CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id sigradi2009_903
id sigradi2009_903
authors Harris, Ana Lúcia Nogueira de Camargo
year 2009
title O Uso da Técnica dos "Planos em Série" com o Desenvolvimento da Computação Gráfica - Uma Experência Didática [The Use of the 'Serial Plan' Technique with the Development of the Computer Graphic - A Teaching Experience]
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary This paper is about comparative didactic experiences where the “Serial plan Technique” defined by Wong (1998), was applied in 2001 and 2008 which computer resources from that time. In 2001 this technique was applied with the help of AutoCAD for generation of the planifications, but in 2008 the appliances of AutoCAd and Sketch Up were used for the virtual construction of objects. The quality of the results showed a didactic potential and an increasement in the possible creative rhythm, mainly because the facility of the three-dimensional virtual visualization and because the speed in the physical execution of the created project.
keywords didactic experiences; serial plan technique; CAD; AutoCAD; Skecht Up
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id 43
authors Horacio A. Torres. Lic. Geog. Cesira Morano. Guillermo Tella
year 1998
title Utilización de un Sig Para la Formulacion de un Diagnostico Socioterritorial de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Use of a GIS for the Formulation of a Socio-territorial Diagnostic of the City of Buenos Aires)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 324-331
summary The use of a GIS to assist the elaboration of a socioterritorial diagnosis of the City of Buenos Aires. This paper is based on the result of two research projects sponsored by the University of Buenos Aires (Project AR01 0 and Project Cl-94). From the beginning of 1998 onwards these results have been applied to the development of a "socio-territorial diagnosis" of the City of Buenos Aires, an applied research project funded by the Government of the City of Buenos Aires and carried out by the Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseho y Urbanismo, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Research Unit: PROHAB). The main goal of the analysis was the identification of the spatial distribution pattern of of the selected variables, directed to the delimitation of "social areas". The facilities provided by the GIS allowed us to perform this task in an exploratory manner. An analysis of the 3405 census tracts of the City of Buenos Aires (the central part of the agglomeration) is presented here. A great number of indices were constructed based on variables of the Argentine National Census of Population and Housing referred to housing conditions, housing type, provision of services, origin of the population, educational level, etc. This paper describes the various steps necessary for the application of a GIS, including the digitizing of the cartographic base and the statistical elaboration of the census information (provided by the INDEC in magnetic medium). A colour cartographic output that can be considered a first approximation of the "social map" of the city in 1991 is presented.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id 4ea3
authors Johnson, S.
year 1998
title What's in a representation, why do we care, and what does it mean? Examining evidence from psychology
source Automation in Construction 8 (1) (1998) pp. 15-24
summary This paper examines psychological evidence on the nature and role of representations in cognition. Both internal (mental) and external (physical or digital) representations are considered. It is discovered that both types of representation are deeply linked to thought processes. They are linked to learning, the ability to use existing knowledge, and problem solving strategies. The links between representations, thought processes, and behavior are so deep that even eye movements are partly governed by representations. Choice of representations can affect limited cognitive resources like attention and short-term memory by forcing a person to try to utilize poorly organized information or perform 'translations' from one representation to another. The implications of this evidence are discussed. Based on these findings, a set of guidelines are presented, for digital representations which minimize drain of cognitive resources. These guidelines describe what sorts of characteristics and behaviors a representation should exhibit, and what sorts of information it should contain in order to accommodate and facilitate design. Current attempts to implement such representations are discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id ee96
authors Johnson, Scott
year 1998
title Making Models Architectural: Protean Representations to Fit Architects’ Minds
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 354-365
summary A rich vocabulary has evolved for describing architecture. It serves not only as a means of communication, but also as an embodiment of concepts relating to form, space, structure, function, mood, and symbolism. We architects not only speak in terms of walls, rooms, roofs, arches, etc., we see in terms of them and think in terms of them, as well. Such concepts are integral to our ability to design. Typical CAD representations, however, are based on geometric/mathematical elements like points, lines, planes, and symbols. Even more experimental approaches like parametric shapes or procedural assemblies correspond poorly to architectural elements, and seldom lend themselves well to making conceptual changes that would allow exploration of design alternatives. Small wonder some architecture schools experience a division between computer and studio courses, or even between computer and studio faculty. Different ways of talking and thinking are involved. The concepts involved are often mutually exclusive. This paper discusses an attempt to address this conceptual mismatch, using what are termed “protean” (meaning “very changeable”) elements. These are high-level elements corresponding to architectural concepts like “wall,” or “dome.” They each have parameters appropriate for the particular type of element they represent, and produce the polyhedra necessary for graphics based on these parameters. A system is being implemented to allow models to be constructed using these elements. The protean elements form a loosely structured model, in which some elements hierarchically contain others, and some elements are essentially freestanding, being created and manipulated independently of other elements. Characteristics of protean element are discussed, including the underlying object-oriented structure, the relationship between elements and graphics, and functions associated with the objects. A scheme is explained whereby all parts of a design can be represented even when the design includes extremely unusual forms not conforming to predictable classes of elements. The necessary support framework is also discussed; general flow of the system and mechanisms for viewing the model and editing subcomponents are explained. The current status of the project, and intentions for future work are discussed. The project has been partially implemented, and the necessary framework to support the system is mostly complete.

