CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 551

_id sigradi2004_140
id sigradi2004_140
authors Rovenir Bertola Duarte
year 2004
title Avaliação de uma experiência: Entre a representação e a realidade [An Experience Evaluation: Between Representation and Reality]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This article is about an experience in the course of .Informática Aplicada à Arquitetura. for architecture students, at the Universidade Estadual de Londrina, applied on the the 2nd year, in a period between 1998 to 2003. We present an evaluation of three moments of this experience, thinking of the representation, the use of images and the easy way of constructing digital objects. The intentions were integrate theoretical knowledge on the space and digital three-dimensional exercises. From all experinces, all the process, exercises and their results we can stand out two reflections: the danger of the image used as a discard object and the construction of forms without conscience.
series SIGRADI
email rovenir@uel.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id 4d85
authors Shimokawa, Y., Morozumi, M., Iki, K. and Homma, R.
year 1998
title Replacement and Transformation as a Key to Schematic Design Thinking - 3-D Modeling System which Supports Design Thinking
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 365-374
summary This paper analyses a prototype of a 3D modeling system that can support schematic design development and begins with very abstract representation elaborates it step by step into a detailed representation. Using Mitchell's concept of a TOPDOWN system for 2D sketches as the basis, the authors proposed a design process model and a prototype that allows both bottom up additive processes in exploring the design frame and top down processes for the design refinement of each building element. Various utilities of replacing and transforming graphic objects as well as those that can control shapes and the location of those objects with construction lines have been proposed. The authors discussed possible use of the system and topics for future study by reviewing case studies.
keywords Replacement Operation, Modeling System, Schematic Design, Design Thinking
series CAADRIA
email shimo@neptune.kanazawa-it.ac.jp
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:16

_id 30
authors Vizcaino, M.S., Leal, M., Maria, L., Persia, M. and Tamagnini, A.
year 1998
title Base de Datos Bodega (Data Base Warehouse)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 232-237
summary The architectural objects and their site are an indivisible part of the concrete culture of a place.in order to achieve the protection of the Cultural Property, the indispensable previous step is the fulfilment of an inventory. If a good inventory is not available, serious tasks of public awareness could not be carried out, nor could be adopted policies or specific safeguard projects. Besides, neither criteria nor protective measurements in the plans of urban or regional development could be incorporated. Finally, we could not discuss with the sufficient scientific support. San Juan has climatic features typical of and regions with high seismic risk, scarce hydric resources, landscape diversity and singular vegetation. This favoured the cultivation of vineyards as well as the construction of important industrial buildings. In this sense, the Architecture of the Vine Production and Wine - making gave rise to establishments (buildings and sites), whose architectural characteristics, in a holistic consideration, are part of the Provincial Architectural Patrimony. A relational database structured by fields related to different levels of information was designed so as to fulfil this inventory. The data processing application used enables to search and ask for information by means of an easy access interface with the following possibilities :expansion, versatility in the design of visualization-printing plugs and readiness to migrate to other formats.
series SIGRADI
email msoria@unsj.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 09:02

