CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 48db
authors Proctor, George
year 2001
title CADD Curriculum - The Issue of Visual Acuity
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 192-200
summary Design educators attempt to train the eyes and minds of students to see and comprehend the world around them with the intention of preparing those students to become good designers, critical thinkers and ultimately responsible architects. Over the last eight years we have been developing the digital media curriculum of our architecture program with these fundamental values. We have built digital media use and instruction on the foundation of our program which has historically been based in physical model making. Digital modeling has gradually replaced the capacity of physical models as an analytical and thinking tool, and as a communication and presentation device. The first year of our program provides a foundation and introduction to 2d and 3d design and composition, the second year explores larger buildings and history, the third year explores building systems and structure through design studies of public buildings, fourth year explores urbanism, theory and technology through topic studios and, during the fifth year students complete a capstone project. Digital media and CADD have and are being synchronized with the existing NAAB accredited regimen while also allowing for alternative career options for students. Given our location in the Los Angeles region, many students with a strong background in digital media have gone on to jobs in video game design and the movie industry. Clearly there is much a student of architecture must learn to attain a level of professional competency. A capacity to think visually is one of those skills and is arguably a skill that distinguishes members of the visual arts (including Architecture) from other disciplines. From a web search of information posted by the American Academy of Opthamology, Visual Acuity is defined as an ability to discriminate fine details when looking at something and is often measured with the Snellen Eye Chart (the 20/20 eye test). In the context of this paper visual acuity refers to a subject’s capacity to discriminate useful abstractions in a visual field for the purposes of Visual Thinking- problem solving through seeing (Arnheim, 1969, Laseau 1980, Hoffman 1998). The growing use of digital media and the expanding ability to assemble design ideas and images through point-and-click methods makes the cultivation and development of visual skills all the more important to today’s crop of young architects. The advent of digital media also brings into question the traditional, static 2d methods used to build visual skills in a design education instead of promoting active 3d methods for teaching, learning and developing visual skills. Interactive digital movies provide an excellent platform for promoting visual acuity, and correlating the innate mechanisms of visual perception with the abstractions and notational systems used in professional discourse. In the context of this paper, pedagogy for building visual acuity is being considered with regard to perception of the real world, for example the visual survey of an environment, a site or a street scene and how that visual survey works in conjunction with practice.
keywords Curriculum, Seeing, Abstracting, Notation
series eCAADe
email grproctor@csupomona.edu
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id b9c2
authors Bhavnani, S.K. and John, B.E.
year 1998
title Delegation and Circumvention: Two Faces of Efficiency
source Proceedings of CHI'98 (1998), 273-280
summary Throughout history, inefficient methods to use devices have been replaced by more efficient ones. This shift typically occurs when users discover how to &legate work to the powers of a tool, and to circumvent its liiitations. Strategies of delegation and circumvention, therefore, appear to be the core of efficient use. To show how this approach can expiain the relationship between tools and strategies in complex computer systems, we describe five ways to perform a real-world drawing task with current as well as 5.rture tools. We then present five corresponding GOMS models that demonstrate the value of efficient strategies when compared to the observed behavior of a professional CAD user. We conclude by presenting a generalized framework to characterize efficient strategies and discuss its relevance to design and training.
keywords Strategies; GOMS; Efficiency; Productivity
series other
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4
authors Bollinger, Elizabeth and Alvarado, Rodrigo Garcia
year 1998
title Archetypes as Precedent of Virtual Architectures
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 32-35
summary Archetypes are psychological concepts described by the renowned Swiss psychologist Cari Jung. It is possible identify archetypal forms in eminent buildings of different regions and ages, recognizing archetypes as a multi-cultural liaison for various architectures. These concepts function as basic precedents of spatial design in different geographical and historical contexts. The emerging digital culture is establishing a plethora of virtual environments, through web-pages of the Internet, global TV, multimedia CD, video games and immersive devices. These virtual environments offer electronic activities and tools for architectural practice. In both senses, virtual architectures conforms to the visual and spatial characteristics of technologies. Thus, electronic capabilities establish digital habitats and references to contemporary architecture. Since virtual architectures are immaterial constructions, perceptual properties guide the spatial and formal design. In that sense, archetypes allow a basic vocabulary for the design of virtual architectures, linking them to cultural history and giving them a human orientation.
