CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 544

_id ddss9825
id ddss9825
authors Hartog, J. P. den, Koutamanis, A. and Luscuere, P. G.
year 1998
title Simulation and evaluation of environmental aspects throughout the designprocess
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The evaluation of environmental aspects in architectural design has traditionally been performed by means of simple (and often simplistic) rule systems. These generally remain at the normative level of minimal control one encounters in building rules and regulations, thereby failing to provide sufficient information and clarity for design guidance. Despite this, evaluation results normally bound subsequent design decisions as fundamental, inflexible constraints. At much later design stages, whenarchitectural form has been largely crystallized and when environmental subsystems must be specified in detail, both the architect and the contributing engineers often realize the severe limitation of theinitial choices. A frequently voiced argument for such simplification in the guise of abstraction is the lack of detailed information on the form and functional content of a building in the early stages of the designprocess. This obviously presupposes a tabula rasa generative approach. The application of a priori knowledge in the form of types, cases, precedents and automated recognition permits direct transaction from the abstract to the specific at and between a number of predefined relevant abstraction levels in the representation. The combination of a priori knowledge at the typological level with multilevel representations permits the use of precise simulation techniques already in the early design stages and throughout thedesign process. The simulation results employ the dual representation principle of scientific visualization, thereby linking form with measurable performance. Feedback from the simulation provides the analysis and evaluation means for design guidance and for communication between thearchitect and the contributing engineers. A prerequisite to this is that the abstraction level in the representation constrains the analysis derived from the simulation, e.g., by means of grades of fuzziness applied to different zones in the representation on the basis of information specificity.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0fbd
authors Hartog, J.P., Koutamanis, A. and Luscuere, P.G.
year 1998
title Simulation and evaluation of environmental aspects throughout the design process
source 4th Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Conference. Eindhoven
summary The evaluation of environmental aspects in architectural design has traditionally been performed by means of simple (and often simplistic) rule systems. These generally remain at the normative level of minimal control one encounters in building rules and regulations, thereby failing to provide sufficient information and clarity for design guidance. Despite this, evaluation results normally bound subsequent design decisions as fundamental, inflexible constraints. At much later design stages, when architectural form has been largely crystallized and when environmental subsystems must be specified in detail, both the architect and the contributing engineers often realize the severe limitation of the initial choices. A frequently voiced argument for such simplification in the guise of abstraction is the lack of detailed information on the form and functional content of a building in the early stages of the design process. This obviously presupposes a tabula rasa generative approach. The application of a priori knowledge in the form of types, cases, precedents and automated recognition permits direct transaction from the abstract to the specific at and between a number of predefined relevant abstraction levels in the representation. The combination of a priori knowledge at the typological level with multilevel representations permits the use of precise simulation techniques already in the early design stages and throughout the design process. The simulation results employ the dual representation principle of scientific visualization, thereby linking form with measurable performance. Feedback from the simulation provides the analysis and evaluation means for design guidance and for communication between the architect and the contributing engineers. A prerequisite to this is that the abstraction level in the representation constrains the analysis derived from the simulation, e.g., by means of grades of fuzziness applied to different zones in the representation on the basis of information specificity.
series other
email A.Koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9861
id ddss9861
authors Leusen, M. van and Mitossi, V.