_id 215e
authors Bai, Rui-Yuan and Liu, Yu-Tung
year 1998
title Towards a Computerized Procedure for Visual Impact Analysis and Assessment - The Hsinchu Example
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 67-76
summary This paper examines the procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment proposed by Rahman and reviews the use of CAD applications in urban projects in the real world. A preliminary computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is proposed. An experiments was conducted in our laboratory to verify the preliminary procedure. In order to further study the revised procedure in real urban projects, it was also applied into the renew project of The Eastern Gate Plaza located in the center of city Hsinchu, Taiwan from 1996 to 1998. According to several face-to-face discussions with Hsinchu habitants, government officials, and professional designers, a final computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is concluded.
keywords Environmental Simulation, Visual Impact Analysis and Assessment, Virtual Reality
series CAADRIA
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id f288
authors Bille, Pia
year 1999
title Integrating GIS and Electronic Networks In Urban Design and Planning
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 722-728
summary In 1998 I undertook an inquiry into the use of information technology in Urban Design and Planning in Danish municipalities and among planning consultants. The aim was to find out who was working with the IT and for what purposes it was used. In education there seems to be barriers to a full integration of the new media, and I wanted to find out if that was also the case in the practise of architects and planners. Surprisingly I discovered that there was a computer on almost every desk, - but there were big differences in the use of the technology. The investigation described here is based on interviews with planners in selected municipalities and with urban planning consultants, and the results have been summarised in a publication.
keywords Urban Planning, Electronic Collaboration, GIS, Data Bases
series eCAADe
email pia.bille@a-aarhus.dk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0471
authors Bruton, B.
year 1998
title Grammars and Pedagogy - Towards new Media Art and Design Education Strategies
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 385-394
summary The impact of computational grammatical design on pedagogy has received little attention in art education due to the dominant modes of traditional approaches to art and design education. This paper explores the pedagogical implications of grammatical strategies using computers for judgements of design within an art educational setting. Grammatical strategies are studied for their effect on the judgements of novice artists in a new media educational context. It is argued that concepts of grammar and views of contingency are used in a variety of senses in the conception and form making of artists; that finding methods for discussing and utilising complex visual information is aided by grammatical formalisation; that these strategies are evidently effective at both early and mature stages of the realisation of a project. The research explores the relation between computer and art on three levels in which grammar is used: as a sense of grammar, as a computational paradigm and as a description of a kind of computer program. Grammatical formalism is apparent in two dimensional linear and non-linear animations using Photoshop, Premiere and Director, and in solid modelling programs such as Extreme 3D, Form Z, Strata Studio Pro, 3D Studio Max and SoftImage. Web site construction also impacts on the judgements of 2D and 3D design. Computational grammatical programs generate forms that reflect alternative understandings of art and design. Art practise is defined in terms of developing consistent and appropriate design language for the contingency at hand. Form making using grammatical tools, both recursive and array types, is discussed in terms of their applicability and educative value. Reference is made to formal qualities for critique and strategic capability of alternative pedagogy for generation of forms. Examples provided show how simple rule sets develop into complex derivational sequences that challenge traditional strategies for computer imaging. The paper demonstrates the value of a sense of grammars for novice art and design practitioners by using first hand examples of experimental work at the South Australian School of Art, University of South Australia. For novice artists and designers, grammars in conjunction with reflective practice is offered as a useful mind set that supports an interest in actively defining a new kind of art. Illustrations provided show the utility of a contingent sense of grammar for pedagogy and highlights the significant role of grammar in pedagogy.
keywords Grammar, Pedagogy, Computer, Art, Design
series CAADRIA
email d.bruton@unisa.edu.au
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:15

_id 07c5
authors Burry, Mark
year 1998
title Handcraft and Machine Metaphysics
source Computers in Design Studio Teaching [EAAE/eCAADe International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 09523687-7-3] Leuven (Belgium) 13-14 November 1998, pp. 41-50
summary As the cost of 3D digitisers drops and PC price performance rises, opportunities for hand - computer co-operation improve. Architectural form may now be experimentally moulded or carved using manual techniques in close association with the computer. At any stage the model can be mechanically digitised and translated to a computer database for explorations that go beyond simple physical manipulation. In the virtual environment, the resulting forms can be rationalised using an ordering geometry or further de-rationalised. This potential for debasing intuitive, sensually haptic and responsive handwork through its translation into numerically cogent formulations is risky business. But it may also bring new and unlikely rewards. This paper considers the implications and aesthetics of negotiations between handcraft and consecutive or synchronous computer digitalisation of intentions. Two situations will be discussed and compared. The first is the nature of computer modelling and its representation per se, and the second is the relevance of using handcraft as a sponsor for computer-based manipulation and morphological experimenting.
series eCAADe
email mburry@deakin.edu.au
more http://www.eaae.be/
last changed 2000/11/21 08:11

_id a2b0
id a2b0
authors Charitos, Dimitrios
year 1998
title The architectural aspect of designing space in virtual environments
source University of Strathclyde, Dept. of Architecure and Building Science
summary This thesis deals with the architectural aspect of virtual environment design. It aims at proposing a framework, which could inform the design of three-dimensional content for defining space in virtual environments, in order to aid navigation and wayfinding. The use of such a framework in the design of certain virtual environments is considered necessary for imposing a certain form and structure to our spatial experience in there.