series SIGRADI
email rgarcia@pegasus.dci.ubiobio.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 4d6f
authors Chodorowski, Franciszek
year 1998
title From Inversive Perspective to Virtual Space
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 43-52
summary Looking back at history, considering the proportions taken up by the particular developments of the future vision of an architectural work, one observes that the main method used was based on a form of drawing in the perpendicular projection in the form of "planes", cross sections and elevations. However, the research considering the threedimensional approach of the design solution, took into consideration a model made of wood, plaster or paper. The supplementary works in the form of an axonometric or a perspective drawing were not usually the domain of architects. Such way of presenting space was used by artists: painters and sculptors. The rapid development taking place in the use of computers in preparing architectural design documentation makes one reflect on many issues. Modern software, apart from making it possible to develop projections, cross sections and elevations, allows the presentation of a three dimensional vision of an architectural solution on the basis of axonometry, perspective and a study of virtual space. Despite the obvious progress facilitating the graphic editing process of design work, the initial design phase is an unchanged process, similar to past times ' It is based on transferring the creative invention onto paper by means of handmade sketches, similarly to making an inventory measurement note.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id c390
authors Colajanni, B., Faconti, D. and Pellitteri, G.
year 1998
title ABD: an Auxiliary Tool to Design Brick Walls
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 38-43
summary A hypertext is presented thought as an aid to design brick walls but also as a didactic tool aimed at understanding the different ways in which the brickwork can be dealt with: history, production, technology. The hypertext allows designing and drawing external walls according to the most traditional bonds, controlling the reciprocal consistency of the dimensions of the elements constituting the wall of a building perimete
series eCAADe
email pellitt@unipa.it
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/26colajanni/index.htm
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 66c9
authors Daru, Roel
year 1998
title Architectural Bitmanship : Towards New Experiments in Architectural Education
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 44-60
summary Crafts and craftmanship are about internalised skilled activities, practiced by individuals. According to the particular tools, materials and know-how used in history, it is possible to make distinctions and shows common roots between physical craftmanship, penmanship, draughtsmanship and (in our information age) digital craftsmanship. Every era develops its own crafts and demands its own system of education and pedagogical experiments to achieve the necessary skills. After retelling a very compressed history of all sorts of skills with their accompanying educational experiments in architecture, this paper suggest new experiments needed and required for the nascent era of digital craftsmanship
series eCAADe
email mdaru@IAEhv.nl
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/15daru/index.htm
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 4233
authors Day, Alan K. and Radford, Antony D.
year 1998
title An Overview of City Simulation
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 183-192
summary The present state of development of city simulation is outlined, including the relationship between the physical city and the virtual city and the traditions and history which lies behind the development of computer simulations of cities.