series ACADIA
last changed 1998/12/16 07:39

_id 161c
authors Juroszek, Steven P.
year 1999
title Access, Instruction, Application: Towards a Universal Lab
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 141-150
summary In January 1998, the Montana State University School of Architecture embarked upon an initiative to successfully integrate computer technology into its design curriculum. At that time only a handful of student computers could be found in the design studio. By January 1999 over 95 students have and use computers in their courses. The increase in computer access and use is occurring through a five-phase initiative called the Universal Lab-a school-wide commitment to the full integration of computer technology into all design studios, support courses and architectural electives. The Universal Lab uses the areas of Access, Instruction and Application as the vehicles for appropriate placement and usage of digital concepts within the curriculum. The three-pronged approach allows each instructor to integrate technology using one, two or all three areas with varying degrees of intensity. This paper presents the current status of the Universal Lab-Phase I and Phase II-and describes the effect of this program on student work, course design and faculty instruction.
keywords Design, Access, Instruction, Application, Integration
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 9480
authors Kan, J.W.T., Chow, B.K.M. and Tsou, J.-Y.
year 1999
title Visual Impact Evaluation of Electricity Substation Architecture
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 81-87
summary This paper presents a case study of the application of computer techniques for design communication and visual impact analysis. We were sponsored by China Light & Power Company Ltd. To simulate the design of a proposed electricity substation and its it is setting in a residential neighborhood. During a five-week intensive study, we took nearly one thousand photographs of the existing site. We also created a three-dimensional CAD model of the proposed substation, and produced perspectives from points of view analogous to the photographs. We applied Apple Quicktime VR technology to document the site environment with 360-degree panoramas. We then montaged the computer-generated panoramas with those taken from the real environment. A navigable virtual environment, architectural animation and set of still images were presented to the public in September 1998. The reactions from the regional council members and local residents nearby were recorded to provide evidence to measure the effectiveness of digital architectural design communication.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2000/01/13 10:10