Firstly, this thesis looks into literature from the fields of architectural and urban design theory, philosophy, environmental cognition, perceptual psychology and geography for the purpose of identifying a taxonomy of spatial elements and their structure in the real world, on the basis of the way that humans think about and remember real environments. Consequently, the taxonomy, proposed for space in the real world is adapted to the intrinsic characteristics of space in virtual environments, on the basis of human factors aspects of virtual reality technology. As a result, the thesis proposes a hypothetical framework consisting of a taxonomy of spatial and space-establishing elements that a virtual environment may comprise and of the possible structure of these elements.

Following this framework, several pilot virtual environments are designed, for the purpose of identifying key design issues for evaluation. As it was impossible to evaluate the whole framework, six specific design issues, which have important implications for the design of space in virtual environments, are investigated by experimental methods of research. Apart from providing answers to these specific design issues, the experimental phase leads to a better understanding of the nature of space in virtual environments and to several hypotheses for future empirical research.

series thesis:PhD
email vedesign@otenet.gr
last changed 2003/10/29 20:37

_id 4d6f
authors Chodorowski, Franciszek
year 1998
title From Inversive Perspective to Virtual Space
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 43-52
summary Looking back at history, considering the proportions taken up by the particular developments of the future vision of an architectural work, one observes that the main method used was based on a form of drawing in the perpendicular projection in the form of "planes", cross sections and elevations. However, the research considering the threedimensional approach of the design solution, took into consideration a model made of wood, plaster or paper. The supplementary works in the form of an axonometric or a perspective drawing were not usually the domain of architects. Such way of presenting space was used by artists: painters and sculptors. The rapid development taking place in the use of computers in preparing architectural design documentation makes one reflect on many issues. Modern software, apart from making it possible to develop projections, cross sections and elevations, allows the presentation of a three dimensional vision of an architectural solution on the basis of axonometry, perspective and a study of virtual space. Despite the obvious progress facilitating the graphic editing process of design work, the initial design phase is an unchanged process, similar to past times ' It is based on transferring the creative invention onto paper by means of handmade sketches, similarly to making an inventory measurement note.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id ad5b
authors Chu, K.
year 1998
title Genetic Space
source A.D.: Architects in Cyberspace II, vol.68, no.11-12, pp.68-73
summary The twentieth century is the century of convergence. No other century has witnessed the development and profusion of new ideas as the twentieth century, and no other century has experienced the range and scope of events that transpired globally to the extent as this century. Various historical formations and discoveries, unleashed by the Enlightenment, have profoundly changed and transformed the course of human civilization and lead to the maturation of the idea of modernity in this century. With two years left to the start of the next millennium, we are experiencing the effects of modernity that have channeled powerful innovations into the dawn of a new era that could lead, potentially, beyond modernity. More than anything, it signals one of the major premises of the enlightenment to radicalize the substance of nature through the substance of reason and, thereby, altering the modality of the cultural universe of humanity into a genuine cosmopolitical concept. The synthesis of energy, matter and information into a three-parameter system of explanation has created conditions that allow us to think the unthinkable and extend our imagination to the limits of the conceivable. Modernity, from a metaphysical standpoint, brings to light the concept of a transcendental reason that aims to clarify the conditions of possibility for reason as an apriori given. As a consequence, it paved the way for a systemic constitution of a cosmic concept of reason that partakes in the arrival of alien intelligence and one that seems destined to project itself into an ontological domain of its own making. If modernity is an unfinished project, as claimed by some, its program is, nonetheless, being transformed into a cosmogenetic principle where synthesis is the pre-eminent outcome of a return to a second nature, i.e., a transcendent concept of nature. Even though the transcendental dialectic of critical reason is directed towards the timeless unity of the unconditioned, the genitive logic implicit within cosmic reason, itself a form of recursive self-propelling intelligence, appears to be animated by a projective force capable of engendering and pro-creating in the evolutionary sense of the term.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a96f
id a96f
authors Clayton, M., Johnson, R., Song, Y and Al-Qawasmi, J.
year 1998
title Delivering Facility Documentation using Intranet Technology
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 240-253
summary Intranet technologies present new opportunities for delivering facility documentation for use in facility management. After the design stage, building documentation is reused to support construction and then facility operation. However, a common perception is that construction documents and as-built drawings are less than optimal for reuse to support operations. We have conducted a study of facility management processes and the information content of facility documentation in the context of information technologies that are emerging into the marketplace. The study provides guidance for facility managers who are implementing and fielding new information technology systems. A better understanding of information needs during operations may also help designers to better structure their own documents for reuse. An analysis of documents that are used throughout the life cycle of facilities has led us to a characterization of operations documents that are distinct from design drawings, record drawings or as-built drawings. From an analysis of facility management processes, we have identified different roles for facility documentation in those processes. Facility documentation may be used as a resource, as input, or as output. Furthermore, from interviews of facility management personnel, we identified facility information that was rated high in importance and low in satisfaction that might be targeted when implementing a facility information system. We prepared software demonstrations that show how the information may be extracted from drawings, entered into databases and then retrieved via Web and CAD interfaces. We suggest that operations documents consist of a variety of information types and require several kinds of information tools, including databases, CAD drawings and hypertext. Intranet technologies, databases and CAD software can be integrated to achieve facility management systems that address shortcomings in current facility management operations. In particular, intranet technologies provide improved accessibility to information for facility management customers and occasional users of the systems. Our study has produced recommendations based upon utility and ease-of-implementation for delivery of information from the design team to the owner, and among personnel during operation of the facility.