year 1998
title A practical experiment in representation and analysis of buildings
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The TYPOLOGY project was set up by the Dutch Government Building Agency (GBA) to explore computerised representations of buildings that allow analysis of various aspects of their performance. So far this project produced the RF-model, an abstract computerised representation.Physical elements of the building are not represented as such, only individual spaces and boundary segments along which they are adjacent are represented explicitly. Spaces can have any number of functional properties such as the general category of floor area they are included in, the activities they accommodate, or the particular safety compartment or circulation system they belong to. Similarly, boundary segments may, for example, provide access or view, may be included in a particularcategory, such as interior walls, or in a safety or security barrier.The RF-model enabled the presentation and quantitative analysis of design proposals for large and complex buildings such as courts of justice and prison buildings. The model is also used in a multiaspect analysis of a series of recently erected Dutch prison buildings. We expect that these first results will develop into a rich and professional precedent-based system, to be used in the early stages of design. The strategic goal of the project is to derive from the accumulated models and their analysis a more general understanding of the relations between a building’s actual characteristics and various aspects of its performance.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id acadia16_140
id acadia16_140
authors Nejur, Andrei; Steinfeld, Kyle
year 2016
title Ivy: Bringing a Weighted-Mesh Representations to Bear on Generative Architectural Design Applications
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 140-151
summary Mesh segmentation has become an important and well-researched topic in computational geometry in recent years (Agathos et al. 2008). As a result, a number of new approaches have been developed that have led to innovations in a diverse set of problems in computer graphics (CG) (Sharmir 2008). Specifically, a range of effective methods for the division of a mesh have recently been proposed, including by K-means (Shlafman et al. 2002), graph cuts (Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008; Katz and Tal 2003), hierarchical clustering (Garland et al. 2001; Gelfand and Guibas 2004; Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008), primitive fitting (Athene et al. 2004), random walks (Lai et al.), core extraction (Katz et al.) tubular multi-scale analysis (Mortara et al. 2004), spectral clustering (Liu and Zhang 2004), and critical point analysis (Lin et al. 20070, all of which depend upon a weighted graph representation, typically the dual of a given mesh (Sharmir 2008). While these approaches have been proven effective within the narrowly defined domains of application for which they have been developed (Chen 2009), they have not been brought to bear on wider classes of problems in fields outside of CG, specifically on problems relevant to generative architectural design. Given the widespread use of meshes and the utility of segmentation in GAD, by surveying the relevant and recently matured approaches to mesh segmentation in CG that share a common representation of the mesh dual, this paper identifies and takes steps to address a heretofore unrealized transfer of technology that would resolve a missed opportunity for both subject areas. Meshes are often employed by architectural designers for purposes that are distinct from and present a unique set of requirements in relation to similar applications that have enjoyed more focused study in computer science. This paper presents a survey of similar applications, including thin-sheet fabrication (Mitani and Suzuki 2004), rendering optimization (Garland et al. 2001), 3D mesh compression (Taubin et al. 1998), morphin (Shapira et al. 2008) and mesh simplification (Kalvin and Taylor 1996), and distinguish the requirements of these applications from those presented by GAD, including non-refinement in advance of the constraining of mesh geometry to planar-quad faces, and the ability to address a diversity of mesh features that may or may not be preserved. Following this survey of existing approaches and unmet needs, the authors assert that if a generalized framework for working with graph representations of meshes is developed, allowing for the interactive adjustment of edge weights, then the recent developments in mesh segmentation may be better brought to bear on GAD problems. This paper presents work toward the development of just such a framework, implemented as a plug-in for the visual programming environment Grasshopper.
keywords tool-building, design simulation, fabrication, computation, megalith
series ACADIA
type paper
email ksteinfe@berkeley.edu
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id ba1b
authors Schnier, T. and Gero, J.S.
year 1998
title From Frank Lloyd Wright to Mondrian: Transforming evolving representations
source I. Parmee (Ed.), Adaptive Computing in Design and Manufacture, Springer, London, pp. 207-219
summary If a computer is to create designs with the goal of following a certain style it has to have information about this style. Unfortunately, the most often used method of formal representations of style, shape grammars, does not lend itself to automated implementation. However, It has been shown how an evolutionary system with evolving representation can provide an alternative approach that allows a system to learn style knowledge automatically and without the need for an explicit representation. This paper shows how the applicability of evolved representation can be extended by the introduction of transformations of the representation. One such transformation allows mixing of style knowledge, similar to the cross-breeding of animals of different races, with the added possibility of controlling exactly what features are used from which source. This can be achieved through different ways of mixing representations learned from different examples and then using the new, combined representation to create new designs. In a similar manner, information learned in one application domain can be used in a different domain. To achieve this, either the representation or the genotype-phenotype transformation has to be adapted. The same operations also allow mixing of knowledge from different domains. As an example, we show how style information learned from a set of Mondrian paintings can be combined with style information from a Frank Lloyd Wright window design, to create new window designs. Also, we show how the combined style information can then be used to create three-dimensional objects, showing style features similar to the newly designed windows.