keywords 3D City Modeling, Environmental Simulation, Geographic Information Systems, Cities, Urban Models
series CAADRIA
email aradford@arch.adelaide.edu.au
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 2001/06/04 12:19

_id aac0
authors Garcia, Renato
year 1998
title Structural Feel or Feelings for Structure? - Stirring Emotions through the Computer Interface in Behaviour Analysis of Building Structures
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 163-171
summary The use of computers in the analysis of architectural structures has at present become indispensable and fairly routine. Researchers & professionals in architecture and engineering have taken advantage of current computer technology to develop richer and more comprehensive interactive interfaces in systems designed to analyse structural behaviour. This paper discusses a research project which attempts to further enrich such computer interfaces by embodying emotion or mood (affective) components into them and assessing the effects of incorporating these into multimodal learning modules for students of architecture at the University of Hong Kong. Computer structural analysis is most often used to determine the final state of a structure after full loading, but can also be used very ably to depict the time-history behaviour of a structure. The time-dependent nature of this process of behaviour provides an excellent opportunity to incorporate emotion cues for added emphasis and reinforcement. Studying time-history behaviour of structures is a vital part of classroom learning in structures and this why such emotion cues can have significant impact in such an environment. This is in contrast to the confines of professional engineering practices where these cues may not be as useful or desirable because oftentimes intermediate time history data is bypassed as a blackbox and focus is placed primarily on bottomline analysis results. The paper will discuss the fundamental basis for the establishment of emotional cues in this project as well as it's implementation-which consists mainly of two parts. The first involves 'personifying' the structure by putting in place a structure monitoring system analogous to human vital signs. The second involves setting up a 'ladder' of emotion states (which vary from feelings of serenity to those of extreme anxiety) mapped to the various states of a structures stability or condition. The paper will further elaborate on how this is achieved through the use of percussion, musical motifs, and chord progression in resonance with relevant graphical animations. Initially in this project, emotion cues were used to reinforce two structural behaviour tutoring systems developed by this author (3D Catenary Stuctures module & Plastic Behaviour of Semi-rigid Steel Frames module). These modules were ideal for implementing these cues because both depicted nonlinear structural behaviour in a mainly time-history oriented presentation. A brief demonstration of the actual learning modules used in the project study will also be presented together with a discussion of the assessment of it's effectiveness in actual classroom teaching.
keywords Affective Interfaces, Human-Computer Interaction, Computer-Aided-Engineering
series CAADRIA
email rjgarcia@hku.hk
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:38

_id 0280
authors Geva, Anat
year 2000
title New Media in Teaching and Learning History of Building Technology
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 5-8
summary Numerous scholars in the field of education established that relevance is one of the important instructional components that influence students’ interest and motivation to learn (Bergin, 1999; Frymier and Shulman, 1995; Schumm and Saumell, 1995). Relevance can be achieved by juxtaposing personal experiences with professional scientific principles (Pigford, 1995; Blanton, 1998). In addition to the relevancy of a course substance Blanton (1998) recommends that instructors should introduce the material in an organized system that is relevant to the learner’s life.
series ACADIA
email architectanatgeva@archone.tamu.edu
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id 4e03
authors Grady, J.M.
year 1998
title Virtual Reality: Computers Mimic the Physical World
source New York: Facts on File
summary In the Science Sourcebook series, a clear and sensible approach to the wonders and mysteries of virtual reality, including its history and some possible scenarios for the future. Grady compares the state of virtual reality to the situation of television in its earliest years: Everyone thought it was great, but it was wildly expensive, and the technology had not yet caught up to the possibilities. He takes a tour through virtual reality's history, and describes its current uses, still in their infancy, in medicine, architecture, business, science, and, of course, fun and games. He writes quite accurately about the function of virtual realityessentially to fool the mind and body into creating a multidimensional experience from computers, software, and devices.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id f816
id f816
authors Kvan, Thomas
year 1998
title THE SASADA LAB
source ACADIA Quarterly
summary Interview with Tsuyoshi Tee Sasada, Osaka University. In common with several other universities in Japan, Osaka University is organized in research and teaching units, rather than classes or courses. The Sasada Lab is one of these units. The paper describes how they work, a little of the history to explain this somewhat unusual academic entity and some of results of their efforts.
series other
type normal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2005/10/05 06:27

_id acadia03_047
id acadia03_047
authors Martens, B., Brown, A. and Turk, Z.