series ACADIA
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 2003/12/06 07:44

_id ddss9829
id ddss9829
authors De Hoog, J., Hendriks, N.A. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 1998
title Evaluating Office Buildings with MOLCA(Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment)
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary MOLCA (Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment) is a project that aims to develop a tool that enables designers and builders to evaluate the environmental impact of their designs (of office buildings) from a environmental point of view. The model used is based on guidelinesgiven by ISO 14000, using the so-called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The MOLCA project started in 1997 and will be finished in 2001 resulting in the aforementioned tool. MOLCA is a module within broader research conducted at the Eindhoven University of Technology aiming to reduce design risks to a minimum in the early design stages.Since the MOLCA project started two major case-studies have been carried out. One into the difference in environmental load caused by using concrete and steel roof systems respectively and the role of recycling. The second study focused on biases in LCA data and how to handle them. For the simulations a computer-model named SimaPro was used, using the world-wide accepted method developed by CML (Centre for the Environment, Leiden, the Netherlands). With this model different life-cycle scenarios were studied and evaluated. Based on those two case studies and a third one into an office area, a first model has been developed.Bottle-neck in this field of study is estimating average recycling and re-use percentages of the total flow of material waste in the building sector and collecting reliable process data. Another problem within LCA studies is estimating the reliability of the input data and modelling uncertainties. All these topics will be subject of further analysis.
keywords Life-Cycle Assessment, Office Buildings, Uncertainties in LCA
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0374
authors De Vecchi, Antonio and Navarra, Laura
year 1998
title Verification of Building Assemblage Compatability
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 234-238
summary A computer program is being elaborated as an aid in designing assembled parts whose assembly presents high degrees of complexity. The newly created program, once incorporated in the CAD sector to increase its potential applications, will facilitate the analysis of reciprocal relationhips between pieces of the assemblage; this will enhance optimum decision-making in terms of geometric and functional characteristics with respect to the previously conceived assembly sequence. The program will automatically create images in three different ways: instantaneous images of assembly stages for each piece of the assembled part; exploded axonometric view of the whole structure with indications of necessary procedures for inserting or connecting the assembled part;sequenced procedures for connecting the assembled part. The different methods of visualization listed above will allow for project verification of the part by means of simultaneous visual analysis of the images and rapid updating should any changes in their properties arise. These types of visualization include simulations of piece by piece assemblage, which will facilitate an "optimal assemblage", meaning a set of components which are assembled in a specific sequence according to their "structural compatibility" and taking into consideration "particular assembly requirements".
series eCAADe
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/28de_vecchi/index.htm
last changed 2003/03/05 12:15