keywords Genetic Engineering, Learning
series other
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/06 07:02

_id ddss9856
id ddss9856
authors Suter, Georg and Mahdavi, Ardeshir
year 1998
title Generation and communication of design information:a building performance simulation perspective
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary There is general agreement that the process of design and construction of buildings typically involves multiple players. This has been the impetus to develop concepts for computational environments that would supportcollaborative design. While there has been considerable progress with regard to hardware and electronic communication, the underlying representations of design ideas and artifacts have not kept pace with thisprogress. In this paper we deal with this problem not from a global conceptual perspective, but rather from the specific point of view of those designers who use design representation toward extraction and manipulation of specialized technical information. For example, engineers in various fields of building technology require a rich representation of building information in terms of geometry (with special focus on topology), materials, systems attributes, etc. We argue that the current building analysis tools do not operate on the basis of such rich informational representations. Instead the needed information is often assembled on an ad hoc basis from various non-integrated informational sources. We review three representations as they are implemented in commercial or research systems and explore their potential for communicating design information to computational building analysis tools. Based on this review, we describe desirable characteristics of more sophisticated building representations.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ga9813
id ga9813
authors Pontecorvo, Michael Steven
year 1998
title Designing the Undesigned: Emergence as a tool for design
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Design, as an act and a result, is a natural part of the larger biological context in which we live. It is both a behavior and a tangible side effect of the organic system from which it arises. A design can be characterized as a physical exemplar of the concept of memes, the 'genetic' building blocks of ideas or units of cultural transmission. In this capacity, design has served to extend humankind's reach and ensure and enrich humankind's survival in the full range and variability of conditions the Earth has to offer. In a very real sense, design has 'evolved' its own rich ecosystem, with a robust diversity of elements, dynamics, and interrelationships rivaling that of the organic system from which it derives. In the ecology of design, designs obey laws analogous to the laws of survival and selection that organisms in nature obey. Given the recent advances in understanding and modeling of the biological and physical systems, it is not surprising that artists and designers are now turning to these models as a 'new' resource for the conceptualization and design of structured artifacts and spaces. While there are many fundamental technical issues surrounding development and application of generative models and processes, the relationship of artist to the process of creation is a central issue in the scaling up and widespread accessibility/acceptance of the generative approach. This paper will present a set of observations from the perspective of a small company of artist/ technologists trying to bridge the commercial and artistic application of generative processes. Specifically, the paper will explore some approaches to the designer/system relationship and process control metaphor, the balancing of serendipity and design convergence, the definitions and representations of design spaces, and finally, present some ideas about the future prospects and promising new techniques for generative design.
series other
email ponte@emergent-design.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id c5bc
authors Popova, Mina
year 1998
title Model of Design Parts and its Use to the Design Team
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 233-242
summary This paper discusses the impact of the choice of representation on the final result in design and construction projects. Representation is an integrated part of the design process used by architects as a communication tool to help them present a concept to their clients and other consultants. The representation choice, in addition, reflects the professional’s perception of the design process and the architectural artefact. Architects’ offices work with a wide range of problems - aesthetic and spatial issues, detailing, choice of materials, and systems design. The multiplicity of representations enriches the understanding of these issues. Today, the model-oriented approach in design is common among both architects and leading software producers for the construction industry. While STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Data) aims at developing very comprehensive product models, we examine the possibility of building up a small-scale model responding to the information needs of a design team. In our research work, we view a model of design parts as a suitable carrier of information allowing the designers to store data reflecting their accumulated and refined professional knowledge and experience. Besides, the team of architects can later easily retrieve information needed for future design reuse from the model. To reuse design solutions and learn from previous work is an essential part of the professional culture. The construction industry as a whole has been slow in implementing information technology to improve the work methods. Neither have architects’ offices used the full potential of this technology to structure information and rationalize the design process. The objective of this study is to examine whether information technology makes it possible to organize all the design information in an office archive. The proposed model of design parts relates to national standards and universal models for product data representation and exchange, such as STEP. Today, the construction sector is becoming increasingly aware of the potential of the model-oriented approach both to rationalize the design and construction process and offer designers new options to store, broaden and reuse professional knowledge. We have used the information modelling language EXPRESS to describe our concept.
