise with the purpose of discovering the effects and challenges generated by hypermedial resources. This idea put in action in a workshop organized by the Centro de Computacion de la Facultad de Arquitectura, deepening in heuristic relationships between analogical and digital proceedings. The workshop was leaded by Arch. Arturo Montagu and coordinated by the authors. The project theme was a concrete problem placed at Mar del Plata city, and was developed by professionals, teachers and students mixed groups, of different ages, objectives and experience. The replacement of analogical media, with all its representation power, for digital media was avoided -this was taken as mere translation-; instead both were considered on its complementary elements and potentialities applied to project ideation and its communication. Due to this experience it is observed that the generation of this project methodology is configured by a synthesis of heuristic and compositive proceedings, the interface design and the interaction strategies with the object. All this work have revealed its own internal logic, that stimulate us to continue on the research.
series SIGRADI
email dibarros@mdp.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id 51
authors Rueda, Marta Adriana
year 1998
title Complementacion de Herramientas Digitales y Artesanales en los Procesos de Aprendizaje del Diseño Textil (Complementation de Digital and Manual Tools in the Processes of Learning Textile Design)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 380-387
summary The repetition of units for the configuration of one coherent and produced whole, is an included problem in most of the Design disciplines. In the case of Textile Design, both the surface decoration and the itself fabric construction are technologically conditioned from the industrial production, because it must be repeated the printed signs as much as the fabric structures that support it. In the formative process to the product textile design it is essential the training for the motives distribution in the bidimensional space. Because of that the experimentation volume that it is realized in the first levels of the design learning must cover all the operations to generate motives, to repeat it and to relate it, to establish the global structures and the possible languages to the configuration. The digital media as a complement of the traditional manual technical expand the experimental horizon and with it the students make a trip in all the possibilities of rhythms and technical and like this check at full speed the composition alternatives, just as change the relative positions of the parts, the contrast, tones, values, colors, stresses, textures, etc.
series SIGRADI
email adum@cybertech.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id ecaade03_059_29_russel
id ecaade03_059_29_russel
authors Russell, P., Stachelhaus, T. and Elger, D.
year 2003
title CSNCW: Computer Supported Non-Cooperative Work Barriers to Successful Virtual Design Studios
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 59-66
summary The paper describes a design studio jointly undertaken by four Universities. With respect given to the groundbreaking work carried out by [Wojtowicz and Butelski (1998)] and [Donath et al 1999] and some of the problems described therein, the majority of the Studio partners had all had positive, if not exemplary experiences with co-operative studio projects carried out over the internet. The positive experience and development of concepts have been well documented in numerous publications over the last 5 years. A platform developed by one of the partners for this type of collaboration is in its third generation and has had well over 1000 students from 12 different universities in over 40 Projects. With this amount of experience, the four partners entered into the joint studio project with high expectations and little fear of failure. This experimental aspect of the studio, combined with the “well trodden” path of previous virtual design studios, lent an air of exploration to an otherwise well-worn format. Everything looked good, or so we thought. This is not to say that previous experiments were without tribulations, but the problems encountered earlier were usually spread over the studio partners and thus, the levels and distribution of frustration were more or less balanced. This raised a (theoretically) well-founded expectation of success. In execution, it was quite the opposite. In this case, the difficulties tended to be concentrated towards one or two of the partners. The partners spoke the same language, but came from different sets of goals, and hence, interpreted the agreements to suit their goals. This was not done maliciously, however the results were devastating to the project and most importantly, the student groups. The differing pedagogical methods of the various institutes played a strong role in steering the design critique at each school. Alongside these difficulties, the flexibility (or lack thereof) of each university’s calendar as well as national and university level holidays led to additional problems in coordination. And of course, (as if this was all not enough), the technical infrastructure, local capabilities and willingness to tackle technological problems were heterogeneous (to put it lightly).
keywords CSCW: Virtual Design Studio; Mistakes in Pedagogy
series eCAADe
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
more http://caad.arch.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id a5cd
authors Sasada, T., Yamaguchi, S., Morozumi, M., Kaga, A. and Homma, R. (Eds.)
year 1998
title CAADRIA ‘98 [Conference Proceedings]
source Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009 / Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, 482 p.
summary Recent progress in hardware and software technology for CAAD systems offer new challenges and opportunities to architects and design educators in aspects such as modeling systems for sketching and design evaluation; knowledge bases as a source of design thinking; network or CD-ROM image banks of design archives; video-conferencing to support geographically distributed interdisciplinary collaboration; etc. Despite expectations that CAAD system would support creative and productive design processes more effectively than those in a traditional design studio, their contributions to architectural design practice and design education still seem to be limited. The fault is, in part, that there are many designers and educators who have yet to experience designing in the medium (as opposed to simply drafting) and partly because digital design tools and technologies have still to be developed or to be integrated to a process of designers' activities. Clearly there are opportunities for further efforts to explore and develop better CAAD technologies as well as to demonstrate and prove possible impact of their application on design practice and design education.
series CAADRIA
email sasada@env.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:05