_id ga9803
id ga9803
authors Dehlinger, Hans E.
year 1998
title The Artist´s Intentions and Genetic Coding in Algorithmically Generated Drawings
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Art-work, based on line drawings, is challenging for a number of reasons. It is a very much reduced art form relying on and exploiting the calligraphic qualities of lines only. It is more related to writing than to painting and it has a transient element in it, which is attributed to the movements of the pen equipped hand. With the aid of computer programs line drawings can be produced, exhibiting very specific qualities. In asking what a single line is composed of, we may draw analogies to genetic coding and generate variations within a population of lines belonging to the same family. An artist can cast his intentions into the definition of such a genetic code and the drawings produced accordingly will populate a specific domain of the universe of machine generated drawings.
series other
email dehling@hrz.uni-kassel.de
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ddss9816
id ddss9816
authors Demirel, Füsun
year 1998
title A Research on Housing in Ankara-Turkey
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The subject of this research contains an opinionnaire study and its results obtained from 30 houses in Ankara-TURKEY in which the people have middle and upper middle income so as to identify their favourites and criticsm about housing, regarding to their both houses and environment as well as tomake the definition of ideal houses and environment. Totally 30 subjects of which 21 are female and 9 are male which represent middle and upper middle incomed people. The average age of the subjects whose age range vary between 21 and 70 is 41. In the study, firstly, the opinionnaire questions were prepared and the housing in which the middle and upper middle incomed people live were determined as socio-economic level to be examined. Next permission and time reservation were requested fromthe owner's of housing to implement the study. During the times which have been determined by the subjects, the following procedure has been followed reading of the opinionnaire forms by myself and recording of responses of the subjects exactly, drawing of reliefs and plans of house, taking pictures of outer views and surroundings of housings. Tendencies of users' against various conditions have been transformed into numerical values from 1 to 7 in a scale with 7 column. In the light of above information; Considering the country conditions it was observed that these housing were excessivelylarge and were built for ostentation purposes, not for functional purposes. Usefulness, that is to say, design of house is in the bottom of the criteria list and it is not an important factor to choose the house, form another part of interesting findings of this study. Another significant result has been observed due to users desire about their house. Although the rising of design which was in 6th rank among the reasons to prefer a house was not an effective criteria on users' attitudes merely to have ahouse, this criteria was the 1st rank (87 %) among reasons due to the advantages that were provided for the users with respected to design and functionality as a result of meticulous studies of architects.Users' criticisms on their vicinity have shown variations according to their sexes.As a result of this research that were initiated to define the ideal house and environment concepts; interesting and detailed data about users' tendencies in the scope of both house and settling are available in "Findings" part of this study. Rising of desing criteria which was the 6 th rank amongcriteria's to choose a house, to 1st rank has brought the following conclusion: since the users are not able to act consciously due to the consideration of the properly owing action much more important,the main duty here is performed by the planner. Hence, starting from the assumption that users living in housings are extremely sensitive to their houses and especially environments, provision of public participation via this kind of opinionnaire studies while creating new environments, may contribute to create such environments in which people can live.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 1d83
authors Dodge, M., Doyle, S. and Smith, A.
year 1998
title Visual Communication in Urban Planning and Urban Design
source Working Paper 2; Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis Working Papers; London; June 1998