keywords Design and Construction Process, Model-oriented Approach, Representation, Information Technology, STEP
series CAADRIA
email mina@arch.chalmers.se
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:32

_id 62cc
authors Seebohm, T. and Wallace, W.
year 1998
title Rule-based representation of design in architectural practice
source Automation in Construction 8 (1) (1998) pp. 73-85
summary It is suggested that expert systems storing the design knowledge of particular offices in terms of stylistic and construction practice provide a means to take considerably more advantage of information technology than currently. The form of the knowledge stored by such expert systems is a building representation in the form of rules stating how components are placed in three-dimensional space relative to each other. By describing how Frank Lloyd Wright designed his Usonian houses it is demonstrated that the proposed approach is very much in the spirit of distinguished architectural practice. To illustrate this idea, a system for assembling three-dimensional architectural details is presented with particular emphasis on the nature of the rules and the form of the building components created by the rules to assemble typical details. The nature of the rules, which are a three-dimensional adaptation of Stiny's shape grammars, is described. In particular, it is shown how the rules themselves are structured into different classes, what the nature of these classes is and how specific rules can be obtained from more general rules. The rules embody a firm's collective design experience in detailing. As a conclusion, an overview is given of architectural practice using rule-based representations.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 68fb
authors Khemlani, L., Timerman, A., Benne, B. and Kalay, Y.E.
year 1998
title Intelligent representation for computer-aided building design
source Automation in Construction 8 (1) (1998) pp. 49-71
summary At the core of any computational system that can support design development, analysis, and evaluation is an “intelligent” building representation which should be able to represent all the different components that make up a building, along with the manner in which they come together. In other words, the representation must be informationally complete and semantically rich. The paper discusses these two criteria and briefly reviews other research efforts aimed at developing building representations for computer-aided design that attempt to meet them. Our solution to this problem is then presented. It is aimed primarily at the schematic design phase, the rationale for which is also stated. Taking the view that buildings are unique assemblies of discrete, mostly standardized components, our representation is clearly divided into two components: the Object Database (ODB) which stores detailed information about various building elements, and the Project Database (PDB) which holds information about how these elements are assembled to make up a particular building. An ODB may be shared by many building projects, while the PDB must necessarily be unique to each. The data schemas of both the PDB and the ODB are described in detail and their computational implementation, to the extent that it has been completed, is illustrated.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/03/05 12:12

_id ddss9811
id ddss9811
authors Barbanente, A., Conte, E. and Monno, V.
year 1998
title Changing trends and approaches in human and computer modelling for social housing policies
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The paper discusses conceptual issues, goals and preliminary results of an on-going research which aims at building a Decision Support System for public housing environmental oriented maintenance and management in a city in Southern Italy, Bari. Traditional post-war Italian housing policies are compared with more recent approaches in the field, pointing out the change from quantitative, aggregated, more simple building problems and relatedapproaches to qualitative, differentiated, complex ones integrating social, economic and environmental dimensions with the aim of regenerating deteriorated residential areas. The paper claims for the need shift, both in the human and computer areas, from traditional quantitative models to new approaches able to manage also qualitative variables, temporal dynamics, emergencies, and intentionality, since they appear key aspects of the real world to be modelled. The housing estate of Bari and its needs of maintenance and management are examined, eliciting essential related knowledge using the interview technique. The clear orientation towards sustainable policies for urban regeneration, at a local, national, and Community level, is also considered. The innovative and collaborative nature of such policies and the attention to be paid to the social aspects ofthe problem require a complex DSS, integrating various kind of hypertexts, information systems and case-based fuzzy expert systems, whose main aims, functions, software and general organisation are outlined in the paper.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c11a
authors Campbell, D.A.