_id c30e
authors Schweikhardt, Eric and Gross, Mark
year 1998
title Digital Clay: Deriving Digital Models from Freehand Sketches
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 202-211
summary During the initial stages of design, it is not uncommon to find an architect scribbling furiously with a thick pencil. Later in the design process, however, one might not be surprised to encounter the same individual in front of a computer monitor, manipulating three dimensional models in a series of activities that seem completely divorced from their previous efforts. Armed with evidence that sketching is an effective design method for creative individuals, we also recognize that modeling and rendering applications are invaluable design development and presentation tools, and we naturally seek a connection between these methodologies. We therefore present Digital Clay, a working prototype of a sketch recognition program that interprets gestural and abstracted projection drawings and constructs appropriate three dimensional digital models.

series ACADIA
email schweika@colorado.edu, mdg@spot.colorado.edu
last changed 1998/12/16 08:39

_id 52
authors Scurci, Adrian Roque
year 1998
title Numeros en Movimiento - Pinturas De Fin De Siglo (Numbers in Movement - Paintings of the End of the Century)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 388-397
summary The electronic art has changed, during the last years, into the way of expression that best represents our culture of the end of the edge. Within the electronic art universe, 1 am going to analyze the 3D animation (CGI) in a special way as the main element in visual revolution. The increasing use of the CGI ( Computer Graphics Images) in film and television is caused by different reasons. From the necessity of a new esthetic expression to use of a technical source impossible of accomplish before. The electronic film period has begun ... the numbers has changed into the essence of this new generation of audiovisual products; the animators, designers and programmers into artisans of virtual world building and new scenic places. The objective of this analysis is to study the incident of CGI of these last twenty years within the audio-visual world.it isn't a chronologic, it is a theoretical rehearse about a new esthetic, a new way of see and build.
series SIGRADI
email adrian@usina.org.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id 634d
authors Seebohm, Thomas and Van Wyk, Skip (Eds.)
year 1998
title Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [Conference Proceedings]
source ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1 / Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, 383 p.
summary With an inevitability that is the beyond the control of architecture faculty everywhere, computers are being increasingly used in design studios. As student ownership of computers proliferates and architectural firms begin to use computers for design as well as drafting, the momentum will accelerate. The question is whether the use of computers in design studios makes a difference and what sort. Moreover, if it does make a difference, should it just be allowed to happen or should the momentum be guided by studio teachers skilled in computing. Does the use of computers in studios demand a special pedagogy that goes beyond teaching the use of the software and hardware? Are there design approaches that need to be taught in order to take advantage of the strengths of computers in design rather than attempt to make computers follow the paths trodden by manual design techniques? The question is critical because, as yet, we know very little about how computers can truly enable design, how computers can help us conceive design hypotheses, structure alternatives and simulations, and evaluate alternatives. As yet we have no body of recorded evidence to demonstrate how computer-based design studios produce work that is different from or better than traditional design, except, perhaps, in slickness of the images. Is it only in modeling and rendering final images that computers are useful or are there advantages in the use of computers through all stages design. If so what are they? In recent years many non-ACADIANS have become involved in using computers in design studios. Do we use design computing differently? Do we judge our successes differently? Do we have different expectations than these colleagues. And, even more interesting , what do they perceive as our experience and direction?
series ACADIA
email vanwyk@mail.unm.edu
more http://www.acadia.org
last changed 1998/12/16 07:24