_id cd37
authors Kensek, Karen and Noble, Douglas
year 1998
title Digital Reconstruction: The Architecture of Raphael Soriano
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 11-12
summary With the research help of Wolfgang Wagener, the students in our computer graphics class are using form•Z, 3D Studio, and Premiere to document and interpret the work of Raphael Soriano. These images are from a class currently underway in fall semester, 1998, at USC. The students are responsible for modeling, rendering, and animating (with the help of GIFBuilder), their buildings in form•Z, with an emphasis on exterior form. Then they model, render, and animate their projects in 3D Studio concentrating on the interior and interpreting how the building might have been furnished. Other studies covered the use of QuickTime VR and Web page development. Additional work will be done to make the work more “realistic” in response to critiques by Wagener. The next stage of the project is to explain the important features of the building through the use of Premiere. Students may choose to use a purely documentary style or MTV approach or other presentation “style” as long as they clearly define the intent of the presentation and then execute it.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id 12
authors Kolarevic, B., Schmitt, G., Hirschberg, U., Kurmann, D. and Johnson, B.
year 1998
title Virtual Design Studio - Multiplying Time: 3x8 H = 24 H
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 106-115
summary This paper describes a Virtual Design Studio exercise involving three academic institutions-University of Hong Kong, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Z¸rich, and University of Washington in Seattle-whereby teachers and students, obviously on three different continents and in three different time zones, roughly eight hours apart, tried to "multiply time". Students were asked to design a house for a Chinese painter and a Swiss writer on a small island in Puget Sound near Seattle. In a short and intensive design charrette, students explored in five different phases various dualities associated with the given design problem. In each phase students were asked to select someone else's design, thus implicitly forming design teams. The paper describes the structure and goals of the studio exercise, the methodologies applied, the resulting design processes, and the lessons learned.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id 8a40
authors Kolarevic, Branko
year 1998
title A Pedagogical Model for an Introductory CAAD Course
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 39-46
summary This paper presents a pedagogical model developed for an introductory CAAD course in the first year of architecture studies. The model is based on a set of exercises that emphasize the use of electronic media for the collection of information, its distribution, presentation, transformation, interpretation, and abstraction. The primary goal was to enable students to creatively apply digital media in their design work by simultaneously introducing them to a wide range of applications, and by enabling them to engage in abstract exploration of shapes, forms, and images.
keywords Electronic Design Media, Pedagogy, CAAD Education
series CAADRIA
last changed 2002/12/20 11:38

_id 7471
authors Kram, Reed
year 1999
title The Digital Sketch Workshop: a Core Course in Design with Computation
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 251-264
summary This paper summarizes DIGITAL SKETCH, a workshop that took place over the course of two weeks in September 1998 at Designskolen Kolding, Denmark. DIGITAL SKETCH was an attempt to create a foundation course in design for the digital medium for students with strong visual design skills, but little to no computer experience. Teaching design on computers is commonly thought of as detailing the current version of the latest commercial software. As long as this is the case, design on computers will (quite rightfully) continue to get little respect from those designers using more traditional design methods. How can we find the "core" of this medium when faced with the constant onslaught of operating system upgrades and version 11.2 of software Y83? For DIGITAL SKETCH, we tried to demystify the process of controlling the computer. In this workshop we examined the meanings of the term "sketch" as it applies to the design process on the computer. Our hope was that by revealing some of the unique characteristics of the digital medium, we might develop new design processes in tune with this medium.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 2edf
authors Levy, Pierre
year 1998
title Becoming Virtual, Reality in the Digital Age
source Plenum Trade, New York
summary Pierre Levy takes a fresh look at the whole idea of what is virtual. He's responding to the widespread belief, and sometimes even panic, that a digital society with emphasis on virtual interactions is necessarily depersonalizing. He takes particular exception to the notion that "virtual" and "real" are opposites. Instead, Levy argues that virtuality is one of four modes of existence, the rest of which he describes as reality, possibility, and actuality. Each is defined in terms of its relationship with its environment. In following Levy's world view, you may find that he interprets some or all of those terms in ways you're not used to, but the result is an interesting new approach to what it means to be part of an increasingly digital world. He examines the virtualization of several elements our society: the corporal body, text, the economy, language, technology, contracts, intelligence, subjects, and objects. What he finds is not a destruction of the personal so much as a transformation. Virtualization adds to, but does not replace, the real, the possible, and the actual. By understanding what virtualization means and involves, Levy believes that society will gain a greater variety of options for interaction in all areas. Becoming Virtual is a serious philosophical work, dense with ideas.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 612c
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 1998
title Computers and Architectural Design: Going Beyond the Tool
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 44-57
summary More often than not, discussions taking place in specialised conferences dealing with computers and design tend to focus mostly on the tool itself. What the computer can do that other tools cannot, how computers might improve design and whether a new aesthetic would result from the computer; these are among the most recurrent issues addressed in those forums. But, by placing the instrument at the center of the debate, we might be distorting the nature of design. In the course KEYWORDS, carried out in the years 1992 and 1993 at the ETH Zurich, the goal was to transcend the discourses that concentrate on the computer, integrating it in a wider theoretical framework including principles of modern art and architecture. This paper presents a summary of the content and results of this course.