year 1998
title VRML In Architectural Construction Documents: A Case Study
source VRML 98 Monterey - Proceedings of the 1998 VRML Conference, pp. 115-120
summary The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and the World Wide Web (WWW) offer new opportunities to communicate an architect's design intent throughout the design process. We have investigated the use of VRML in the production and communication of construction documents, the final phase of architectural building design. A prototype, experimental Web site was set up and used to disseminate design data as VRML models and HTML text to the design client, contractor, and fabricators. In this paper, we discuss the way our construction documents were developed in VRML, the issues we faced implementing it, and critical feedback from the users of the Web space/site. Finally, we suggest ways to enhance the VRML specification which would enable its widespread use as a communication tool in the design and construction industries. CR Categories and Subject Descriptors: 1.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object Modeling - Curve, surface, solid, and object representations; 1.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism - Virtual Reality; J-6. [Computer Applications]: Computer-aided Engineering - Computer-aided design (CAD), Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). Additional Keywords: architecture, construction, AEC, design, construction documentation, specifications, Internet, extranet, World Wide Web, VRML, virtual worlds, virtual environments
series other
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 8b38
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen and Gross, Mark D.
year 1998
title The Sundance Lab- "Design Systems of the Future"
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 8-10
summary The last thirty years have seen the development of powerful new tools for architects and planners: CAD, 3D modeling, digital imaging, geographic information systems, and real time animated walkthroughs. That’s just the beginning. Based on our experience with CAD tools, analysis of design practice, and an understanding of computer hardware and software, we’re out to invent the next generation of tools. We think architects should be shakers and makers, not just consumers, of computer aided design. We started the Sundance Lab (for Computing in Design and Planning) in 1993 with a few people and machines. We’ve grown to more than a dozen people (mostly undergraduate students) and a diverse interdisciplinary array of projects. We’ve worked with architects and planners, anthropologists, civil engineers, geographers, computer scientists, and electrical engineers. Our work is about the built environment: its physical form and various information involved in making and inhabiting places. We cover a wide range of topics – from design information management to virtual space, from sketch recognition to design rationale capture, to communication between designer and computer. All start from the position that design is a knowledge based and information rich activity. Explicit representations of design information (knowledge, rationale, and rules) enables us to engage in more intelligent dialogues about design. The following describes some of our projects under various rubrics.
series ACADIA
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id a114
authors Faucher, Didier and Nivet, Marie-Laure
year 1998
title Playing with Design Intent: Integration of Physical and Urban Constraints in CAD
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 118-137
summary Our work deals with the exploration of a universe of forms that satisfy some design intents. That is, we substitute a “generate and test” approach for a declarative approach in which an object is created from its properties. In this paper we present an original method that takes into account design intents relative to sunlight, visibility and urban regulation. First of all we study how current CAD tools have considered these properties until now. Our conclusion is that the classical design / simulation / analysis process does not suit design practices, especially in the early stages. We think that an improved CAD system should offer the architect the option of manipulating abstract information such as design intents. We define an intent as a conceptual expression of constraints having an influence on the project. For instance, a visual intent will be stated with no reference to vision geometry: “ from this place, I want to see the front of the new building”. We show how to represent each of these constraints with a 3D volume associated to some characteristics. If some solutions exist, we are sure that they are included in these volumes. For physical phenomena we compute the volume geometry using the principles of inverse simulation. In the case of urban regulation we apply deduction rules. Design intents are solved by means of geometrical entities that represent openings or obstructions in the project. Computing constraint volumes is a way of guiding the architect in his exploration of solutions. Constraint volumes are new spaces that can restore the link between form and phenomenon in a CAD tool. Our approach offers the designer the possibility of manipulating design intents.