_id e031
authors Stannard, Sandy
year 1998
title Computers in Design Exploring Light and Time
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 26-35
summary Computers have helped bring architectural education to a digital crossroads. This new tool is effecting architectural education on numerous levels, from the simplest word processing of research papers to more complex interactive modeling. This casestudy paper will focus on the new and changing role of the computer in the design studio. In this case, the approach to integrating the computer into the studio revolves around its application simply as another tool for a designer’s use. Clearly, the use of computers in design studios is not a new development. However, as the computer’s use in design education is not yet widespread, a dialogue about methods of application is valuable for design educators. The intent behind computer use in this case was not to replace traditional design methods but to complement and enhance them. In this spirit, this case study focuses on the use of computers to investigate two aspects of design that are challenging to model: light and time. In the studios to be examined here, students were required to explore their designs with both traditional tools (sketches on trace, physical study models as well as final finish models, etc.) and with newer digital tools (lighting simulation programs, threedimensional modeling programs, and animation). Students worked in teams in most cases. The computer was used both as a design tool as well as a representational tool, with varying degrees of success, depending on the student’s expertise, comfort using the computer as a design tool and access to appropriate hardware and software. In the first studio case study, the “new” medium of the computer was a perfect complement for the focus of the studio, entitled “Space and Light.” In addition to utilizing large scale physical models traditionally used for lighting design, three-dimensional computer models using Lightscape enriched the design results. Both sets of tools were vital for the design processes of the studio assignments. In the second studio case study, a traditional fourth year studio was required to use the computer to explore the dimension of time in their designs, which in this case translated into animation modeling. Integrating the computer into the design studio promises to be a complex task. As these examples will illustrate, the advantages and the disadvantages require continual balancing. Philosophical disagreement, potential discomfort, or a general lack of knowledge of digital tools may inhibit design educators from testing the potential of these ever-changing tools. Despite the challenges, this case study reveals the educational value of continued experimental use of digital tools in the design studio.

series ACADIA
email sstan@uidaho.edu
last changed 1998/12/16 07:29

_id 7561
authors Streitz, N. A., Gei_ler, J. and Holmer, T.
year 1998
title Roomware for Cooperative Buildings: Integrated Design of Architectural Spaces and Information Spaces
source N.A. Streitz, S. Konomi, and H-J Burkhardt (eds), Cooperative Buildings: Integrating Information, Organization, and Architecture, Proceedings of CoBuild‘98, Springer, pp. 4-21
summary In this paper, we introduce the concepts of "cooperative buildings" and "roomware" and place them in the context of the integrated design of real, physical, resp. architectural spaces and virtual, resp. digital information spaces. By "roomware" we mean computer-augmented things in rooms, like doors, walls, furniture, and others. The general approach is detailed via examples from the i-LAND project where we develop several "roomware" components in order to realize an interactive information and cooperation landscape, e.g. an innovative work environment for creativity teams. We describe the current realization of i-LAND which includes an interactive electronic wall, an interactive table, computer-augmented chairs, and a mechanism for assigning physical objects as representatives of information objects in the virtual world.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 53
authors Vasquez de Velasco, Guillermo and Holland, Nancy
year 1998
title Taller de Diseño Virtual Internacional y Educacion Reciproca a Distancia (International Virtual Design Studios and Reciprocal Distance Education)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 398-405
summary Motivated by a tendency towards the development of international design and construction consortia, the paper explores the application of information technology in order to add an international and multicultural dimension to our Design Studios. In particular, the paper describes how a group of 4 Mexican design professors offers distance education to a Design Studio in the U.S. and how, in a reciprocal way, 4 American construction professors offer distance education to a Construction Studio in Mexico. Both groups of professors and students make extensive use of the Internet and a T1 dedicated line for compressed video. In addition to the experience previously mentioned, the paper elaborates on potential applications of the "Reciprocal Distance Education" model at university and professional levels. The paper presents conclusions that place particular attention in the evaluation of information resources. In the same way, some conclusions address the administrative an faculty structures that make possible the implementation of the model.
series SIGRADI
email vasquez@archone.tamu.edu nholland@tamu.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 09:02

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