summary This Case Study documents the current status of visual communication in urban design and planning. Visual communication is examined through discussion of standalone and network media, specifically concentrating on visualisation on the World Wide Web (WWW). First, we examine the use of Solid and Geometric Modelling for visualising urban planning and urban design. This report documents and compares examples of the use of Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) and proprietary WWW based Virtual Reality modelling software. Examples include the modelling of Bath and Glasgow using both VRML 1.0 and 2.0. The use of Virtual Worlds and their role in visualising urban form within multi-user environments is reviewed. The use of Virtual Worlds is developed into a study of the possibilities and limitations of Virtual Internet Design Arena's (ViDA's), an initiative undertaken at the Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London. The use of Virtual Worlds and their development towards ViDA's is seen as one of the most important developments in visual communication for urban planning and urban design since the development plan. Secondly, the role of photorealistic media in the process of communicating plans is examined. The process of creating photorealistic media is documented, and examples of the Virtual Streetscape and Wired Whitehall Virtual Urban Interface System are provided. The conclusion is that, although the use of photo-realistic media on the WWW provides a way to visually communicate planning information, its use is limited. The merging of photorealistic media and solid geometric modelling in the creation of Augmented Reality is reviewed. Augmented Reality is seen to provide an important step forward in the ability quickly and easily to visualise urban planning and urban design information. Third, the role of visual communication of planning data through GIS is examined in terms of desktop, three dimensional, and Internet based GIS. The evolution to Internet GIS is seen as a critical component in the development of virtual cities that will allow urban planners and urban designers to visualise and model the complexity of the built environment in networked virtual reality. Finally, a viewpoint is put forward of the Virtual City, linking Internet GIS with photorealistic multi-user Virtual Worlds. At present there are constraints on how far virtual cities can be developed, but a view is provided on how these networked virtual worlds are developing to aid visual communication in urban planning and urban design.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ga9802
id ga9802
authors Frazer, J.H.
year 1998
title MACROGENESIS: Generative Design at the Urban Scale
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This is a reflective paper indicating key points in the author’s involvement in generative design. Selected work is summarised in a series of snapshots of key developments. More recent evolutionary work is explained more fully including the "Groningen Experiment" which applied generative ideas to an interactive city planning model for Groningen that enabled citizen interaction with a generative model. The project has now been relocated in the School of Design, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University where the work is being expanded into the realm of industrial design and graphics.
series other
email sdfrazer@polyu.edu.hk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 07d8
authors Garza, J.M. de la and Howitt, I.
year 1998
title Wireless communication and computing at the construction jobsite
source Automation in Construction 7 (4) (1998) pp. 327-347
summary For many years, the walkie-talkie has been synonymous with the construction industry. During jobsite project execution, there are three variables which can either hinder or facilitate successful results, namely, quality, quantity, and timing of information. Wireless data communications technology is capable of delivering just-in-time information within the `last mile' between the trailer and a desired location on the jobsite. This paper reports on a study which surveyed information needs at the jobsite, emerging wireless data communications technology, and assessed the extent to which wireless data technology can fulfill the information needs of the jobsite [J.M. de la Garza, I. Howitt, Wireless communication and computing at the jobsite, Research Report 136-11, Construction Industry Institute, Austin, TX, 1997]. We have organized jobsite information needs into the following ten categories: (a) requests for information, (b) materials management, (c) equipment management, (d) cost management, (e) schedule and means and methods, (f) jobsite record keeping, (g) submittals, (h) safety, (i) QC/QA, and (k) future trends. Each category was analyzed in terms of its appropriateness to take advantage of wireless technology. The four formats considered to transmit information wirelessly were: (a) live voice, (b) live video, (c) batched data, and (d) live data. Current wireless communication technology has been classified into the following five classes: (a) circuit-switched wireless data systems, (b) packet-switched wireless data systems––this class was further subdivided into specialized mobile radio systems and cellular digital packet data systems, (c) wireless local area networks, (d) paging systems, and (e) satellite-based data communications. A primer for wireless communications covering both fundamental and advanced communications concepts has also been included to enable a better understanding of the issues involved in making trade-offs while configuring a wireless jobsite communication system. The example presented in this paper shows how a contractor can define a subset of information needs by choosing from those already articulated herein and determine if a given wireless technology should even be considered as a viable way of meeting the information needs that such company has.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 7560