series ACADIA
email didier.faucher@cerma.archi.fr
last changed 2003/04/28 12:12

_id 64b8
authors Grabowski, M. and Barner, K.
year 1998
title Data Visualization Methods for the Blind using Force Feedback and Sonification
source Stein, M. (Ed.). Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies V. Vol. 3524
summary Research in the field of scientific visualization has begun to articulate systematic methods for mapping data to a perceivable form. Most work in this area has focused on the visual sense. For blind people in particular, systematic visualization methods which utilize other sense need further development. In this work we develop methods for adding aural feedback to an existing haptic force feedback interface to create a multimodal visualization system. We examine some fundamental components of a visualization system which include the following: characterization of the data, definition of user directives and interpretation aims, cataloging of sensual representations of information, and finally, matching the data and user interpretation aims with the appropriate sensual representations. We focus on the last two components as they relate to the aural and haptic sensor. Cataloging of sensual representations is drawn form current research in sonification and haptics. The matching procedure can be thought of as a type of encoding which should be the inverse of the decoding mechanism of our aural and haptic systems. Topics in human perception are discussed, and issues related to the interaction between the two sensor are addressed. We have implemented a visualization system in the from of a Windows NT application using a sound card and a 3 DOF point interaction haptic interface. The system present a 2D data set primarily as a polygonal haptic surface although other capabilities of the haptic sensor are utilized such as texture discernment. In addition, real time aural feedback is presented as the user explores the surface. Parameters of sound such as pitch and spectral content are used to convey information. Evaluation of the system's effectiveness as an assistive technology for the blind reveals that combining aural and haptic feedback improves visualization over using either of the two senses alone.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9831
id ddss9831
authors Kellett, Ronald and Girling, Cynthia
year 1998
title Informing Public Participation in Neighborhood ScalePlanning and Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary Neighborhood scale planning and design in many areas of the United States has been evolving toward a system of negotiated priorities and agreements. Common models include public workshops and design 'charrettes' which bring diverse stakeholders (citizens, land owners, developers, consultantsand public officials, for example) together to develop a mutually acceptable plan. Crucial to the quality and effectiveness of the outcome are decision support tools that help this diverse audience understand, communicate, collaborate and make decisions about complex and often emotional issuesof land use and design. Net Energy Communities (NEC), the project summarized in this paper, creates a suite of computer based tools for this purpose. NEC links three types of computer software — the spatial data manipulation, modeling and visualization capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the illustration and information retrieval capabilities of multimedia relational databases and, the simulation and comparison capabilities of spreadsheet-based calculation models;into four tools — a site modeller, an elements of neighborhood database, a scenario modeller and ascenario calculator. This paper reports on the NEC project as an example of decision support tools for public participation using illustrations and examples from a 420 acre demonstration neighborhood design in progress for the City of Corvallis, Oregon, USA.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9833
id ddss9833
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1998
title Information systems and the Internet: towards a news counter-revolution?
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The explosive evolution of the Internet into a ubiquitous infrastructure influences the generation, dissemination and use of information. From a historical perspective it redefines issues that have been central to the news and information industry since the seventeenth century. One such issue is periodicity. The practicalities of news media and news as a commodity have resulted into the periodical appearance of news and, by extension, of all actual information. Integral to periodicity iscontrol of information production by institutions or other authorized channels. With the advent of the Internet we are reverting to an a-periodical information system characterized by personalization anddirect contact between information provider and information user. Rather than relying on the institutional status of the propagation channels, we are increasingly evaluating information quality by the integrity, up-to-datedness and reliability of its source. Moreover, we are able to complement orcorroborate information by linking different sources together in compound representations. The extent and complexity of the Internet make search intermediaries necessary. These collect and collate information either ad hoc (responding to a user query) or as part of wider documentation projects. These projects re-introduce institutionalization but the autonomous, intelligent mechanisms used by such intermediaries promote personalization in information retrieval and facilitate decentralization ofinformation supply into a cottage industry. In addition to a-periodicity, directness and wider availability of information, decentralization provides a new social and technical context for precedent and case-based approaches in designing.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c38b
authors Kunz, J.C., Christiansen, T.R., Cohen, G.P., Jin, Y. and Levitt, R.E.