year 2003
title Automated Classification of CAAD-related Publications: Conditions for Setting-Up a Keywording System
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 365-371
summary This paper deals with the CUMINCAD-repository (Cumulative Index on CAD), which was set up in 1998 and has served the CAAD-community since then as an important source of archived domain related information. CUMINCAD contains over 5,000 entries in the form of publications in the field of Computer Aided Architectural Design. The number has been growing steadily over the years. To date only advanced search mechanisms have been provided to access these works. This may work out well for a just-in-time location of a reference, but is inadequate for just in case browsing through the history of CAAD. For such applications, a hierarchical browsing interface, like one in Yahoo or DMOZ.org is envisioned. This paper describes how the keyword categories were defined and how a moderate, distributed effort in defining the categories will allow machine-identified classification of the entire data set. The aim of the paper is to contribute to building up a wide spread consensus on what the appropriate keyword categories in CAAD are, and what sub-topics should sit below the main keyword categories.
keywords Web-based Bibliographic Database; Searchable Index; CAAD Research; Classification
series ACADIA
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id 6814
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1998
title From Virtual Reality to Real Virtuality
source Design Computing Conference, Sydney
summary The history of CAAD spans a short but eventful 30 years. This paper initially takes stock of the outcomes over this period by focusing sequentially on the modelling of the functional behaviour of building and on the modelling of the formal characteristics of building and cities. It conlcudes with a view of the way forward.
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/04/16 10:28

_id 1
authors Maver, Thomas W.
year 1998
title Prospects for CAAD: An Optimistic Perspective
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 6-13
summary The history of CAAD spans a short but eventful 30 years. This paper initially takes stock of the outcomes over this period by focusing sequentially on the modelling of the functional behaviour of building and on the modelling of the formal characteristics of buildings and cities. It concludes with a view of the way forward.
series SIGRADI
email abacus@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 094b
authors O´Rourke, J.
year 1998
title Computational Geometry in C
source Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
summary The first edition of this book is recognised as one of the definitive sources on the subject of Computational Geometry. In fact, O'Rourke has a long history in the field, has published many papers on the subject and is responsible for the computer graphics algorithms newsgroup which is where all computer geometers meet to discuss their ideas and problems. Typical problems discussed include how a polygon can be represented, how to calculate its area, how to detect if two polygons intersect and how to calculate the convex hull of a polygon. This leads onto more complex issues such as motion planning and seeing if a robot is able navigate from point x to point y without bumping into objects. The algorithms for these (and other) problems are discussed and many are implemented. In addition, many of the ideas are also discussed from the point of view of three and more dimensions. The only disappointment is that many problems are posed as questions at the end of the chapters and, as far as I could see, you cannot get the answers in the forms of a lecturer's supplement. This is fine in academia but not a lot of use for the commercial world. Due to the range of problems that incorporate computational geometry this book cannot be expected to answer every problem you might have. You will undoubtedly need access to other textbooks but I have been using the first edition of this book for many years and the second edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelf. If I was only allowed one computational geometry book then it would undoubtedly be this one.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 888a
authors Sariyildiz, S. and Ozsariyildiz, S.
year 1998
title The Future of Architectural Design Practice within ICT Development
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 228-233
summary Design in general is analyzed and the use of ICT tools in architectural design practice in the design process explained. The place of the designer in the history and the future of the designer within the ongoing development of the ICT overviewed. The influence of the new technologies on the design and its process therefore the impact on ICT use in the practice clarified. The future perspectives of an architect as a profession and the place of the architect in the whole design process speculated. Architect as designer, as a product and process architect mentioned. Finally the influence of these changes on the architectural education reflected.
series eCAADe
email I.S.Sariyildiz@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/30sariyildiz/index.htm
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 0a8f
authors Sasada, Tsuyoshi Tee
year 1998
title The Sasada Lab Department of Environmental Engineering Graduate School of Engineering
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 5-6
summary In common with several other universities in Japan, Osaka University is organized in research and teaching units, rather than classes or courses. The Sasada Lab is one of these units. I will describe how we work, a little of our history to explain this somewhat unusual academic entity and some of results of our efforts. The lab setting In our university, a unit has teaching faculty consisting of one professor, one associate professor, and one assistant professor. The number of students in a lab varies from unit to unit, but in our case we have around twenty students in a mix of undergraduate, graduate, and part time students. The numbers change from year to year as does the ratio.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

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