authors Gomez, Nestor
year 1998
title Conceptual Structural Design Through Knowledge Hierarchies
source Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pittsburgh
summary Computer support for conceptual design still lags behind software available for analysis and detailed design. The Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design (SEED) project has the goal of providing design generation and exploration capabilities to aid in the conceptual design of buildings, from architectural programming and layout to enclosure design and structural configuration. The current work presents a component of the efforts of the SEED-Config Structure group in providing computer support for conceptual structural design. The Building Entity and Technology (BENT) approach models data about building elements in a general, hierarchical form, where design evolution is represented by the growing specificity of the design description. Two methods of system-supported design generation are provided: case-based reasoning and application of knowledge rules. The knowledge rules, termed technologies, and how they are specified and used are the primary focus of this thesis. In the BENT approach, conceptual structural engineering knowledge is modularized into technology nodes arranged in a directed 'AND/OR' graph, where OR nodes represent alternative design decisions and AND nodes represent problem decomposition. In addition, nodes in the graph may also be specified as having AND/OR incoming arcs thus reducing the duplication of nodes and enhancing the representational power of the approach. In order to facilitate the incorporation of new knowledge into the system, and verify and/or change the knowledge already in the system, the data model and the interface allow for dynamic creation, browsing, and editing of technology nodes. Design generation through the use of the knowledge hierarchy involves the conditional application of nodes according to the design context as represented by the building element(s) under consideration. Each application of a technology node expands the design of building elements by increasing the detail of the design description or by decomposing the elements into less abstract components. In addition, support for simultaneous design of multiple elements and for iteration control are also provided. An important feature of the BENT approach is that the generative knowledge (i.e., the technology hierarchy) is detached from the information repository (i.e., the database of entities which make up the building). This allows the technology hierarchies to be used in a modular fashion from building problem to building problem.
series thesis:PhD
email ngomez@eng.fiu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ca7b
authors Howes, Jaki
year 1999
title IT or not IT? An Examination of IT Use in an Experimental Multi-disciplinary Teamwork Situation
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 370-373
summary Leeds Metropolitan University is well placed to carry out research into multi-disciplinary team-working, as all the design and construction disciplines are housed in one faculty. Staff have set up an experimental project, TIME IT (Team-working in Multi-disciplinary Environments using IT) which examines ways of working in the design/construction process and how IT is used when there is no commercial pressure. Four groups of four students, one graduate diploma architect, and one final year student from each of Civil Engineering, Construction Management and Quantity Surveying have been working on feasibility studies for projects that are based on completed schemes or have been devised by collaborators in the Construction Industry. Students have been asked to produce a PowerPoint presentation, in up to five working days, of a design scheme, with costs, structural analysis and construction programme. The students are not assessed on the quality of the product, but on their own ability to monitor the process and use of IT. Despite this, aggressive competition evolved between the teams to produce the 'best' design. Five projects were run in the 1998/99 session. A dedicated IT suite has been provided; each group of students had exclusive use of a machine. They were not told how to approach the projects nor when to use the available technology, but were asked to keep the use of paper to a minimum and to keep all their work on the server, so that it could be monitored externally. Not so. They plotted the AO drawings of an existing building that had been provided on the server. They like paper - they can scribble on it, fold it, tear it and throw it at one another.
keywords IT, Multi-disciplinary, Teamwork
series eCAADe
email J.Howes@imu.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

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