year 1998
title The Virtual Design Team
source Communications of The ACM, Vol. 41, No. 11, November, 1998
summary The long range goal of the Virtual Design Team" (VDT) research program is to develop computational tools to analyze decision making and communication behavior and thereby to support true organizational (re)engineering. This article introduces the underlying theory, the implementation of the theory as a computational model, and results from industrial test cases. Organization theory traditionally describes organizations only at an aggregate-level, describing and predicting the behavior of entire organizations in terms of general qualitative predictions. We define and implement a "micro" theory of the structure and behavior of components of organizations, explicitly representing activities, groups of people called "actors," and organizational structure and policies for project teams. A VDT model can be "run" by a discrete event simulation. Emergent aggregate model output behaviors include the predicted time to complete a project, the total effort to do the project, and a measure of process quality. More detailed model behaviors include the time-varying backlog of individual actors and the "exceptions" associated with activities. The results are detailed and specific, so they can guide specific managerial interventions in a project team and can support sensitivity studies of the relative impact of different organizational changes. We conclude that such a theory is tractable and predictive for complex but relatively routine, project-oriented design tasks. The application for which VDT offers unique new kinds of insights is where an organization is striving to shrink time to market dramatically for a product that is similar to ones it has previously developed. Reducing time to market dramatically almost always requires that previously sequential activities are executed more concurrently. In this situation, experienced managers can still correctly identify the required activities and estimate their durations and skill requirements; but they almost always underestimate the increased workload arising from exponentially higher coordination needs and the propagation of rework between the now highly concurrent activities. The VDT framework, which explicitly models information dependency and failure propagation between concurrent activities, has proven to be far more accurate, and to incorporate a wider range of parameters, than CPM/PERT process models for these fast-paced development projects."
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9840
id ddss9840
authors Mahdavi, A., Akin, Ö. and Zhang, Y.
year 1998
title Formalization of Concurrent Performance Requirementsin Building Problem Composition
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary Specification of performance requirements is an emerging area of research that promises to improve building design particularly during the early stages of design. Building problem decomposition and recomposition can be based on a number of requirement categories in order to group buildingfunctions into hierarchically organized groups. Traditionally this activity is known as stacking and blocking, or zoning; and limited to spatial requirements. Our long term objective is to broaden this set into a more comprehensive one, including thermal, acoustic, and daylighting; and improve the stateof- the-art in building performance specification. While domain information from various building performance areas may be applicable toward enriching the informational basis for stacking andblocking operations, this paper focuses primarily on the thermal and acoustic domain.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2b30
authors Mejía, Ricardo Cuberos
year 1998
title Integration of CAD on a Planning Support System Experiences in Urban Planning of Altagracia
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 53-74
summary This paper relates to the group of strategies of information automation utilized for the development of a planning support system, conceived for the preparation of the urban plan of an intermediate city, with semi-industrial, tourist and fishing character, whish is located in the occident from Venezuela. Developed according the official methodology of urban analysis established for the national urban authorities, the planning support system incorporates different technical for the automated processing of information in innovative way, to obtaining each one of the products that constitute the urban plan. Such system bases on a model of integral management and structured control of cartographic and document information, databases, images and animations, respect to information fields so different as routes networks, census segments, building inventories, and tourist videos. For it, a CAD system was combined with analysis and information presentation tools, elaborated through GIS, word processors, image processors, spreadsheet, database systems, presentation programs and hypertext interfaces, under the administration of a local network area.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

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