series ACADIA
last changed 1998/12/16 07:34

_id sigradi2008_007
id sigradi2008_007
authors Martens, Bob
year 2008
title An Update on the Virtual Reconstruction of Synagogues in the City of Vienna
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper describes the reconstruction work in progress on Viennese Synagogues. The related project activities started in 1998, and all major temples have been reconstructed since then. The paper outlines the utilization of this research work in the form of a city guide, thus potentially reaching a wider audience. Furthermore, the idea to present the information in such a context led to a specific processing and delivery format.
keywords Virtual reconstruction; cultural heritage; synagogue; city guide; Jewish sacred building
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 50
authors Martinez, Beatriz (
year 1998
title Representación delLas Propiedades Perceptibles de los Materiales y Acabados en el Proyecto Textil. Color y Textura (Representation of the Perceivable Properties of Materials and Finishes in the Textile Project. Color and Texture)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 374-379
summary The investigation of the perceptible properties of the materials was centred in the identification of the related variables to the colour and the previous texture to the process of production. It's known for all that a textile product is valued for their futures consumers of subjective way for these two properties, that operate by way of sensorial nexus to the hour of facing to the characteristics of the textile object to choose. Once explored the language of the repetitions and their construction in a previous work, we considered important continue this analysis centred in the advantages of the use of the tool computer science with the purpose of verifying these properties before any productive process. The possibility of valuing the old amount of alternatives to the hour of deciding the production of a project or another it is a tool that 1 don't sole us in a saving of time but rather it bring near us mainly to the quality of the product to obtain. This work centers their work in the possibility of representation and valuation of this quality the more possible, constituting a tool of decision project, that plays how registration of the relationship between the man and their textiles products.
series SIGRADI
email bmarti @
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 6397
authors Marx, John
year 1998
title A Proposal for Alternative Methodologies in Teaching Digital Design
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 58-73
summary Computers have the potential to radically change the process of architectural design, and match more closely the formal aspirations of contemporary designers. What, then, should be the direction educators take in response to the opportunities created by the use of computers in the design process? There are, perhaps, two obvious methods of teaching Digital Design at a university level; a course adjunct to a design studio, or a course offered independently of a design studio. The computer is a facilitator of design ideas, but by itself, is not a creator of content. The primary responsibility of the design studio is the creation of content. It is the implementation of theory and critical analysis which should be the core concern of studio instruction. Given the limited time students are exposed to design studio it would seem appropriate, then, that the digital tools, which facilitate the design process, be taught separately, so as not to dilute the design studios importance. Likewise, this separation should allow the student to concentrate attention on Digital Design as a comprehensive process, beginning with initial massing studies and ending with high resolution presentation drawings. The burden of learning this new process is difficult as well as time consuming. Students are generally struggling to learn how to design, much less to design on the computer. In addition, the current lack of digital skills on the part of design faculty makes it difficult to create a level of consistency in teaching digital design. Compounding these problems is the cost to architectural departments of providing hardware and software resources sufficient to have a computer on every studio desk.
series ACADIA
last changed 1998/12/16 07:35

_id 0e41
authors Matthews, David and Temple, Stephen
year 1998
title A Pedagogy of Interdependent Technologies: An Experimental Studio for Synthesizing Digital and Mechanical Processes
source Computers in Design Studio Teaching [EAAE/eCAADe International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 09523687-7-3] Leuven (Belgium) 13-14 November 1998, pp. 99-106
summary As computer technology is integrated into design curricula, significant shifts in pedagogy must be developed that acknowledge and incorporate alterations in teaching design process. This paper offers a critical analysis of the effects on design productivity of an experimental design studio that proposed and investigated an interdependent relationship of mechanical and digital technologies. A design studio was developed based on linking digital and physical technologies through systematic transformations of one technology into the other. Transformations were structured as a series of projects to test concepts of "making/building" in the form of abstracting/ making concrete, building/un-building, and un-making/making. Student permutations of the transforming operations revealed that design processes occurred as a mutuality, rather than an opposition, of the virtual and material. Design activity was revealed as a patterned flow of systematic formulations built on previous transformations. Key results of the studio indicated increased early development of conceptualization, increased refinement and integration of design issues throughout the project stages, and greater sensitivity to use of materials in a more holistic realization of concepts. Current curriculum structures that fragment technologies and subjugate ideas of craft, technology, and ideation into separate courses or educational issues, do so at the expense of substantive design refinement. The experimental studio of interdependent technologies offers digital and mechanical technologies as an holistic feature of design processes, thus indicating a greater integration of "support" courses into design studio and implicating an increased role of "hands-on constructing" such as that in wood/metal shops.

series eCAADe
last changed 2000/11/21 08:18

_id 1
authors Maver, Thomas W.
year 1998
title Prospects for CAAD: An Optimistic Perspective
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 6-13
summary The history of CAAD spans a short but eventful 30 years. This paper initially takes stock of the outcomes over this period by focusing sequentially on the modelling of the functional behaviour of building and on the modelling of the formal characteristics of buildings and cities. It concludes with a view of the way forward.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id c16f
id c16f
authors McCall, Ray
year 1998
title World Wide Presentation and Critique of Design Proposals with the Web-PHIDIAS System
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 254-265
summary In this paper we describe Web-PHIDIAS, a network-centric design environment based on the PHIDIAS HyperCAD system. Web-PHIDIAS uses the backend of PHIDIAS as a hypermedia database engine to serve up VRML models, HTML pages and Java applets over the Web. In particular, it uses the Web (1) to present 3D models of design proposals using VRML; (2) to present rationale for these proposals; and (3) to get comments on the proposals and their rationale from viewers anywhere in the world. These comments are automatically stored in a server-side hypermedia database where they are linked to the models and rationale that they refer to. The proposal presenter can opt to have Web-PHIDIAS make these comments part of the public presentation so that other viewers throughout the world can comment on the comments. Perhaps most important is the fact that a Web site implemented with Web-PHIDIAS has no persistent HTML pages or forms. All presentations of data over the Web are created “on the fly” by the server-side part of Web-PHIDIAS using HTML and Java. User input is obtained using an authoring interface created in Java.
series ACADIA
last changed 2004/03/18 08:36

_id sigradi2007_af88
id sigradi2007_af88
authors Medero Rocha, Isabel Amalia
year 2007
title ZOOM IN/ZOOM OUT - Architectural Scale in the Visualization and Representation of Architecture [ZOOM IN/ZOOM OUT - Escala arquitetônica na visualização e representação da arquitetura]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 102-106
summary The generation of ideas and the development of architectural design are affected by the actions of graphic software computer operators. This study is focused on the ZOOM instruction of CAD softwares as one of these operators, in an analogy to the concept of Architectural Scale. The terms ZOOM IN / ZOOM OUT were first used by us in 1998 in a methodology proposal developed in a MSc thesis – The Design Process in the Computer Environment – An Analogy between Computer and Design Operators, and subsequently implemented in a virtual design workshop, with the aim to use computer tools in the development of architectural knowledge.
keywords Design process; Computational commands; Architectural scale
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 37
authors Morelli, RubÈn DarÌo and Marina, Cristian
year 1998
title Geometria y Grafica Digital Como Reflexion y Racionalizacion Del Proyecto Arquitectonico (Geometry and Digital Graphics as Reflexion and Rationalization of the Architectural Project)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 280-285
summary The methodology of the work consists in the following: (a) Starting from the photographic image of an architectonic work (Santisimo Sacramento Church situated in 3451 Bv. OroÒo street, Rosario city, Santa Fe, Republica Argentina), and applying the rules of Descriptive Geometry. about photographic perspective, rebuild - restore the orthogonal parallel projection of its facade. (b) Once the restitution is done, introduce the information into the computer, in order to: Make a geometric analysis of the architectonic shape, applying 2D systems (bidimensional diedric or Monge method ) and 3D (tridimensional, wireframes and renders); Obtain a complete 3D image of the Tower, that means the virtual model of the real object.
series SIGRADI
email rmorelli @
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

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